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1.
Circulation ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832352

RESUMO

Background: Patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) will experience multiple hospitalizations for heart failure during the course of their disease. We assessed the efficacy of dapagliflozin on reducing the rate of total (i.e. first and repeat) hospitalizations for heart failure in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). Methods: The total number of HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular deaths was examined using the proportional rates approach of Lei-Wei-Ying-Yang (LWYY) and a joint frailty model for each of recurrent HF hospitalizations and time to cardiovascular death. Variables associated with the risk of recurrent hospitalizations were explored in a multivariable LWYY model. Results: Of 2371 participants randomized to placebo, 318 experienced 469 hospitalizations for heart failure among; of 2373 assigned to dapagliflozin, 230 patients experienced 340 admissions. In a multivariable model factors associated with a higher risk of recurrent HF hospitalizations included higher heart rate, higher NT-proBNP and NYHA class. In the LWYY model the rate ratio for the effect of dapagliflozin on recurrent HF hospitalizations or CV death was 0.75 (95%CI 0.65-0.88), p=0.0002. In the joint frailty model, rate ratio for total HF hospitalizations was 0.71 (95% CI 0.61-0.82), p<0.0001 while for cardiovascular death the hazard ratio was 0.81(95%CI 0.67-0.98), p=00282. Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of total (first and repeat) HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death. Time-to-first event analysis underestimated the benefit of dapagliflozin in HFrEF. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03036124.

2.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Downregulation of claudin-5 in the heart is associated with the end-stage heart failure. However, the underlying mechanism of claudin-5 is unclear. Here we investigated the molecular actions of claudin-5 in perspective of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes to better understand the role of claudin-5 in cardioprotection during ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Claudin-5 was detected in the murine heart tissue and the neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM). Its protein level was severely decreased after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R; 30 min/24 h) or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R; 24 h/4 h). Claudin-5 was present in the mitochondria of NRCM as determined by confocal microscopy. H/R-induced downregulation of claudin-5 was accompanied by mitochondrial fragmentation. The protein level of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) was dramatically decreased while the expression of dynamin-related protein (Drp) 1 was significantly increased after H/R. H/R-induced mitochondrial swelling and fission were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Overexpression of claudin-5 by adenoviral infection reversed these structural disintegration of mitochondria. The mitochondria-centered intrinsic pathway of apoptosis triggered by H/R and indicated by the expression of cytochrome c and cleaved caspase 3 in the cytoplasm of NRCMs was also reduced by overexpressing claudin-5. Overexpression of claudin-5 in mouse heart also significantly decreased cleaved caspase 3 expression and the infarct size in ischemic heart with improved systolic function. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated for the first time the presence of claudin-5 in the mitochondria in cardiomyocytes and provided the firm evidence for the cardioprotective role of claudin-5 in the preservation of mitochondrial dynamics and cell fate against hypoxia- or ischemia-induced stress.

3.
Circ J ; 85(5): 657-666, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) sheets improve the cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI), underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the fate of transplanted ADSC sheets and candidate angiogenic factors released from ADSCs for their cardiac protective actions.Methods and Results:MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Sheets of transgenic (Tg)-ADSCs expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) and luciferase or wild-type (WT)-ADSCs were transplanted 1 week after MI. Both WT- and Tg-ADSC sheets improved cardiac functions evaluated by echocardiography at 3 and 5 weeks after MI. Histological examination at 5 weeks after MI demonstrated that either sheet suppressed fibrosis and increased vasculogenesis. Luciferase signals from Tg-ADSC sheets were detected at 1 and 2 weeks, but not at 4 weeks, after transplantation. RNA sequencing of PKH (yellow-orange fluorescent dye with long aliphatic tails)-labeled Tg-ADSCs identified mRNAs of 4 molecules related to angiogenesis, including those of Esm1 and Stc1 that increased under hypoxia. Administration of Esm1 or Stc1 promoted tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: ADSC sheets improved cardiac contractile functions after MI by suppressing cardiac fibrosis and enhancing neovascularization. Transplanted ADSCs existed for >2 weeks on MI hearts and produced the angiogenic factors Esm1 and Stc1, which may improve cardiac functions after MI.

