Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 174
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227400

RESUMO

AIM: Previous studies on the association between intraoral conditions and mortality in community-dwelling older individuals reported that fewer present teeth (PT) are significant risk factors for mortality. However, how the number of PT relative to the number of functional teeth (FT), including both present and rehabilitated teeth, influences mortality has not been investigated fully. This study examined the impact of the number of FT on mortality among community-dwelling Japanese older adults. METHODS: This study was a retrospective, observational and population-based follow-up study, which examined 1188 older individuals who participated in an annual geriatric health examination from 2009 to 2015. The average follow-up period was 1697.0 ± 774.5 days. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at follow-up. The numbers of PT and FT of each participant were counted during an oral examination. In addition, demographics, clinical variables, blood nutrient markers, physical functions and perceived masticatory function were measured. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis, followed by a log-rank test, revealed that fewer PT (P < 0.001) and FT (P = 0.002) were significantly associated with a reduced survival rate. Cox's proportional hazard analysis indicated that the number of FT, but not the number of PT, was a significant independent mortality risk factor after adjusting for demographics, clinical variables, nutrient markers and physical functioning (P = 0.036, hazard ratio: 2.089). CONCLUSIONS: Current results suggest that the number of FT more strongly predicts all-cause mortality than the number of PT among community-dwelling older adults. Further studies are necessary to consider the confounding of socioeconomic status and disability status. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.

2.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(3): 171-182, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238753

RESUMO

Objectives One of the diversity indicators of food intake in the elderly Japanese population is the Dietary Variety Score (DVS). Studies on elderly people have reported the relationship of food intake with health outcomes, such as body function, higher-level functional capacity, fall risk, and sarcopenia. However, the index have not been studied enough whether it is suggestive of nutrients and the characteristics of the meal by various food intakes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the DVS and its relationship with nutrient intakes and meal days consisting of staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes among elderly adults.Methods The participants were 182 community-dwelling elderly adults (65-84 years) in Itabashi city, Tokyo. For the food diversity indicator, we used the DVS developed by Kumagai et al. and classified the patients as follows: the low score group (0-3 points), the medium score group (4-6 points), and the high score group (7-10 points). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day dietary record. The daily amounts from foods and nutrients, and days of balanced diet with staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes greater than twice a day (hereafter "balanced meal days") were calculated. The relationships between the DVS classification and each dietary index were evaluated by the general linear model adjusted for sex, age, and energy levels. Additionally, we calculated the percentage of people with intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR) of each nutrient and estimated the risk of below the EAR in the groups by multiple logistic regression analysis.Results The low DVS group had significantly fewer balanced meal days (low 1.4 [1.2-1.6] days, medium 1.8 [1.6-1.9] days, high 1.9 [1.7-2.1] days, p for trend=0.001) than the high DVS group. The low DVS group showed significantly low energy ratios of protein and fat, as well as lower intakes of protein, dietary fiber, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and vitamin B12. In contrast, the low DVS group showed significantly higher energy ratios of carbohydrates and grains and higher carbohydrate intake. Compared to the high DVS group, the odds ratio for inadequate vitamin C intake (below the EAR) was significantly high in the low DVS group, and the odds ratios for inadequate intakes of magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B6 were significantly high in the middle DVS group.Conclusion The high DVS group had significant associations with increased intake of protein and micronutrients, as well as balanced meal days. DVS can be a dietary indicator that leads to the intake of a desirable variety of food and nutrients in old age.

