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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639891

RESUMO

Titanium implants undergo temperature fluctuations during manufacturing, transport, and storage. However, it is unknown how this affects their bioactivity. Herein, we explored how storage (six months, dark conditions) and temperature fluctuations (5-50 °C) affected the bioactivity of titanium implants. Stored and fresh acid-etched titanium disks were exposed to different temperatures for 30 min under wet or dry conditions, and their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and bioactivity (using osteoblasts derived from rat bone marrow) were evaluated. Ultraviolet (UV) treatment was evaluated as a method of restoring the bioactivity. The fresh samples were superhydrophilic after holding at 5 or 25 °C under wet or dry conditions, and hydrophilic after holding at 50 °C. In contrast, all the stored samples were hydrophobic. For both fresh and stored samples, exposure to 5 or 50 °C reduced osteoblast attachment compared to holding at 25 °C under both wet and dry conditions. Regression analysis indicated that holding at 31 °C would maximize cell attachment (p < 0.05). After UV treatment, cell attachment was the same or better than that before temperature fluctuations. Overall, titanium surfaces may have lower bioactivity when the temperature fluctuates by ≥20 °C (particularly toward lower temperatures), independent of the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity. UV treatment was effective in restoring the temperature-compromised bioactivity.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360734

RESUMO

Biomimetic design provides novel opportunities for enhancing and functionalizing biomaterials. Here we created a zirconia surface with cactus-inspired meso-scale spikes and bone-inspired nano-scale trabecular architecture and examined its biological activity in bone generation and integration. Crisscrossing laser etching successfully engraved 60 µm wide, cactus-inspired spikes on yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with 200-300 nm trabecular bone-inspired interwoven structures on the entire surface. The height of the spikes was varied from 20 to 80 µm for optimization. Average roughness (Sa) increased from 0.10 µm (polished smooth surface) to 18.14 µm (80 µm-high spikes), while the surface area increased by up to 4.43 times. The measured dimensions of the spikes almost perfectly correlated with their estimated dimensions (R2 = 0.998). The dimensional error of forming the architecture was 1% as a coefficient of variation. Bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured on a polished surface and on meso- and nano-scale hybrid textured surfaces with different spike heights. The osteoblastic differentiation was significantly promoted on the hybrid-textured surfaces compared with the polished surface, and among them the hybrid-textured surface with 40 µm-high spikes showed unparalleled performance. In vivo bone-implant integration also peaked when the hybrid-textured surface had 40 µm-high spikes. The relationships between the spike height and measures of osteoblast differentiation and the strength of bone and implant integration were non-linear. The controllable creation of meso- and nano-scale hybrid biomimetic surfaces established in this study may provide a novel technological platform and design strategy for future development of biomaterial surfaces to improve bone integration and regeneration.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Zircônio , Animais , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Cactaceae , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Osteoblastos/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Zircônio/química , Zircônio/farmacologia
3.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800383

RESUMO

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based acrylic bone cement is commonly used to fix bone and metallic implants in orthopedic procedures. The polymerization initiator tri-n-butylborane (TBB) has been reported to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of PMMA-based bone cement compared to benzoyl peroxide (BPO). However, it is unknown whether this benefit is temporary or long-lasting, which is important to establish given that bone cement is expected to remain in situ permanently. Here, we compared the biocompatibility of PMMA-TBB and PMMA-BPO bone cements over several days. Rat femur-derived osteoblasts were seeded onto two commercially-available PMMA-BPO bone cements and experimental PMMA-TBB polymerized for one day, three days, or seven days. Significantly more cells attached to PMMA-TBB bone cement during the initial stages of culture than on both PMMA-BPO cements, regardless of the age of the materials. Proliferative activity and differentiation markers including alkaline phosphatase production, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression were consistently and considerably higher in cells grown on PMMA-TBB than on PMMA-BPO, regardless of cement age. Although osteoblastic phenotypes were more favorable on older specimens for all three cement types, biocompatibility increased between three-day-old and seven-day-old PMMA-BPO specimens, and between one-day-old and three-day-old PMMA-TBB specimens. PMMA-BPO materials produced more free radicals than PMMA-TBB regardless of the age of the material. These data suggest that PMMA-TBB maintains superior biocompatibility over PMMA-BPO bone cements over prolonged periods of at least seven days post-polymerization. This superior biocompatibility can be ascribed to both low baseline cytotoxicity and a further rapid reduction in cytotoxicity, representing a new biological advantage of PMMA-TBB as a novel bone cement material.