4.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21495, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689182

RESUMO

Enhancers regulate gene expressions in a tissue- and pathology-specific manner by altering its activities. Plasma levels of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, encoded by the Nppa and Nppb, respectively, and synthesized predominantly in cardiomyocytes, vary depending on the severity of heart failure. We previously identified the noncoding conserved region 9 (CR9) element as a putative Nppb enhancer at 22-kb upstream from the Nppb gene. However, its regulatory mechanism remains unknown. Here, we therefore investigated the mechanism of CR9 activation in cardiomyocytes using different kinds of drugs that induce either cardiac hypertrophy or cardiac failure accompanied by natriuretic peptides upregulation. Chronic treatment of mice with either catecholamines or doxorubicin increased CR9 activity during the progression of cardiac hypertrophy to failure, which is accompanied by proportional increases in Nppb expression. Conversely, for cultured cardiomyocytes, doxorubicin decreased CR9 activity and Nppb expression, while catecholamines increased both. However, exposing cultured cardiomyocytes to mechanical loads, such as mechanical stretch or hydrostatic pressure, upregulate CR9 activity and Nppb expression even in the presence of doxorubicin. Furthermore, the enhancement of CR9 activity and Nppa and Nppb expressions by either catecholamines or mechanical loads can be blunted by suppressing mechanosensing and mechanotransduction pathways, such as muscle LIM protein (MLP) or myosin tension. Finally, the CR9 element showed a more robust and cell-specific response to mechanical loads than the -520-bp BNP promoter. We concluded that the CR9 element is a novel enhancer that responds to mechanical loads by upregulating natriuretic peptides expression in cardiomyocytes.

5.
Circulation ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757294

RESUMO

Background: Exercise can induce physiological myocardial hypertrophy (PMH), and former athletes can live 5-6 years longer than nonathletic controls, suggesting a benefit after regression of PMH. We previously reported that regression of pathological myocardial hypertrophy has antihypertrophic effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that antihypertrophic memory exists even after PMH has regressed, increasing myocardial resistance to subsequent pathological hypertrophic stress. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were submitted to 21 days of swimming training to develop PMH. After termination of exercise, PMH regressed within 1 week. PMH regression mice (exercise hypertrophic preconditioning group, EHP) and sedentary mice (control group) then underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or a sham operation for 4 weeks. Cardiac remodeling and function were evaluated using echocardiography, invasive left ventricular hemodynamic measurement and histological analysis. LncRNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP), and comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (CHIRP-MS) and Western blot were used to investigate the role of Mhrt779 involved in the anti-hypertrophy effect induced by EHP. Results: At 1 and 4 weeks after TAC, the EHP group showed less increase in myocardial hypertrophy and lower expression of the Nppa and Myh7 genes than the sedentary group. At 4 weeks after TAC, EHP mice had less pulmonary congestion, smaller left ventricular dimensions and end-diastolic pressure, and a larger left ventricular ejection fraction and maximum pressure change rate than sedentary mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the long noncoding myosin heavy chain associated RNA transcript Mhrt779 was one of the markedly upregulated long noncoding RNAs in the EHP group. Silencing of Mhrt779 attenuated the antihypertrophic effect of EHP in mice with TAC and in cultured cardiomyocytes treated with angiotensin II, and overexpression enhanced the antihypertrophic effect. By ChIP and qPCR, we found that EHP increased histone 3 trimethylation (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3) at the a4 promoter of Mhrt779. CHIRP-MS and Western blot showed that Mhrt779 can bind Brg1 to inhibit the activation of Hdac2/Akt/GSK3ß pathway induced by pressure overload. Conclusions: Myocardial hypertrophy preconditioning evoked by exercise increases resistance to pathological stress via an antihypertrophic effect mediated by a signal pathway of Mhrt779 /Brg1/Hdac2/p-Akt/p-GSK3ß.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368858

