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1.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 49(10): 972-984, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee and green tea, two popular drinks in the Japanese, have recently drawn much attention as potential protective factors against the occurrence of liver cancer. METHODS: We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies on coffee, green tea and liver cancer among Japanese populations. Original data were obtained by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Ichushi databases, complemented with manual searches. The evaluation was performed in terms of the magnitude of association in each study and the strength of evidence ('convincing', 'probable', 'possible', or 'insufficient'), together with biological plausibility. RESULTS: We identified four cohort and four case-control studies on coffee and liver cancer and six cohort and one case-control studies on green tea and liver cancer. All cohort and case-control studies on coffee reported a weak to strong inverse association, with a summary relative risk (RR) for one cup increase being 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.79). Conversely, all studies but two cohort studies on green tea reported no association, with a corresponding summary RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01, P = 0.37). CONCLUSION: Coffee drinking 'probably' decreases the risk of primary liver cancer among the Japanese population whereas the evidence on an association between green tea and liver cancer is 'insufficient' in this population.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860982

RESUMO

The incidence of breast cancer among Japanese women is substantially increasing. This study evaluated the effects of reproductive and lifestyle factors with respect to breast cancer overall and separately among pre- and postmenopausal women using data from the Three-Prefecture Cohort Study of Japan.A total of 33,410 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included items about menstrual and reproductive history and other lifestyle factors. The follow-up period was from 1984 to 1992 in Miyagi and 1985 to 2000 in Aichi Prefectures. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for confounding factors.After 9.8 mean years of follow-up, 287 cases of breast cancer were recorded. In the overall analysis, later menarche (≥16 years) and parity were significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, with HRs of 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.52-0.99), respectively. Further, there was a significant decline in the risk of breast cancer with increasing number of birth among parous women (P for trend = .010). On the contrary, a family history of breast cancer in the mother was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (HR 3.22, 95% CI 1.52-6.84). Analyses based on menopausal status at baseline indicated that height (≥160 cm) and weight (≥65 kg) were significantly associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, with HRs of 1.34 (95% CI 0.72-2.50) and 3.13 (95% CI 1.75-5.60), respectively. Risk associated with BMI significantly differs by menopausal status.Our findings suggest the important role of reproductive factors in the development of breast cancer in Japanese women; however, body mass index (BMI) may have different effects on breast cancer in Japanese women compared with western women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Anamnese , Menarca , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3603-3614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482651

RESUMO

Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bovinos , Colo , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Carne/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1870-1871, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438384

RESUMO

The International Cancer Research Partnership (ICRP) has developed a cancer research funding database since its establishment, with data gathered from the participating funnding organizations. We estimated and compared the total amount of cancer research funding from governmental organizations in the USA, the UK and Japan using ICRP and publicly available databases. We also discussed use of the ICRP database as a tool to consider the cancer research funding allocation at a national level.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Neoplasias , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 917-926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392470

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to assess the association between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight Japanese population-based cohort studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), derived from random effects models, were used to evaluate the associations between green tea consumption, based on self-report at baseline, and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. During a mean follow-up of 17.3 years, among 313,381 persons, 52,943 deaths occurred. Compared with individuals who consumed < 1 cup/day, those in the highest consumption category (≥ 5 cups/day) had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [the multivariate-adjusted HR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for men and 0.82 (0.74-0.90) for women]. A similar inverse association was observed for heart disease mortality [HR 0.82 (0.75-0.90) for men, and 0.75 (0.68-0.84) for women], and cerebrovascular disease mortality [HR 0.76 (0.68-0.85) for men, and 0.78 (0.68-0.89) for women]. Among women, green tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of total cancer mortality: 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for the 1-2 cups/day category and 0.91 (0.85-0.98) for the 3-4 cups/day category. Results for respiratory disease mortality were [HR 0.75 (0.61-0.94)] among 3-4 cup daily consumers and [HR 0.66 (0.55-0.79)] for ≥ 5 cups/day. Higher consumption of green tea is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality in Japanese, especially for heart and cerebrovascular disease. Moderate consumption decreased the risk of total cancer and respiratory disease mortality in women.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 14(1): 1632110, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213147

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to clarify the experiences of caregivers desiring to refuse life-prolonging treatment for their elderly parents at the end of life. Methods: A semi-structured interview was performed for four family caregivers who wanted to refuse life-prolonging treatment suggested by the physicians. Results: In this study, four caregivers who refused life-prolonging treatment suggested by the physicians for their elderly parents completed semi-structured interviews. The obtained data were analyzed in relation to the theme "Experiences of caregivers who desire to refuse life-prolonging treatment for their elderly parents at the end of life." As a result, 38 subcategories and 12 categories were extracted. Conclusions: Participants in this study initially had a negative view of life-prolonging treatment. However, they agonized over the decision when they received conflicting advice from the physicians. The participants indicated that physicians' advice and attitudes complicated their decisions to reject life-prolonging treatment for their elderly parents.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida , Assistência Terminal , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Japão , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e195111, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150086