3.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161250

RESUMO

AIM: The association between urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress marker, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been confirmed because no previous studies evaluated 24-hour 8-OHdG excretion levels in the general population. We aimed to confirm the association between 24-hour urinary 8-OHdG levels and CVD risk among Japanese men and women. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed based on a 24-hour urine collection in a community-based cohort study performed from 1996 to 2005. Seventy-six cases (55 men and 21 women) who experienced their first CVD incidence during the follow-up period (median: 5.9 years) were recruited. The controls were frequency-matched 1:2, with each case for sex, age, area of residence, and baseline year. The 8-OHdG level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index, ethanol intake, smoking status, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: The geometric mean and geometric standard deviation (SD) of 8-OHdG levels (nmol/day) for cases and controls were 35.5 (1.55) and 35.5 (1.54) for men and 32.1 (1.35) and 25.0 (1.39) for women, respectively. The multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD incidence according to the 1-SD increment of the log-transformed 8-OHdG level was 2.08 (0.99-4.37) for women. The multivariable ORs (95% CIs) for the 1st (lowest) and 4th versus 2nd quartile according to 8-OHdG for men were 3.29 (1.02-10.61) and 2.77 (0.96-7.96), respectively. CONCLUSION: A high 8-OHdG level tended to be associated with CVD incidence among women.

4.
Front Nutr ; 7: 23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219097

RESUMO

Nutritional epidemiology shows that insufficient protein intake is related to senile dementia. The levels of protein intake in aged people are positively associated with memory function, and elderly people with high protein intake have a low risk of mild cognitive impairment. Although the beneficial roles of protein nutrition in maintaining brain function in aged people are well demonstrated, little is known about the mechanism by which dietary intake of protein affects memory and brain conditions. We fed aged mice a low protein diet (LPD) for 2 months, which caused behavioral abnormalities, and examined the nutritional effect of essential amino acid administration under LPD conditions. The passive avoidance test revealed that LPD mice demonstrated learning and memory impairment. Similarly, the LPD mice showed agitation and hyperactive behavior in the elevated plus maze test. Moreover, LPD mice exhibited decreased concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glycine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and aspartate in the brain. Interestingly, oral administration of seven essential amino acids (EAAs; valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine, and tryptophan) to LPD mice, which can be a source of neurotransmitters, reversed those behavioral changes. The oral administration of EAAs restored the brain concentration of glutamate, which is involved in learning and memory ability and may be associated with the observed behavioral changes. Although the details of the link between decreased amino acid and neurotransmitter concentrations and behavioral abnormalities must be examined in future studies, these findings suggest the importance of dietary protein and essential amino acids for maintaining brain function.

5.
Ageing Res Rev ; 59: 101048, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of living alone with frailty in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by a systematic review and meta-analysis. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults with a mean age of >60 years. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed in February 2019 without language restriction for cohort studies that examined the associations between living alone and frailty. The reference lists of the relevant articles and the included articles were reviewed for additional studies. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR) of the presence and incidence of frailty for living alone from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. RESULTS: Among the 203 studies identified, data of 44 cross-sectional studies (46 cohorts) and 6 longitudinal studies were included in this review. The meta-analysis showed that older adults living alone were more likely to be frail than those who were not (46 cohorts: pooled OR = 1.28, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.45, p < 0.001). Gender-stratified analysis showed that only men living alone were at an increased risk of being frail (20 cohorts: pooled OR = 1.71, 95 %CI = 1.49-1.96), while women were not (22 cohorts: pooled OR = 1.00, 95 %CI = 0.83-1.20). No significant association was observed in a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies (6 cohorts: pooled OR = 0.88, 95 %CI = 0.76-1.03). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The present systematic review and meta-analysis showed a significant cross-sectional association between living alone and frailty, especially in men. However, living alone did not predict incident frailty. More studies controlling for important confounders, such as social networks, are needed to further enhance our understanding of how living alone is associated with frailty among older adults.