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important comorbidity in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), associated with worse outcomes and often suboptimal treatment because of under-prescription of beta-blockers. Consequently, additional effective therapies are especially relevant in patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes related to COPD in a post hoc analysis of the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined whether the effects of dapagliflozin in DAPA-HF were modified by COPD status. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF or cardiovascular death. Overall, 585 (12.3%) of the 4744 patients randomized had a history of COPD. Patients with COPD were more likely to be older men with a history of smoking, worse renal function, and higher baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and less likely to be treated with a beta-blocker or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. The incidence of the primary outcome was higher in patients with COPD than in those without [18.9 (95% confidence interval 16.0-22.2) vs. 13.0 (12.1-14.0) per 100 person-years; hazard ratio (HR) for COPD vs. no COPD 1.44 (1.21-1.72); P < 0.001]. The effect of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, on the primary outcome, was consistent in patients with [HR 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.93)] and without COPD [0.76 (0.65-0.87); interaction P-value 0.47]. CONCLUSIONS: In DAPA-HF, one in eight patients with HFrEF had concomitant COPD. Participants with COPD had a higher risk of the primary outcome. The benefit of dapagliflozin on all pre-specified outcomes was consistent in patients with and without COPD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03036124.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175088

RESUMO

AIMS: A mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) is effective in patients with chronic heart failure; however, the effects of the early initiation of an MRA in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) have not been elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, we focused on the safety and effectiveness of the treatment with eplerenone, a selective MRA in 300 patients with AHF, that is, 149 in the eplerenone group and 151 in the placebo group in 27 Japanese institutions. The key inclusion criteria were (1) patients aged 20 years or older and (2) those with left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤ 40%. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiac death or first re-hospitalization due to cardiovascular disease within 6 months. The mean age of the participants was 66.8 years, 27.3% were women, and the median levels of brain natriuretic peptide were 376.0 pg/mL. The incidences of the primary outcome were 19.5% in the eplerenone group and 17.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio (HR): 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.642-1.855). In prespecified secondary outcomes, HR for the composite endpoint, cardiovascular death, or first re-hospitalization due to heart failure (HF) within 6 months was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.213 to 1.434). The safety profile for eplerenone was as expected. CONCLUSION: The early initiation of eplerenone in patients with AHF could safely be utilized. The reduction of the incidence of a composite of cardiovascular death or first re-hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases by eplerenone is inconclusive because of inadequate power.

8.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040613

RESUMO

Background: Many patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) which complicates pharmacological management and is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF, according to baseline kidney function, in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). We also examined the effect of dapagliflozin on kidney function after randomization. Many patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) which complicates pharmacological management and is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF, according to baseline kidney function, in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). We also examined the effect of dapagliflozin on kidney function after randomization. Methods: HFrEF patients with or without type 2 diabetes and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 ml/min/1.73m2 were enrolled in DAPA-HF. We calculated the incidence of the primary outcome (CV death or worsening HF) according to eGFR category at baseline (<60 and ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2) as well as using eGFR at baseline as a continuous measure. Secondary cardiovascular outcomes and a pre-specified composite renal outcome (≥ 50% sustained decline eGFR, end stage renal disease (ESRD) or renal death) were also examined, along with decline in eGFR over time. Results: Of 4742 with a baseline eGFR, 1926 (41%) had eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary and secondary outcomes did not differ by eGFR category or examining eGFR as a continuous measurement. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the primary endpoint in patients with CKD was 0.71 (0.59, 0.86) vs. 0.77 (0.64, 0.93) in those with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 (interaction p=0.54). The composite renal outcome was not reduced by dapagliflozin (HR=0.71, 95% CI 0.44, 1.16; p=0.17) but the rate of decline in eGFR between day 14 and 720 was less with dapagliflozin, -1.09 (-1.41, -0.78) vs. placebo -2.87 (-3.19, -2.55) ml/min/1.73m2 per year (p<0.001). This was observed in those with and without type 2 diabetes (p for interaction=0.92) Conclusions: Baseline kidney function did not modify the benefits of dapagliflozin on morbidity and mortality in HFrEF and dapagliflozin slowed the rate of decline in eGFR, including in patients without diabetes. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03036124.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16528, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020564