4.
Front Neurol ; 12: 646309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716947

RESUMO

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) has been characterized by the degree of arterial stenosis and downstream hypoperfusion, yet microscopic derangements of endothelial shear stress at the luminal wall may be key determinants of plaque growth, vascular remodeling and thrombosis that culminate in recurrent stroke. Platelet interactions have similarly been a principal focus of treatment, however, the mechanistic basis of anti-platelet strategies is largely extrapolated rather than directly investigated in ICAD. Platelet FcγRIIa expression has been identified as a potent risk factor in cardiovascular disease, as elevated expression markedly increases the risk of recurrent events. Differential activation of the platelet FcγRIIa receptor may also explain the variable response of individual patients to anti-platelet medications. We review existing data on endothelial shear stress and potential interactions with the platelet FcγRIIa receptor that may alter the evolving impact of ICAD, based on local pathophysiology at the site of arterial stenosis. Current methods for quantification of endothelial shear stress and platelet activation are described, including tools that may be readily adapted to the clinical realm for further understanding of ICAD.

5.
Oral Radiol ; 37(1): 137-145, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607939

RESUMO

Actinomycotic osteomyelitis is an aggressive and persistent disease capable of invading and destroying bone, and chronic osteomyelitis with proliferative periostitis represents new bone formation with periosteal reaction. We report a rare case of actinomycotic osteomyelitis with proliferative periostitis arising in the mandibular ramus and spontaneous bone regeneration after coronoidectomy. A 14-year-old girl was referred for swelling in the right parotid-masseteric region and severe trismus. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed that heterogenous enhancement of the right masseter muscle, and a reactive bone formation over the lateral cortex of the right mandibular ramus and osteolysis of the condyle were seen in plain CT. MRI showed that the mandibular ramus was a low-signal intensity and the reactive bone on the ramus was signal intensity similar to muscle on T1-weighted images. The lesion was clinically and radiologically diagnosed as chronic osteomyelitis of the mandibular ramus. However, a biopsy was performed intraorally under general anesthesia to rule out a malignant bone tumor, and pathological examination showed fibrous bone and Actinomyces druses. Finally, the lesion was diagnosed as actinomycotic osteomyelitis with proliferative periostitis. She underwent image-guided intraoral removal of impacted right third molar and reactive proliferative bone on the right mandibular ramus under general anesthesia. To improve trismus, coronoidectomy also was performed. After the discharge, AMPC was administrated intraorally for 7.5 months. Postoperative panoramic radiograph and CT showed the right mandibular angle resorption and coronoid process regeneration. There was no recurrence of mandibular osteomyelitis 7 years after surgery.


Assuntos
Doenças Mandibulares , Osteomielite , Periostite , Adolescente , Regeneração Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Doenças Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Mandibulares/cirurgia , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/cirurgia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512780

RESUMO

Acrylic bone cement is widely used in orthopedic surgery for treating various conditions of the bone and joints. Bone cement consists of methyl methacrylate (MMA), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and benzoyl peroxide (BPO), functioning as a liquid monomer, solid phase, and polymerization initiator, respectively. However, cell and tissue toxicity caused by bone cement has been a concern. This study aimed to determine the effect of tri-n-butyl borane (TBB) as an initiator on the biocompatibility of bone cement. Rat spine bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured on two commercially available PMMA-BPO bone cements and a PMMA-TBB experimental material. After a 24-h incubation, more cells survived on PMMA-TBB than on PMMA-BPO. Cytomorphometry showed that the area of cell spread was greater on PMMA-TBB than on PMMA-BPO. Analysis of alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression, and matrix mineralization showed that the osteoblastic differentiation was substantially advanced on the PMMA-TBB. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy revealed that polymerization radical production within the PMMA-TBB was 1/15-1/20 of that within the PMMA-BPO. Thus, the use of TBB as an initiator, improved the biocompatibility and physicochemical properties of the PMMA-based material.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Cimentos Ósseos/química , Metilmetacrilato/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Biomarcadores , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Fenômenos Químicos , Teste de Materiais , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Fenótipo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545509