6.
Gerodontology ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the rate of oral frailty and oral hypofunction in rural community-dwelling older adults in Japan. BACKGROUND: Recently, the oral function of Japanese older adults has been evaluated multilaterally based on two concepts: oral frailty and oral hypofunction. Oral frailty is defined as a decrease in the oral function accompanied by a decrease in mental and physical functions. Oral hypofunction is a disease where the oral function is comprehensively decreased. However, their rates have not yet been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral frailty and oral hypofunction were evaluated in 679 older adults from rural areas. To investigate the differences in occurrence rates due to the evaluation methods, one of the subordinate symptoms of oral hypofunction, the reduced occlusal force, was evaluated based on both the occlusal force (main method) and the number of teeth (alternative method). RESULTS: The rate of oral frailty was 22.3% in men and 22.7% in women. The rate of oral hypofunction was 39.0% in men and 46.9% in women. The overall rate of oral hypofunction was 43.6% when the reduced occlusal force of oral hypofunction was evaluated using the main method and 46.4% when evaluated using the alternative method. The proportion of participants with decreased occlusal force, the number of present teeth, oral diadochokinesis, tongue pressure and masticatory performance increased with age in both men and women. CONCLUSION: Among rural community-dwelling older adults, the rate of oral frailty was 22.5% and that of oral hypofunction was 43.6%.

7.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143446

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is associated with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (BADL) disabilities. We developed an index for assessing sarcopenia degree (sarcoscore) and compared it to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Principal component analyses of walking speed, handgrip strength, and skeletal muscle index were performed to develop a sarcoscore using 3088 Japanese population-based cross-sectional data. During the nine-year follow-up, 278 of 2571 and 88 of 2341 participants developed IADL and BADL disabilities, respectively. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models showed that the sarcoscore criteria, defined as proportional to the sarcopenia prevalence diagnosed by the AWGS criteria, had higher hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for disability onset than the AWGS criteria (IADL disability: 2.19 (1.64-2.93) vs 1.79 (1.32-2.43), BADL disability: 4.28 (2.63-6.96) vs 3.22 (1.97-5.27)). The adjusted HRs for IADL and BADL disabilities were reduced by 4% and 8% per point increase in the sarcoscore, respectively. The sarcoscore assessed the degree of sarcopenia and had a satisfactory performance for predicting functional disabilities in older Japanese adults, suggesting its usefulness as a complementary composite marker for clinical diagnosis.

8.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(2): 118-126, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased masticatory performance leads to deterioration of overall health among older adults. However, maintaining and improving masticatory performance in ways other than maintenance of natural teeth and appropriate prosthodontic treatment remains unclear. If the factors related to the mixing and shearing abilities for masticatory performance are clarified, it may be possible to maintain and improve the masticatory performance of older adults. We aimed to clarify the association among mixing ability, shearing ability, and masticatory performance-related factors. METHODS: Of the 707 community-dwelling older adults in Kusatsu Town, Japan, 344 who had been treated for any dental defects were enrolled in this study. Masticatory performance was evaluated on the basis of mixing ability and shearing ability. The number of natural teeth and artificial teeth, occlusal force, tongue pressure, and oral diadochokinesis /ta/ were measured as masticatory performance-related factors. Their relationship with mixing ability, shearing ability, and masticatory performance-related factors was examined by means of Spearman rank correlation coefficient and path analysis. RESULTS: Among masticatory performance-related factors, the number of natural teeth, occlusal force, and tongue pressure were directly associated with both mixing ability and shearing ability. Moreover, mixing ability was also directly associated with shearing ability. CONCLUSIONS: Tongue pressure, which can be improved by means of training, is a masticatory performance-related factor associated with both mixing and shearing abilities. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Training for tongue pressure after proper prosthetic treatment may provide an effective means of maintaining and improving masticatory performance in older adults.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Mastigação , Força de Mordida , Estudos Transversais , Japão , Pressão , Língua
9.
Brain Behav ; : e01541, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and sickness absence among Japanese male and female workers, in a prospective study. METHODS: Among healthy employed Japanese workers who underwent mental health checks between 2006 and 2009, data of 111 participants were analyzed. Changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, peripheral blood flow (PBF), and heart rate variability (HRV) (high frequency [HF] and low frequency [LF]) were calculated using differences between the two tasks, mirror drawing stress [MDS] and a maze task, and the postperiod value. Sickness absence through March 2010 was followed up by mail survey (average follow-up 2.3 years). Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Among 12 participants who took sickness absences, eight were owing to mental problems. Changes in the LF during the MDS and maze tasks and LF-to-HF ratio during the MDS task were positively associated with all sickness absences (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.09, 1.03-4.22; 2.04, 1.09-3.82; and 3.10, 1.46-6.58, respectively). Changes in PBF during the MDS task were also associated with increased risk of sickness absence (OR, 95% CI: 2.53, 1.10-5.81). CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress should be considered at workers' health checks.