RESUMO

Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is associated with either chronic kidney disease or renal failure, which may predict cardiovascular events via cardiorenal syndrome. The present study aimed to elucidate whether the plasma levels of IS can predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and investigate which causes of CHF leading to cardiovascular events are highly influenced by plasma IS levels. We measured the plasma IS levels in 165 patients with CHF [valvular disease: 78, dilated cardiomyopathy: 29, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): 25 and others: 33] admitted to our hospital in 2012, and we followed up these patients for more than 5 years (the median follow-up period: 5.3 years). We measured the plasma IS level in 165 patients with CHF, and Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that high plasma IS levels (≥ 0.79 µg/mL, the median value) could predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events, i.e., cardiovascular death or rehospitalization due to the worsening of CHF. The sub-analyses showed that the high IS level could predict cardiovascular events in patients with CHF due to HCM and that the plasma IS levels were closely associated with left ventricular (LV) dimension, LV systolic dysfunction, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels, rather than LV diastolic dysfunction. Plasma IS level predicts cardiovascular events in patients with CHF, especially those with HCM along with cardiac dysfunction. Besides, IS may become a proper biomarker to predict cardiovascular events in patients with CHF.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 41(36): 3402-3418, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820334

RESUMO

AIMS: Concern about hypotension often leads to withholding of beneficial therapy in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, which lowers systolic blood pressure (SBP),according to baseline SBP in Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Key inclusion criteria were: New York Heart Association Class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, and SBP ≥95 mmHg. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. The efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin were examined using SBP as both a categorical and continuous variable. A total of 1205 patients had a baseline SBP <110 mmHg; 981 ≥ 110 < 120; 1149 ≥ 120 < 130; and 1409 ≥ 130 mmHg. The placebo-corrected reduction in SBP from baseline to 2 weeks with dapagliflozin was -2.54 (-3.33 to -1.76) mmHg (P < 0.001), with a smaller between-treatment difference in patients in the lowest compared to highest SBP category. Patients in the lowest SBP category had a much higher rate (per 100 person-years) of the primary outcome [20.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 17.6-24.2] than those in the highest SBP category (13.8, 11.7-16.4). The benefit and safety of dapagliflozin was consistent across the range of SBP; hazard ratio (95% CI) in each SBP group, lowest to highest: 0.76 (0.60-0.97), 0.76 (0.57-1.02), 0.81 (0.61-1.08), and 0.67 (0.51-0.87), P interaction = 0.78. Study drug discontinuation did not differ between dapagliflozin and placebo across the SBP categories examined. CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin had a small effect on SBP in patients with HFrEF and was superior to placebo in improving outcomes, and well tolerated, across the range of SBP included in DAPA-HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036124.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(7): 1247-1258, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539224

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine whether left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) modified efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin 10 mg compared with placebo in the 4744 patients with LVEF ≤40% randomized in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined whether LVEF, analysed categorically or continuously, modified the effect of dapagliflozin. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of a worsening heart failure (HF) event (unplanned HF hospitalization/an urgent HF visit requiring intravenous therapy) or cardiovascular death. Mean LVEF was 31.1% and LVEF categories analysed were: <26% (n = 1143), 26-30% (n = 1018), 31-35% (n = 1187), and >35% (n = 1396). Each 5% decrease in LVEF was associated with a higher risk of the primary outcome [hazard ratio (HR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.24]. The benefit of dapagliflozin was consistent across the spectrum of LVEF: the dapagliflozin vs. placebo HR was 0.75 (95% CI 0.59-0.95) for LVEF <26%, 0.75 (0.57-0.98) for LVEF 26-30%, 0.67 (0.51-0.89) for LVEF 31-35%, and 0.83 (0.63-1.09) for LVEF >35% (P for interaction = 0.762). Similarly, the effect of dapagliflozin on the components of the primary endpoint was not modified by baseline LVEF (P for interaction for cardiovascular death = 0.974, and for worsening HF = 0.161). Safety of dapagliflozin was also consistent across the range of LVEF and neither efficacy nor safety were modified by diabetes status. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular ejection fraction was a significant predictor of hospitalization and mortality in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction but did not modify the beneficial effect of dapagliflozin, overall or separately, in patients with and without diabetes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03036124.