RESUMO

Importance: Bystander interventions are a factor for improving survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but it is hypothesized that girls and women experiencing OHCA may be less likely to receive bystander interventions than boys and men. Objective: To investigate sex disparities in receiving public-access automated external defibrillator (AED) pad application and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among students who experienced OHCA in school settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study used the Stop and Prevent Cardiac Arrest, Injury, and Trauma in Schools (SPIRITS) database to link databases from 2 nationally representative registries-the Injury and Accident Mutual Aid Benefit System of the Japan Sport Council and the All-Japan Utstein Registry of the Fire and Disaster Management Agency. Students from elementary schools (ages 6-12 years), junior high schools (ages 12-15 years), high schools (ages 15-21 years), and technical colleges (ages 15-21 years) who experienced nontraumatic OHCA involving attempted resuscitation by emergency medical service personnel or bystanders in school settings from April 1, 2008, to December 31, 2015, were included. Data analysis was performed from January 5, 2019, to April 11, 2019. Exposures: Sex and school level. Main Outcomes and Measures: Application of public-access AED pads or initiation of CPR by a bystander. Results: A total of 232 students who experienced OHCA with nontraumatic causes in school settings (mean [SD] age, 14.5 [2.9] years; 175 [75.4%] male) were included. In multivariable analysis of the full cohort of students who experienced OHCA, female sex was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving public-access AED pad application compared with male sex (36 of 57 female students [63.2%] received AED pad application vs 141 of 175 male students [80.6%]; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20-0.97; P = .04). In the subgroup analysis of students who experienced OHCA in high schools or technical schools, female sex was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving public-access AED pad application compared with male sex (10 of 18 female students [55.6%] vs 84 of 101 male students [83.2%]; adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.87; P = .03). Among the full cohort, 48 of 57 female students (84.2%) and 151 of 175 male students (86.3%) received CPR from bystanders (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.30-2.22), and there were no significant differences in receiving bystander-initiated CPR between sexes, irrespective of school level. Conclusions and Relevance: Among students who experienced OHCA in schools in Japan, female sex was associated with lower odds of receiving public-access AED pad application compared with male sex.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1461-1468, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acrylamide has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based chiefly on laboratory evidence. However, the influence of dietary acrylamide intake on risk of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer has not been extensively studied. We aimed to evaluate the association between dietary acrylamide intake and esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer using data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. METHODS: Our study included 87,628 participants who completed a food-frequency questionnaire at enrollment in 1990 and 1993. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: After 15.5, 15.3, and 15.3 mean years of follow-up for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer, we identified and analyzed 391 esophageal, 2,218 gastric, and 2,470 colorectal cancer cases, respectively. Compared with the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake, the multivariate HR for the highest quintile was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.53-1.39; P trend = 0.814), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.69-1.01; P trend = 0.301), and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79-1.08; P trend = 0.165) for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer, respectively, in the multivariable-adjusted model. Furthermore, no significant associations were observed when the participants were stratified by cancer subsites. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study demonstrated that dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with increased risk of esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancer among the Japanese population. IMPACT: It is the first time to assess the effect of dietary acrylamide intake on risk of digestive system cancer in Asian populations.

9.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of alcohol drinking with bladder cancer risk remains unclear in East Asian populations. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme oxidizes alcohol-metabolized carcinogenic acetaldehyde into acetate. It is well known that the inactive ALDH2 carriers, specific to East Asian populations, have an increased risk of several cancer types because of increased exposure to acetaldehyde after alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk using data from ten population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan, where approximately 40% of the population has inactive ALDH2 enzyme. METHODS: We analyzed 340,497 Japanese participants with average follow-up of 13.4 years. The association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk was evaluated using Cox regression models within each study, and random-effects models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During 4,729,071 person-years, 936 men and 325 women were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our results showed no evidence of significant association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk even among men who consumed alcohol of ≥69 g/week, with HR of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79-1.33). The null result was observed consistently among women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support an association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk in the Japanese, at least without consideration of the polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(8): 1370-1378, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed prospective evaluation of cigarette smoking associated with pancreatic cancer risk in large Asian populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine this association in a Japanese population, with a particular focus on evaluating sex differences. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. We calculated study-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then estimated summary HRs by pooling these estimates with a random effects model. RESULTS: During 4,695,593 person-years of follow-up in 354,154 participants, 1,779 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for current smoking compared with never smoking in both males [HR (95% CI), 1.59 (1.32-1.91)] and females [HR (95% CI), 1.81 (1.43-2.30)]. Significant risk elevations for former smoking and small cumulative dose of ≤20 pack-years (PY) were observed only among females, regardless of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Trend analysis indicated significant 6% and nonsignificant 6% increases in pancreatic cancer risk for every 10 PYs in males and females, respectively. Risk became comparable with never smokers after 5 years of smoking cessation in males. In females, however, we observed no risk attenuation by smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the well-known association between smoking and pancreatic cancer and indicates potential sex differences in a Japanese population. Quitting smoking would be beneficial for pancreatic cancer prevention, especially in males. IMPACT: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased with cumulative smoking exposure and decreased with smoking cessation, with potential sex differences.