10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the dose-response relationships of body composition indices with mortality and identified the best predictor. DESIGN AND SETTING: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study and Hatoyama Cohort Study, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1977 community-dwelling Japanese adults age ≥65 years (966 men and 1011 women) participated. MEASUREMENTS: Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) were determined by segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. The main outcome was all-cause mortality. We determined multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for mortality relative to sex-specific medians of each body composition index and examined the association shapes. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 5.3 years, 128 (13.3%) men and 75 (7.4%) women died. Compared with median BMIs (23.3 kg/m2 in men and 22.8 kg/m2 in women), a BMI >23.3 and ≤26.1 kg/m2 was associated with significantly lower mortality risk in men, and a BMI <22.8 kg/m2 was associated with significantly higher mortality risk in women. The inverse dose-response relationship with mortality was clearer for FFMI [hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 10th and 90th percentiles: 1.58 (1.23-2.03) and 0.58 (0.44-0.79), respectively, in men and 1.56 (1.12-2.16) and 0.68 (0.51-0.91), respectively, in women] and SMI [1.57 (1.22-2.01) and 0.60 (0.45-0.80), respectively, in men and 1.45 (1.05-2.01) and 0.77 (0.61-0.96), respectively, in women] than for BMI [1.30 (0.92-1.83) and 0.65 (0.41-1.03), respectively, in men and 1.87 (1.18-2.95) and 0.88 (0.54-1.42), respectively, in women]. FMI was not associated with mortality in either sex. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: FFMI and SMI were more definitive predictors of mortality than were BMI and FMI. The lower mortality risk with higher FFMI, regardless of FMI, may explain the age-related weakening of the association between higher BMI and mortality (the "obesity paradox"). FFMI and SMI evaluation should be introduced to clinical assessments of older adults because mortality risk might be reduced by maintaining muscle mass.

11.
Sci Adv ; 6(6): eaav4520, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076634

RESUMO

MRI has potential as a translational approach from rodents to humans. However, given that mouse functional MRI (fMRI) uses anesthetics for suppression of motion, it has been difficult to directly compare the result of fMRI in "unconsciousness" disease model mice with that in "consciousness" patients. We develop awake fMRI to investigate brain function in 15q dup mice, a copy number variation model of autism. Compared to wild-type mice, we find that 15q dup is associated with whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity and diminished fMRI responses to odors of stranger mice. Ex vivo diffusion MRI reveals widespread anomalies in white matter ultrastructure in 15q dup mice, suggesting a putative anatomical substrate for these functional hypoconnectivity. We show that d-cycloserine (DCS) treatment partially normalizes these anormalies in the frontal cortex of 15q dup mice and rescues some social behaviors. Our results demonstrate the utility of awake rodent fMRI and provide a rationale for further investigation of DCS therapy.

12.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(2): 134-145, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092729