12.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(4): 535-545, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glucose intolerance (GI), defined as either prediabetes or diabetes, promotes cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Using the pooled clinical data from patients with MI and GI in the completed ABC and PPAR trials, we aimed to identify their clinical risk factors for cardiovascular events. METHODS: Using the limitless-arity multiple testing procedure, an artificial intelligence (AI)-based data mining method, we analyzed 415,328 combinations of < 4 clinical parameters. RESULTS: We identified 242 combinations that predicted the occurrence of hospitalization for (1) percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina, (2) non-fatal MI, (3) worsening of heart failure (HF), and (4) all causes, and we analyzed combinations in 1476 patients. Among these parameters, the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or plasma glucose levels > 200 mg/dl after 2 h of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were linked to the coronary events of (1, 2). Plasma BNP levels > 200 pg/dl were linked to coronary and cardiac events of (1, 2, 3). Diuretics use, advanced age, and lack of anti-dyslipidemia drugs were linked to cardiovascular events of (1, 3). All of these factors were linked to (4). Importantly, each finding was verified by independently drawn Kaplan-Meier curves, indicating that the determined factors accurately affected cardiovascular events. CONCLUSIONS: In most previous MI patients with GI, progression of GI, PPI use, or high plasma BNP levels were linked to the occurrence of coronary stenosis or recurrent MI. We emphasize that use of AI may comprehensively uncover the hidden risk factors for cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/etiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Mineração de Dados , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Idoso , Angina Estável/diagnóstico , Angina Estável/terapia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prognóstico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(4): 1585-1594, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349193

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the impact of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on cardiac biomarkers, such as natriuretic peptides, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with concomitant chronic heart failure (CHF). We compared the effect of canagliflozin with glimepiride, based on changes in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), in that patient population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with T2D and stable CHF, randomized to receive canagliflozin 100 mg or glimepiride (starting-dose: 0.5 mg), were examined using the primary endpoint of non-inferiority of canagliflozin vs. glimepiride, defined as a margin of 1.1 in the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for the group ratio of percentage change in NT-proBNP at 24 weeks. Data analysis of 233 patients showed mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at randomization was 57.6 ± 14.6%, with 71% of patients having a preserved LVEF (≥50%). Ratio of NT-proBNP percentage change was 0.48 (95% CI, -0.13 to 1.59, P = 0.226) and therefore did not meet the prespecified non-inferiority margin. However, NT-proBNP levels did show a non-significant trend lower in the canagliflozin group [adjusted group difference; -74.7 pg/mL (95% CI, -159.3 to 10.9), P = 0.087] and also in the subgroup with preserved LVEF [-58.3 (95% CI, -127.6 to 11.0, P = 0.098]). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not meet the predefined primary endpoint of changes in NT-proBNP levels, with 24 weeks of treatment with canagliflozin vs. glimepiride. Further research is warranted to determine whether patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, regardless of diabetes status, could potentially benefit from treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors.