RESUMO

Titanium materials are essential treatment modalities in the medical field and serve as a tissue engineering scaffold and coating material for medical devices. Thus, there is a significant demand to improve the bioactivity of titanium for therapeutic and experimental purposes. We showed that ultraviolet light (UV)-pre-treatment changed the protein-adsorption ability and subsequent osteoconductivity of titanium. Fibronectin (FN) adsorption on UV-treated titanium was 20% and 30% greater after 1-min and 1-h incubation, respectively, than that of control titanium. After 3-h incubation, FN adsorption on UV-treated titanium remained 30% higher than that on the control. Osteoblasts were cultured on titanium disks after 1-h FN adsorption with or without UV-pre-treatment and on titanium disks without FN adsorption. The number of attached osteoblasts during the early stage of culture was 80% greater on UV-treated and FN-adsorbed (UV/FN) titanium than on FN-adsorbed (FN) titanium; osteoblasts attachment on UV/FN titanium was 2.6- and 2.1-fold greater than that on control- and UV-treated titanium, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts on UV/FN titanium was increased 1.8-, 1.8-, and 2.4-fold compared with that on FN-adsorbed, UV-treated, and control titanium, respectively. The UV/FN implants exhibited 25% and 150% greater in vivo biomechanical strength of bone integration than the FN- and control implants, respectively. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) adsorption on UV-treated titanium was 4.5-fold greater than that on control titanium after 1-min incubation, resulting in a 4-fold increase in osteoblast attachment. Thus, UV-pre-treatment of titanium accelerated its protein adsorptivity and osteoconductivity, providing a novel strategy for enhancing its bioactivity.


Assuntos
Substitutos Ósseos/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Titânio/química , Adsorção , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Regeneração Óssea , Substitutos Ósseos/efeitos da radiação , Adesão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Ratos , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963895

RESUMO

Ultraviolet treatment of titanium implants makes their surfaces hydrophilic and enhances osseointegration. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. This study hypothesizes that the recruitment of fibrinogen, a critical molecule for blood clot formation and wound healing, is influenced by the degrees of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the implant surfaces. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) implant models were created for fluid flow simulation. The hydrophilicity level was expressed by the contact angle between the implant surface and blood plasma, ranging from 5° (superhydrophilic), 30° (hydrophilic) to 50° and 70° (hydrophobic), and 100° (hydrorepellent). The mass of fibrinogen flowing into the implant interfacial zone (fibrinogen infiltration) increased in a time dependent manner, with a steeper slope for surfaces with greater hydrophilicity. The mass of blood plasma absorbed into the interfacial zone (blood plasma infiltration) was also promoted by the hydrophilic surfaces but it was rapid and non-time-dependent. There was no linear correlation between the fibrinogen infiltration rate and the blood plasma infiltration rate. These results suggest that hydrophilic implant surfaces promote both fibrinogen and blood plasma infiltration to their interface. However, the infiltration of the two components were not proportional, implying a selectively enhanced recruitment of fibrinogen by hydrophilic implant surfaces.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Plasma/química , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Osseointegração , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação , Titânio , Raios Ultravioleta , Cicatrização
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979313

RESUMO

Titanium (Ti) is an osteoconductive material that is routinely used as a bulk implant to fix and restore bones and teeth. This study explored the effective use of Ti as a bone engineering scaffold. Challenges to overcome were: (1) difficult liquid/cell infiltration into Ti microfiber scaffolds due to the hydrophobic nature of Ti; and (2) difficult cell attachment on thin and curved Ti microfibers. A recent discovery of UV-photofunctionalization of Ti prompted us to examine its effect on Ti microfiber scaffolds. Scaffolds in disk form were made by weaving grade 4 pure Ti microfibers (125 µm diameter) and half of them were acid-etched to roughen the surface. Some of the scaffolds with original or acid-etched surfaces were further treated by UV light before cell culture. Ti microfiber scaffolds, regardless of the surface type, were hydrophobic and did not allow glycerol/water liquid to infiltrate, whereas, after UV treatment, the scaffolds became hydrophilic and immediately absorbed the liquid. Osteogenic cells from two different origins, derived from the femoral and mandibular bone marrow of rats, were cultured on the scaffolds. The number of cells attached to scaffolds during the early stage of culture within 24 h was 3-10 times greater when the scaffolds were treated with UV. The development of cytoplasmic projections and cytoskeletal, as well as the expression of focal adhesion protein, were exclusively observed on UV-treated scaffolds. Osteoblastic functional phenotypes, such as alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization, were 2-15 times greater on UV-treated scaffolds, with more pronounced enhancement on acid-etched scaffolds compared to that on the original scaffolds. These effects of UV treatment were associated with a significant reduction in atomic carbon on the Ti microfiber surfaces. In conclusion, UV treatment of Ti microfiber scaffolds tunes their physicochemical properties and effectively enhances the attachment and function of osteoblasts, proposing a new strategy for bone engineering.