RESUMO

Objectives This study aimed to determine risk factors for frailty and lifestyle-related diseases impacting the incidence of loss of independence among Japanese community-dwelling older adults, and to measure the magnitude of these associations.Methods We conducted an 8.1-year prospective study involving 1,214 residents of the town of Kusatsu, aged 65 years and over, who were initially free of disability and underwent the comprehensive geriatric assessment between 2002 and 2011. Loss of independence was defined as the incidence of disability or having died before the occurrence of disability was certified by the Long-Term Care Insurance program in Japan. Risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases and health status comprised hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight, chronic kidney disease, current smoking, past history of stroke, heart disease and cancer, frailty, underweight, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and cognitive decline. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: Weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, slowness, and low levels of physical activity. Prefrailty was defined as the presence of one or two of these same criteria. Cox proportional-hazard regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of loss of independence.Results During the follow-up, 475 cases, including 372 disabilities and 103 deaths, were identified as having experienced loss of independence. The multivariable HRs for the loss of independence were 1.3 to 2.2-fold higher for the presence of frailty, past history of stroke, cognitive decline, prefrailty, and smoking. The PAF of loss of independence was the greatest for prefrailty (19%), followed by frailty (12%). The PAF was relatively large for prefrailty (19%) and smoking (11%) in men, and frailty (18%), prefrailty (18%), and chronic kidney disease (11%) in women. Stratified by age category, participants aged 65-74 years having frailty and several lifestyle-related diseases showed significantly higher HRs for loss of independence and greater PAFs for prefrailty (18%), frailty (13%), and smoking (11%).Conclusions Loss of independence among Japanese community-dwelling older adults who underwent screening examinations was largely attributed to frailty and prefrailty. Our findings suggest that the screening and the intervention for frailty and lifestyle-related diseases in the early stages of old age might be beneficial in prolonging healthy life expectancy of Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

13.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of laughter has been associated with cardiovascular disease and related biomarkers, but no previous studies have examined association between laughter and changes in blood pressure levels. We therefore sought to identify temporal relationships between frequency of laughter in daily life and systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes in participants from 2010 to 2014. METHODS: Participants were 554 men and 887 women aged 40-74 years who answered self-administered questionnaire quantifying frequency of laughter at baseline. We measured participant blood pressure levels twice using automated sphygmomanometers for each year from 2010 to 2014. The associations between laughter and changes in blood pressure over time were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in blood pressure according to frequency of laughter at baseline in either sex. Men with frequency of laughter 1 to 3 per month or almost never had significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels over four-year period (time-dependent difference (95% CI): 0.96 mmHg (-0.2, 1.8); p=0.05). Changes in blood pressure associated with infrequent laughter (i.e., 1 to 3 per month or almost never) were evident in men without antihypertensive medication use over four years (0.82 mmHg (0.1, 1.5); p=0.02) and men who were current drinkers at baseline (1.29 mmHg (-0.1, 2.3); p=0.04). No significant difference was found between frequency of laughter and systolic (0.23mmHg (-1.0, 1.5); p=0.72) and diastolic (-0.07mmHg (-0.8, 0.7); p=0.86) blood pressure changes in women. CONCLUSIONS: Infrequent laughter was associated with long-term blood pressure increment among middle-aged men.

14.
Hypertens Res ; 43(4): 313-321, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988479

RESUMO

The role of serum uric acid as a predictor of stroke among the general Japanese population remains controversial. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5235 men and 8185 women aged 40-79 years at baseline between 1985 and 1994 in four Japanese communities, who were initially free from stroke, coronary heart disease, and medication for hyperuricemia or gout. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate sex-specific hazard ratios of stroke and its types in relation to serum uric acid level. During a median follow-up of 23.1 years, we recorded 1018 (488 men and 530 women) incident strokes, including 222 (99 and 123) intraparenchymal hemorrhages, 113 (33 and 80) subarachnoid hemorrhages and 667 (347 and 320) ischemic strokes. After adjustment for age, community and known cardiovascular risk factors, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% CIs) in the highest vs. lowest quintile of serum uric acid were 1.45 (1.07-1.96) for total stroke, 1.20 (0.65-2.20) for intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 1.46 (0.69-3.09) for subarachnoid hemorrhage and 1.61 (1.07-2.41) for ischemic stroke in women. The corresponding multivariable hazard ratios (95% CIs) in men were 1.02 (0.74-1.35), 0.83 (0.40-1.72), 1.19 (0.38-3.75) and 1.00 (0.70-1.41). Furthermore, those positive associations with risks of total and ischemic strokes in women were more evident in nonusers of antihypertensive medication than the users. In conclusion, elevated serum uric acid level is an independent predictor of total stroke in women but not in men. The positive association in women was mostly attributable to ischemic stroke and was more pronounced among nonusers of antihypertensive medication.