14.
JAMA ; 323(14): 1353-1368, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219386

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatments are needed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may be an effective treatment for patients with HFrEF, even those without diabetes. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF with and without diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of a phase 3 randomized trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association classification II to IV with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and elevated plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to recommended therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. This outcome was analyzed by baseline diabetes status and, in patients without diabetes, by glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7% vs greater than or equal to 5.7%. Results: Among 4744 patients randomized (mean age, 66 years; 1109 [23%] women; 2605 [55%] without diabetes), 4742 completed the trial. Among participants without diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 171 of 1298 (13.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 231 of 1307 (17.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). In patients with diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 215 of 1075 (20.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and 271 of 1064 (25.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.90]) (P value for interaction = .80). Among patients without diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 53 of 438 patients (12.1%) in the dapagliflozin group and 71 of 419 (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.96]). In patients with a glycated hemoglobin of at least 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 118 of 860 patients (13.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 160 of 888 (18.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]) (P value for interaction = .72). Volume depletion was reported as an adverse event in 7.3% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.1% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 7.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 7.8% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. A kidney adverse event was reported in 4.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.0% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 8.5% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 8.7% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized trial of patients with HFrEF, dapagliflozin compared with placebo, when added to recommended therapy, significantly reduced the risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death independently of diabetes status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(1): 79-88, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) promotes cardiovascular events, our Alpha-glucosidase-inhibitor Blocks Cardiac Events in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (ABC) study showed that alpha-glucosidase inhibitors do not prevent cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and IGT. The aim of the present study was to identify potential clinical factors for cardiovascular events in patients with MI and IGT. METHODS: Using the limitless-arity multiple testing procedure, an artificial intelligence (AI)-based data mining method, we analyzed 385,391 combinations of fewer than four clinical parameters. RESULTS: We identified 380 combinations predicting the occurrence of (1) all-cause hospitalization, (2) hospitalization due to worsening of heart failure (HF), (3) hospitalization due to non-fatal MI, and (4) hospitalization due to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for stable angina among 385,391 combinations in 853 patients. Among these, either plasma BNP levels ≥ 200 pg/dl or diuretic use exclusively predicted (1) all-cause hospitalization, (2) hospitalization due to worsening of HF, and (3) hospitalization due to a non-fatal MI, with plasma BNP levels ≥ 200 pg/dl being the sole predictor of hospitalization due to PCI and CABG. Importantly, each finding was verified by independently drawn Kaplan-Meier curves, revealing the unexpected role of plasma BNP levels in the progression of coronary stenosis determined as the necessity of PCI and CABG for stable angina. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with MI and IGT, high plasma BNP levels predicted the occurrence of coronary stenosis, recurrent MI, and worsening of HF, whereas diuretic use did not predict the progression of coronary stenosis but non-fatal MI and worsening of HF.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Mineração de Dados , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Glucose/mortalidade , Intolerância à Glucose/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Admissão do Paciente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Lab Invest ; 100(2): 324-337, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896817

RESUMO

Abnormal Ca2+ handling is essential in the pathophysiology of degenerative muscle disorders, such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and muscular dystrophy (MD). Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 2 (TRPV2) is a candidate for Ca2+ entry and a potential therapeutic target for degenerative muscle disorders, there are few specific inhibitors for TRPV2. In this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody (designated mAb88-2) and two polyclonal antibodies (pAb591 and pAb592) that selectively recognize TRPV2 from the outside of cells and interact with the turret region of the pore-forming outer gate. These antibodies inhibited Ca2+ influx via TRPV2 in cultured cells and substantially reduced TRPV2 in the plasma membrane via cellular internalization. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the functional antibody in δ-sarcoglycan-deficient hamster (J2N-k) models of DCM and MD and in the 4C30 DCM model of murine heart failure. The intraperitoneal administration of the functional antibody (0.5 mg/kg) for 2 weeks (once a week) prevented the progression of cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by echocardiography and histological staining, and improved the abnormal Ca2+ handling (high diastolic Ca2+ level and small Ca2+ transient peak) in cardiomyocytes isolated from J2N-k hamsters and prevented skeletal muscle damage. Further, the antibody effectively prevented heart failure in the 4C30 mouse model with end-stage DCM. Interestingly, endogenous TRPV2 that accumulated in the cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcolemma disappeared upon antibody administration. Thus, the newly produced antibodies are capable of ameliorating DCM and MD by promoting the cellular internalization of TRPV2; antibodies specific to human TRPV2 may substantially improve the treatment of patients with degenerative muscle diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Canais de Cálcio , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Distrofias Musculares/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Animais , Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
18.
FASEB J ; 34(2): 2041-2054, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916304

RESUMO

Most eukaryotic cells generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) to support cellular activities. In cultured cell-based experiments, we recently identified the hypoxia-inducible protein G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0s2) as a positive regulator of OXPHOS, and showed that G0s2 protects cultured cardiomyocytes from hypoxia. In this study, we examined the in vivo protective role of G0s2 against hypoxia by generating both loss-of-function and gain-of-function models of g0s2 in zebrafish. Zebrafish harboring transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated knockout of g0s2 lost hypoxic tolerance. Conversely, cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic zebrafish hearts exhibited strong tolerance against hypoxia. To clarify the mechanism by which G0s2 protects cardiac function under hypoxia, we introduced a mitochondrially targeted FRET-based ATP biosensor into zebrafish heart to visualize ATP dynamics in in vivo beating hearts. In addition, we employed a mosaic overexpression model of g0s2 to compare the contraction and ATP dynamics between g0s2-expressing and non-expressing cardiomyocytes, side-by-side within the same heart. These techniques revealed that g0s2-expressing cardiomyocyte populations exhibited preserved contractility coupled with maintained intra-mitochondrial ATP concentrations even under hypoxic condition. Collectively, these results demonstrate that G0s2 provides ischemic tolerance in vivo by maintaining ATP production, and therefore represents a promising therapeutic target for hypoxia-related diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Isquemia Miocárdica , Miocárdio , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(3): 165623, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778748

RESUMO

The role of the cardiac isoform of the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate ion cotransporter (NBCe1) in cardiac remodeling is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NBCe1 overexpression on cardiac remodeling induced by myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. We generated NBCe1 transgenic (Tg) mice and NBCe1 overexpressing adult mouse ventricular myocytes (AMVMs) to investigate the role of NBCe1 on post-MI remodeling and calcium kinetics. Tg mice showed a markedly higher mortality rate and larger infarct size after MI. At 6 weeks after MI, the maximum rising rates of left ventricular pressure (dp/dt), contractility index, and the exponential time constant of relaxation (τ) were markedly lower, and there was higher cardiomyocyte apoptosis, in Tg mice compared with WT mice. In cultured AMVMs, overexpression of NBCe1 decreased sarcomere shortening and calcium amplitude. In WT AMVMs, the rates of the rise and decay phase of calcium transients, indicated by the rising time (Tpeak, time to peak) and decay time constant (τd), and the number of apoptotic cells, were increased following hypoxia, while overexpression of NBCe1 further increased Tpeak and cellular apoptosis, but not τd. Intracellular resting calcium and sodium concentrations were significantly increased following both hypoxia and NBCe1 overexpression. Co-treatment with S0859, an NBCe1 antagonist, blocked the hypoxia-induced increase in Tpeak, τd, intracellular resting calcium and sodium concentrations, and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. These findings indicate that NBCe1 overexpression promotes cardiac remodeling by increasing intracellular calcium overload. Therefore, NBCe1 should be a potential target for treatment of cardiac remodeling.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia
20.
Lab Invest ; 100(2): 207-217, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857697

RESUMO

Heart transplantation is currently the only viable option available for the treatment of severe heart failure conditions such as dilated cardiomyopathy. Hence, novel drugs for treating such conditions need to be developed urgently. Recent studies suggest that Ca2+ overload is involved in the onset and progression of dilated cardiomyopathy, and thus heart failure. The expression and activation of the Ca2+ permeable channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel have been found to play an essential role in sustained intracellular Ca2+ concentration increase, leading to heart failure. However, since there have been no TRPV2-specific inhibitors available until recently, the effect of TRPV2 inhibition on the pathology has not been clearly elucidated. Recent reports show that inhibiting TRPV2 activity effectively improves cardiac function, suppressing myocardial fibrosis and ameliorating the prognosis in animal models of cardiomyopathy with heart failure. In addition to that, inflammation is reported to be involved in the development of heart failure. Here, we review the recent findings on TRPV2 in cardiomyocytes and immune cells involved in the development of heart failure and discuss the current progress of drug development for the treatment of heart failure via targeting TRPV2.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Animais , Canais de Cálcio , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo
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