Assuntos
Osseointegração , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Tecidos Suporte/química , Titânio/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Fêmur/citologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Masculino , Mandíbula/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Osteoblastos/química , Osteoblastos/enzimologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação , Engenharia Tecidual , Titânio/química , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
Biomed Eng Online ; 16(1): 57, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for oral cancer can deliver a higher concentration of anticancer agent into a tumor-feeding artery than intravenous systemic chemotherapy. However, distribution of anticancer agent into several branches of the external carotid artery (ECA) in IAC has not demonstrated sufficient treatment efficacy. To improve the effectiveness of IAC, the flow distribution of anticancer agent into the branches of the ECA in several IAC methods was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). METHODS: Patient-specific three-dimensional vessel models were created from CT images of 2 patients with tongue cancer. Catheter models were combined with the vessel models. Thirty-two models were generated with varying vertical and horizontal positions of the catheter tip. With the use of a zero-dimensional resistance model of the peripheral vessel network, conventional IAC and superselective IAC were simulated in 30 and 2 models, respectively. The flow distribution of anticancer agent into the branches of the ECA was investigated in 32 models. Additionally, the blood streamline was traced from the inlet of the common carotid artery toward each outlet to examine the flow of anticancer agent in all models, and the wall shear stress of the vessel was calculated for some models. RESULTS: The CFD simulations could be conducted within a reasonable computational time. In several models, the anticancer agent flowed into the target artery only when the catheter tip was located below the bifurcation of the ECA and each target artery. Furthermore, the anticancer agent tended to flow into the target artery when the catheter tip was shifted toward the target artery. In all ECA branches that had flow of anticancer agent, the blood streamlines to the target arteries contacted the catheter tip. Anticancer agent flowed into only the target artery in patients' models for superselective IAC. However, high wall shear stress was observed at the target artery in one patient's model. CONCLUSIONS: This CFD study showed that location of the catheter tip was important in controlling the anticancer agent in conventional IAC. The distribution rate of anticancer agent into the tumor-feeding artery tended to increase when the catheter tip was placed below and toward the target artery. Although superselective IAC can reliably supply anticancer agent to the target artery, high wall shear stress at the target artery can occur, depending on vessel geometry of the patient, which may cause serious complications during the treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias da Língua/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Língua/fisiopatologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Simulação por Computador , Quimioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Reologia/métodos , Neoplasias da Língua/patologia
12.
Biomed Eng Online ; 15: 16, 2016 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26846094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-specific modelling in clinical studies requires a realistic simulation to be performed within a reasonable computational time. The aim of this study was to develop simple but realistic outflow boundary conditions for patient-specific blood flow simulation which can be used to clarify the distribution of the anticancer agent in intra-arterial chemotherapy for oral cancer. METHODS: In this study, the boundary conditions are expressed as a zero dimension (0D) resistance model of the peripheral vessel network based on the fractal characteristics of branching arteries combined with knowledge of the circulatory system and the energy minimization principle. This resistance model was applied to four patient-specific blood flow simulations at the region where the common carotid artery bifurcates into the internal and external carotid arteries. RESULTS: Results of these simulations with the proposed boundary conditions were compared with the results of ultrasound measurements for the same patients. The pressure was found to be within the physiological range. The difference in velocity in the superficial temporal artery results in an error of 5.21 ± 0.78 % between the numerical results and the measurement data. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed outflow boundary conditions, therefore, constitute a simple resistance-based model and can be used for performing accurate simulations with commercial fluid dynamics software.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea , Artéria Carótida Externa/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Artéria Carótida Externa/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viscosidade
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