15.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 87: 104014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because the oral cavity plays an important role as the first digestive organ, thus, decreased oral function such as oral frailty may negatively affect the nutritional status of older adults. However, few studies have examined the relationship between oral frailty and dietary habits. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between oral functions and dietary habits in a general population of older adults. METHODS: Participants were 722 older adults (mean age, 79.1 ± 4.5 [standard deviation] years) who had participated in the Takashimadaira Study conducted in 2018, in Tokyo, Japan. Oral frailty among them was determined by a modified version of a well-known method originally proposed by other researchers. Dietary habits were evaluated based on two aspects: dietary variety and eating behavior (eating alone or together). The independent association between oral frailty and dietary habits was analyzed with an ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: Of the participants, 23.5 %, 57.2 % and 19.3 % were determined to have non-oral frailty, pre-oral frailty, and oral frailty, respectively. Eating alone (practiced by 36.0 % of the participants) was significantly associated with oral frailty status (adjusted odds ratio, 1.82 [95 % confidence interval, 1.14-2.90]) even after controlling for potential confounders including age, sex, body mass index, living arrangement, employment, chronic medical conditions, and depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant association between eating alone and oral frailty in a general population of Japanese older adults. Because of the strong association, further investigation of potential mechanisms is warranted.

16.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932552

RESUMO

AIM: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), frequently used as a biochemical marker for detecting and monitoring heart failure, is also a risk marker for development of coronary heart disease and total stroke. However, studies that explore subtypes of ischemic stroke with regard to NT-proBNP are scarce. Here, we examined NT-proBNP and its impact upon subtypes of ischemic stroke (lacunar stroke, large-artery occlusive stroke and embolic stroke) among Japanese. METHODS: We measured NT-proBNP and categorized 4,393 participants of the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study into four groups (<55, 55-124, 125-399, and ≥ 400 pg/ml). We used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to examine association with risks of stroke and subtypes. RESULTS: During 4.7 years of follow-up, we identified 50 strokes, including 35 ischemic (15 lacunar, 6 largeartery occlusive, 10 embolic strokes) and 14 hemorrhagic strokes. NT-proBNP was associated with stroke risk: the multivariable hazard ratio of total strokes was 7.29 (2.82-18.9) for the highest and 2.78 (1.25-6.16) for the second highest NT-proBNP groups compared with the lowest group. The respective hazard ratios for the highest NT-proBNP group were 9.37 (3.14-28.0) for ischemic stroke and 6.81 (1.11-41.7) for lacunar stroke. Further adjustment for atrial fibrillation did not attenuate these associations. The associations were similarly observed for large-artery occlusive and embolic strokes. CONCLUSION: We found that even moderate serum levels of NT-proBNP were associated with the risk of total and ischemic strokes among Japanese whose NT-proBNP levels were relatively low compared with Westerners.

17.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(4): 330-338, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No study has reported trajectories of kidney function in later life. This long-term prospective study attempted to classify trajectories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and identify factors associated with these trajectories. METHODS: We collected data from annual geriatric health checkups conducted during 2002-2017 in Kusatsu Town, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. The participants were 1990 adults aged 65-90 years (mean [SD] age, 71.0 [5.7] years; 57.0% women), and the total number of observations was 9291. Data were analyzed with a group-based semiparametric mixture model and age-adjusted univariable cumulative logit models. RESULTS: Trajectory of kidney function, as determined by eGFR, was classified as low, middle, and high (4.8%, 38.9%, and 56.3% of men, respectively, and 5.2%, 31.5%, and 63.3% of women). Among men and women in the low trajectory group, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage worsened from stage G3a (51.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 in men and 53.6 in women) at age 65 years to stage G4 (28.0 ml/min/1.73 m2 in men and 28.5 in women) by age 85 years. A history of hypertension (men and women) and heart disease (men) were more likely in the low trajectory group than in the middle and high trajectory groups. CONCLUSIONS: About 5% of community-dwelling older adults had an eGFR < 30 later in life. Our findings suggest that those with stage G3a CKD at age 65 years should be managed intensively, to control risk factors for CKD progression.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18604, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819092