11.
Resuscitation ; 139: 33-40, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death during exercise or sports is an important problem among young athletes and non-athletes. An understanding of the epidemiological features of sports-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) among children is crucial for planning approaches for prevention and better outcomes of paediatric OHCAs. We assessed the characteristics and outcomes of sports-related OHCA among children at schools in Japan to prevent sports-related paediatric OHCA at schools. METHODS: The Stop and Prevent cardIac aRrest, Injury, and Trauma in Schools (SPIRITS) is a nationwide, prospective, observational study linking databases of two nationally representative registries. Data on the characteristics and outcomes of sports-related paediatric OHCA at schools in Japan were obtained from these databases. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2015, 188 sports-related paediatric OHCAs due to presumed cardiac origin occurred. The greatest proportion of OHCA during or after sports was due to long-distance running (21.8%), followed by soccer/futsal (13.3%), basketball (12.2%), and baseball/rubber-ball baseball (11.2%). We also assessed the association between prehospital factors and one-month survival with favourable neurological outcome after sports-related OHCA. The proportions of ventricular fibrillation as the first documented rhythm, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and public-access defibrillation (PAD) were 87.8%, 87.2%, and 63.3%, respectively. Compared with the non-PAD group, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the PAD group was 3.64 (1.78-7.45). CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, 188 schoolchildren experienced OHCAs of cardiac origin occurring during or after sports activity at schools during the 8-year period. Increasing PAD is essential to enhance better neurological outcome after sports-related OHCA among students.

12.
Prev Med ; 123: 270-277, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951734

RESUMO

Coffee consumption is increasing globally. We aimed to assess the effect of coffee consumption on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan (Japan Cohort Consortium). Data came from eight Japanese cohort studies (144,750 men and 168,631 women). During a mean follow-up time of 17 years, 52,943 deaths occurred. More specifically, 19,495 cancer deaths, 7321 deaths due to heart disease, 6387 cerebrovascular, 3490 respiratory disease and 3382 injuries and accidents. A random effects model was applied to obtain pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). In both sexes, coffee consumption up to 5 cups/day was overall protective in relation to all-cause mortality, with the association attenuating in the highest category of coffee consumption (≥5 cups/day). In men, a similar inverse association was observed for major causes of mortality except cancer. In women, coffee consumption decreased the risk for mortality due to heart disease in the 1-2 cups/day category, but increased the risk in the ≥5 cups/day category. Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer in both sexes. Results were similar among male current smokers and female never-smokers. Based on available data, this pooled analysis suggests that coffee consumption under five cups per day may be beneficial for reducing the risk of mortality due to major causes.

13.
Circ J ; 83(4): 757-766, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee, which contains various bioactive compounds, is one of the most popular beverages. Further accumulation of evidence is needed, however, to confirm whether coffee consumption would be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease in the general Japanese population. Methods and Results: We evaluated the association between coffee consumption frequency (never, sometimes, 1-2 cups/day, 3-4 cups/day and ≥5 cups/day) and mortality from all causes, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease, in 39,685 men and 43,124 women aged 40-79 years at baseline, in a 3-prefecture cohort study. The coffee consumption frequency was assessed on questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the association between coffee consumption frequency and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality with adjustment for potential confounders. During 411,341 and 472,433 person-years in men and women, respectively, a total of 7,955 men and 5,725 women died. Coffee consumption frequency was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in both genders (P for trend<0.001). In addition, the risks of mortality from cerebrovascular disease in men (P for trend<0.001), and heart disease in women (P for trend=0.031) were inversely associated with coffee consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In this Japanese population, coffee drinking has a preventive effect on all-cause and on cardiovascular mortality in men and/or women.

14.
Cancer Sci ; 110(3): 1076-1084, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618090

RESUMO

Occupational asbestos exposure occurs in many workplaces and is a well-known cause of mesothelioma and lung cancer. However, the association between nonoccupational asbestos exposure and those diseases is not clearly described. The aim of this study was to investigate cause-specific mortality among the residents of Amagasaki, a city in Japan with many asbestos factories, and evaluate the potential excess mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. The study population consisted of 143 929 residents in Amagasaki City before 1975 until 2002, aged 40 years or older on January 1, 2002. Follow-up was carried out from 2002 to 2015. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by sex, using the mortality rate of the Japanese population as reference. A total of 38 546 deaths (including 303 from mesothelioma and 2683 from lung cancer) were observed. The SMRs in the long-term residents' cohort were as follows: death due to all causes, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.10-1.13) in men and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.06-1.09) in women; lung cancer, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.23-1.34) in men and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.14-1.32) in women; and mesothelioma, 6.75 (95% CI, 5.83-7.78) in men and 14.99 (95% CI, 12.34-18.06) in women. These SMRs were significantly higher than expected. The increased SMR of mesothelioma suggests the impact of occupational asbestos exposure among men and nonoccupational asbestos exposure among women in the long-term residents' cohort. In addition, the high level of excess mortality from mesothelioma has persisted, despite the mixture of crocidolite and chrysotile no longer being used for three or four decades.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbesto Crocidolita/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia
15.
Europace ; 21(3): 451-458, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500911

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to reveal the effects of application of public-access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on survival of paediatric patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring on school campuses in Japan. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were obtained from a nationwide prospective observational study of paediatric OHCAs in school settings in Japan, termed Stop and Prevent cardIac aRrest, Injury, and Trauma in Schools (SPIRITS). Non-traumatic OHCA patients from elementary school, junior high school, and high school/technical college between April 2008 and December 2015 were enrolled. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the effect of bystander interventions (i.e. public-access AED application and bystander-CPR) on 30-day survival with favourable neurological outcome. In total, 232 OHCA cases were analysed. The proportion of 30-day survival with favourable neurological outcome was significantly higher among the patients receiving both public-access AED application and bystander-CPR than those without any bystander intervention (50.9% vs. 20.0%, adjusted odds ratio 4.08, 95% confidence interval 1.25-13.31; P = 0.020). During the study period, the proportion of patients to whom public-access AEDs were applied increased significantly (from 61.9% in 2008 to 87.0% in 2015, P-for trend = 0.014). Accordingly, the proportion of 30-day survival with favourable neurological outcome improved significantly (from 38.1% in 2005 to 56.5% in 2015, P-for trend = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The combination of public-access AED application and bystander-CPR increased the chance of survival approximately four-fold in schools. The nationwide efforts towards disseminating public-access defibrillation systems in school settings may reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death among school children.

16.
J Epidemiol ; 29(1): 11-17, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To update the findings of relative risk associated with smoking for all-cause mortality and that for lung cancer by considering longitudinal changes in smoking status during follow-up. METHODS: Data from the JPHC study of 98,747 middle-aged Japanese adults, which started in 1990-1993, were analyzed. The information on smoking status was obtained from three questionnaire surveys (baseline, the 5th year, and the 10th year after the start of follow-up). A Poisson regression model was used to investigate the impact of smoking on mortality from all causes and lung cancer using two approaches. Model 1 used information only from baseline, while model 2 used the updated smoking status from all three surveys. RESULTS: During the 15-year follow-up, 10,702 all-cause deaths (including 870 lung cancer cases) were identified. We compared the results obtained from two models. The relative risks associated with former smokers versus never smokers were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.54) among men and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.23-1.73) among women for all-cause mortality and 2.98 (95% CI, 2.09-4.24) among men and 1.83 (95% CI, 0.92-3.64) among women for lung cancer mortality, as determined using model 2. All of these were higher than the relative risks obtained from model 1. In addition, former smokers who had quit smoking due to disease during follow-up had a higher mortality risk than continuous smokers did in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risks of all-cause mortality and mortality due to lung cancer among former smokers be higher than previously documented based on updated smoking status data from repeated surveys.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
17.
Clin Nutr ; 38(4): 1678-1683, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many studies have suggested that fish intake is associated with protection from risk of atherosclerotic diseases; however, this association with aortic diseases has not been elucidated worldwide. We hypothesized that fish intake is inversely associated with mortality from aortic diseases (aortic dissection and aneurysm). METHODS: The study was conducted as a pooled analysis of original data from a maximum of 8 cohort studies, comprising a total of 366,048 community-based men and women who had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer. In each cohort, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality from aortic dissection, aneurysm and total aortic disease according to the frequency of fish intake and estimated summary HRs derived from each study. RESULTS: Nonlinear inverse associations were found between fish intake and total aortic disease. Compared with persons who ate fish 1-2 times/week, persons who seldom ate fish had higher mortality from total aortic disease (multivariable-adjusted pooled HR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.31). Higher mortality was not seen in those who ate fish 1-2 times/month. A similar pattern was observed for aortic dissection. Regarding aortic aneurysm, both persons who seldom ate fish and those who ate fish 1-2 times/month had higher mortality (HR = 1.99; 95% CI, 0.90-4.40 and HR = 1.86; 95% CI, 0.87-3.98, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Persons who seldom ate fish had higher mortality from aortic dissection, aneurysm, and total aortic diseases.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(11): 1387-1392, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605079

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the incidence, patient characteristics, and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring while in a motor vehicle in Osaka City, Japan (with a population of 2.6 million), from 2009 to 2015. The OHCA data used in this study were obtained from the population-based Utstein-style registry in Osaka City. Patients who had OHCA occurring while in a motor vehicle were included. The primary end point was 1-month survival with favorable neurologic outcome after OHCA. During the study period, 18,458 OHCAs were observed, and 264 of them (1.4%) occurred while on or in a motor vehicle (drivers, n = 179; nondrivers, n = 85). The overall incidence rate of OHCAs occurring while in a motor vehicle was 14.0 per million population per year (drivers, 9.5; nondrivers, 4.5). In the drivers with OHCAs, 78 (43.6%) and 101 (56.4%) cases were of medical origin and traffic injuries, respectively. Approximately half of OHCAs with a medical origin in drivers presumably occurred while driving (46.2%, 36 of 78). The overall proportion of 1-month survival with favorable neurologic outcome after OHCA was 6.4% (17 of 264). In the drivers, the proportion of OHCAs with a medical origin and because of traffic injuries were 11.5% (9 of 78) and 2.0% (2 of 101) (p = 0.008), respectively. In conclusion, although OHCAs occurring while in a motor vehicle represented a small subset of the overall OHCA burden, a relatively large number of cardiac arrests with a medical origin occurred in drivers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo , Veículos Automotores , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Cancer ; 143(2): 307-316, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446077

RESUMO

Coffee is a rich source of bioactive compounds that have potential anticarcinogenic effects. However, it remains unclear whether coffee drinking is associated with colorectal cancer. Also, despite different etiological factors involved in gut physiology, few studies have investigated this association by anatomical site of the lesion. To address these issues, this study examined the association between coffee drinking and colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis from 8 cohort studies conducted in Japan. Among 320,322 participants followed up for 4,503,274 person-years, 6,711 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using the random effects model. Coffee drinking was not materially associated with colorectal cancer risk in men or women (pooled HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.03 in men and pooled HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.07 in women). Analysis by subsite showed a lower risk of colon cancer among female drinkers of ≥3 cups coffee/day (pooled HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-0.99). There was no such association in men. Coffee drinking was not associated with risk of rectal cancer in men or women. Results were virtually the same among never smokers except for an increased risk of rectal cancer associated with frequent coffee consumption. Coffee drinking may be associated with lower risk of colon cancer in Japanese women.


Assuntos
Café/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
20.
Circ J ; 82(4): 1026-1032, 2018 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the epidemiology of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring in school settings is important to establish an evidence-based strategy for prevention and better prognosis.Methods and Results:The Stop and Prevent cardIac aRrest, Injury, and Trauma in Schools (SPIRITS) is a nationwide prospective observational study linking databases from 2 nationally representative registries, the Injury and the Accident Mutual Aid Benefit System of The Japan Sport Council and the All-Japan Utstein Registry of the Fire and Disaster Management Agency. Using these databases, we described the detailed characteristics and outcomes of pediatric OHCAs that occurred in school settings in Japan between 2009 and 2014. During the 6-year study period, 295 OHCA cases were confirmed. Overall incidence rate was 0.4 per 100,000 students per year. The majority of OHCA cases had a cardiac origin (71%), occurred during exercise (65%), were witnessed by bystanders (70%), and received bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (73%). In approximately one-third of cases the student was defibrillated by public-access automated external defibrillator (38%). The proportion of patients with 1-month survival and a favorable neurological outcome was 34% among all OHCAs and 43% among OHCAs of cardiac origin. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, approximately 50 pediatric cases of OHCA consistently occur yearly in school settings. The majority of students received basic life support from bystanders, and patients with OHCA of cardiac origin had a relatively good prognosis.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Desfibriladores , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
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