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence from studies of human-animal interaction highlights the physiological, psychological, and social benefits for older owners of dogs and cats. This longitudinal study examined whether experience of dog/cat ownership protects against incident frailty in a population of community-dwelling older Japanese. Among 7881 non-frail community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who completed a mail survey in 2016, 6,197 (mean [SD] age, 73.6 [5.3] years; 53.6% women) were reevaluated in a 2018 follow-up survey. Frailty was assessed with the Kaigo-Yobo Checklist. Incident frailty was defined as a score of four or higher in the follow-up survey. Overall, 870 (14.0%) were current dog/cat owners, 1878 (30.3%) were past owners and 3449 (55.7%) were never owners. During the 2-year follow-up period, 918 (14.8%) developed incident frailty. Mixed-effects logistic regression models showed that the odds ratio for incident frailty among dog/cat owners, as compared with never owners, current owners were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-1.09) and past owner were 0.84 (0.71-0.98), after controlling for important confounders at baseline. In stratified analysis, the risk of incident frailty was lower for past dog owners than for cat owners. Longer experience of caring for a dog requires physical activity and increases time outdoors spent dog walking and thus may have an important role in maintaining physical and social function and reducing frailty risk among older adults.

19.
Spine Surg Relat Res ; 3(4): 377-384, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768459

RESUMO

Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP), defined as low back pain persisting for at least 3 months, leads to limitations in the activities of daily living and decreased quality of life. Individualized self-exercise education could be a preferable treatment option, especially in community-dwelling people with CLBP. Previous studies, however, did not directly compare the effects of therapist-led self-exercise education and material-only education, and there are only a few studies investigating the effects of low-dose (comprising a few sessions) self-exercise education on CLBP. We present a protocol of community-based, randomized study to evaluate the effects of low-dose (comprising a few sessions), therapist-led self-exercise education on CLBP. Methods: Forty-eight participants with CLBP (men and women, aged 40-74 years) will be allocated to therapeutic self-exercise education programs, either a therapist-led group (2-week therapist's consultation and material use) or material-only group (material use only), in a randomized controlled trial. Pain intensity (NRS, numeric rating scale), pain disability (RDQ, Roland-Morris disability questionnaire), pain self-efficacy (PSEQ, pain self-efficacy questionnaire), and quality of life score (EQ-5D, European quality of life-5 dimensions) will be measured at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. We will apply a repeated-measures design with mixed-effect models to estimate group differences from the baseline. Ethics/Trial registration number: The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committees of the Osaka Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Osaka University. The trial registration number is registered on the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000024537).

20.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(12): 1236-1242, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746115

RESUMO

AIM: Cognitive decline increases mortality risk through dementia-related pathways and might be associated with increased healthcare costs. Using up to 12 years of repeated measures data, we identified trajectories in cognitive function among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. We then examined whether these trajectories were associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and differences in healthcare costs. METHODS: A total of 1736 adults aged ≥65 years who were free of disabling dementia completed annual assessments during 2002-2014. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The average number of follow-up assessments was 3.9, and the total number of observations was 6824 during the follow-up period. RESULTS: We identified five trajectory patterns in cognitive function (high, second, third, fourth, and low) during the 12-year follow-up period. The low (2.0%) and fourth (2.2%) trajectory groups had higher hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease mortality, and hazard ratios for other cause mortality were significantly higher for the third (16.8%) and second (38.8%) trajectory groups than for the high trajectory group (40.3%). Until 5 years of follow up, participants in the two lower-trajectory groups had higher mean combined monthly medical and long-term care costs. After 8 years of follow up, mean costs were highest for the third trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of death from cardiovascular disease was higher in the two lower-trajectory groups in cognitive function, and they showed higher healthcare costs during the first 5 years of follow up. After 8 years of follow up, the third trajectory had the highest healthcare costs, perhaps because of hospitalizations attributable to gradual cognitive decline. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 1236-1242.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA