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2.
Insects ; 10(5)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058867

RESUMO

Although elevational gradients of biodiversity have long been the topic of scientific research, information on patterns of, and processes that shape insect community structure across elevation is still lacking. Addressing this gap requires the use of both taxonomic and functional approaches when studying diversity across elevational gradients. In this study, we examined taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity of ant assemblages sampled along tropical, subtropical, and subalpine elevational transects in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Species richness was used to quantify taxonomic alpha diversity, and two indices (FD and FRic) were calculated using morphological measurements to quantify functional alpha diversity. Taxonomic and functional beta diversity were partitioned into their turnover- and nestedness-resultant components. Though temperature and functional alpha diversity decreased linearly with increasing elevation, taxonomic alpha diversity showed a significant logarithmic decrease, with few species present at elevations greater than 3000 m a.s.l. The turnover-resultant component of taxonomic beta diversity increased with increasing elevational distance, while the nestedness-resultant component of functional beta diversity increased with increasing elevational distance in the subtropical transect. The observed patterns of taxonomic and functional diversity reflected ants' thermophilic nature, implying functional adaptations (i.e., nested functional diversity) at higher elevations where environmental conditions were unfavorable.

3.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 34(9): 781-788, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130317

RESUMO

Global conservation promotes solutions to different dimensions of threat and response: land-use change, climate change, pollution, and so forth. Countering each threat has its band of proponents who advocate for their cause as paramount, increasingly, given limited resources, by downplaying the relative importance of others. Not only does this encourage a compartmentalised view of the world, which is ecologically unsound, it allows politicians and others to cherry-pick responses in light of political expediency or local demands. We should instead aim to achieve win-win conservation strategies that address multiple threats to diversity acting at different timescales, as well as 'horizon threats', which occur at large scales and may be the most challenging conservation issues to address in both the present and the future.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mudança Climática
4.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 94(4): 1416-1429, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887664

RESUMO

Woody climbers or, 'lianas', are one of the features that characterise rainforests. They contribute substantially to plant diversity and leaf biomass which makes them a potentially important food source for herbivores. Here, we focus on insect herbivores, folivores in particular, to show how disparities in the quantitative and qualitative availability of leaves between lianas and trees may differentially influence insect folivory and the herbivore communities themselves. We develop a conceptual model and show that lianas in general have lower structural and chemical defences, a greater nutritional profile and a preferable phenology in comparison with trees, which, contrary to our expectations, has led to assemblages of more-specialised insects. The impacts this has on higher trophic levels and broader ecological networks, however, are poorly known. We show through a study of four tropical floras from different biogeographic realms that lianas are likely to be a target for a wide range of insect herbivore taxa as they are a phylogenetically diverse group and increase diversity of higher taxa at local scales. This, in combination with their highly palatable leaves, may also make them a suitable temporary food source for insects during times when preferred host plants are scarce. This phenomenon has been observed in mammalian herbivores but awaits investigation in insects as does the effects this may have on survival and fitness. Apparent recent increases in liana abundances in some forests, likely due to climate change, makes understanding their role in supporting and maintaining biodiversity an increasingly important and necessary challenge. Since trees or saplings have usually been the subject of studies on insect herbivory, major knowledge gaps remain about the ways in which lianas contribute to, support and maintain the ecosystems in which they exist. We use our conceptual model to guide future research directions and express the necessity for caution when extrapolating explanations of herbivory derived from data on trees to growth forms with fundamentally different ecologies.

5.
Oecologia ; 188(2): 537-546, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998401

RESUMO

Color lightness of insects is an important ecological trait affecting their performance through multiple functions such as thermoregulation, UV protection and disease resistance. The geographical pattern of color lightness in diurnal insects are relatively well understood and largely driven by thermal melanism through the enhancement of insect activity. In nocturnal insects, however, the ecological function of color lightness in response to climatic factors is poorly understood, particularly at small spatial scales. In this study, we investigated color lightness of nocturnal moth assemblages along environmental gradients. Using geometrid moths collected with comparable methodologies (light trapping), we examined assemblage-level changes in color lightness across elevational gradients and vertical strata (canopy vs understory) across three climatically different locations in Yunnan, China. The results showed that moths are darker in color at higher elevations. Such patterns are most apparent in canopy assemblages. In addition, the strength of the elevational pattern on color lightness varied across location, being most pronounced in the canopy of the subalpine site. These patterns are likely driven by UV protection and/or thermoregulation. Our study highlights the importance of abiotic factors such as temperature and solar radiation in structuring morphological patterns of nocturnal ectothermic assemblages along elevational gradients of climatically harsh environments.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , China , Clima , Cor , Geografia
6.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 32(6): 438-451, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359572

RESUMO

Forest canopies are dynamic interfaces between organisms and atmosphere, providing buffered microclimates and complex microhabitats. Canopies form vertically stratified ecosystems interconnected with other strata. Some forest biodiversity patterns and food webs have been documented and measurements of ecophysiology and biogeochemical cycling have allowed analyses of large-scale transfer of CO2, water, and trace gases between forests and the atmosphere. However, many knowledge gaps remain. With global research networks and databases, and new technologies and infrastructure, we envisage rapid advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests and their canopies. Such understanding is vital for the successful management and conservation of global forests and the ecosystem services they provide to the world.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Atmosfera , Ecossistema , Árvores
7.
Ecol Lett ; 19(9): 1009-22, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27358193

RESUMO

We introduce a novel framework for conceptualising, quantifying and unifying discordant patterns of species richness along geographical gradients. While not itself explicitly mechanistic, this approach offers a path towards understanding mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the diverse patterns of species richness on mountainsides. We conjectured that elevational range midpoints of species may be drawn towards a single midpoint attractor - a unimodal gradient of environmental favourability. The midpoint attractor interacts with geometric constraints imposed by sea level and the mountaintop to produce taxon-specific patterns of species richness. We developed a Bayesian simulation model to estimate the location and strength of the midpoint attractor from species occurrence data sampled along mountainsides. We also constructed midpoint predictor models to test whether environmental variables could directly account for the observed patterns of species range midpoints. We challenged these models with 16 elevational data sets, comprising 4500 species of insects, vertebrates and plants. The midpoint predictor models generally failed to predict the pattern of species midpoints. In contrast, the midpoint attractor model closely reproduced empirical spatial patterns of species richness and range midpoints. Gradients of environmental favourability, subject to geometric constraints, may parsimoniously account for elevational and other patterns of species richness.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Insetos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Vertebrados/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144110, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26633187

RESUMO

Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14 protocols targeting the soil, litter, understory, lower and upper canopy habitats, replicated across seasons in 2003 and 2004. This dataset is used to explore the relative influence of horizontal, vertical and seasonal drivers of arthropod distribution in this forest. We considered arthropod abundance, observed and estimated species richness, additive decomposition of species richness, multiplicative partitioning of species diversity, variation in species composition, species turnover and guild structure as components of diversity. At the scale of our study (2 km of distance, 40 m in height and 400 days), the effects related to the vertical and seasonal dimensions were most important. Most adult arthropods were collected from the soil/litter or the upper canopy and species richness was highest in the canopy. We compared the distribution of arthropods and trees within our study system. Effects related to the seasonal dimension were stronger for arthropods than for trees. We conclude that: (1) models of beta diversity developed for tropical trees are unlikely to be applicable to tropical arthropods; (2) it is imperative that estimates of global biodiversity derived from mass collecting of arthropods in tropical rainforests embrace the strong vertical and seasonal partitioning observed here; and (3) given the high species turnover observed between seasons, global climate change may have severe consequences for rainforest arthropods.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Panamá , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida , Clima Tropical
9.
Data Brief ; 4: 461-7, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306320

RESUMO

This study investigated proteomic changes occurring in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi during adult mosquito aging. These changes were evaluated using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and the identities of aging related proteins were determined using capillary high-pressure liquid chromatography (capHPLC) coupled with a linear ion-trap (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL hybrid mass spectrometry (MS). Here, we have described the techniques used to determine age associated proteomic changes occurring in heads and thoraces across three age groups; 1, 9 and 17 d old A. gambiae and 4 age groups; 1, 9, 17 and 34 d old A. stephensi. We have provided normalised spot volume raw data for all protein spots that were visible on 2D-DIGE images for both species and processed Orbitrap mass spectrometry data. For public access, mass spectrometry raw data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002153. A detailed description of this study has been described elsewhere [1].

10.
J Proteomics ; 126: 234-44, 2015 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26100052

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The age of mosquitoes is a crucial determinant of their ability to transmit pathogens and their resistance to insecticides. We investigated changes to the abundance of proteins found in heads and thoraces of the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi as they aged. Protein expression changes were assessed using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and the identity of differentially expressed proteins was determined by using either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry or capillary high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a linear ion-trap (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL hybrid mass spectrometer. Protein biomarkers were validated by semi quantitative Western blot analysis. Nineteen and nine age dependent protein spots were identified for A. stephensi and A. gambiae, respectively. Among the proteins down-regulated with age were homologs of ADF/Cofilin, cytochome c1, heat shock protein-70 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5a). Proteins up-regulated with age included probable methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel and fructose bisphosphate aldolase. Semi quantitative Western blot analysis confirmed expression patterns observed by 2-D DIGE for eIF5a and ADF/Cofilin. Further work is recommended to determine whether these biomarkers are robust to infection, blood feeding and insecticide resistance. Robust biomarkers could then be incorporated into rapid diagnostic assays for ecological and epidemiological studies. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we have identified several proteins with characteristic changes in abundance in both A. gambiae and A. stephensi during their aging process. These changes may highlight underlying mechanisms beneath the relationship between mosquito age and factors affecting Plasmodium transmission and mosquito control. The similarity of changes in protein abundance between these species and the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, has revealed conserved patterns of aging-specific protein regulation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Anopheles/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/biossíntese , Proteômica , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Plasmodium
11.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6836, 2015 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25865801

RESUMO

Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Dispersão Vegetal/fisiologia , Floresta Úmida , Árvores/fisiologia , Anfíbios/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Aves/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Malásia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical
12.
J Anim Ecol ; 84(2): 353-63, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25244661

RESUMO

Gradients in elevation are increasingly used to investigate how species respond to changes in local climatic conditions. Whilst many studies have shown elevational patterns in species richness and turnover, little is known about how food web structure is affected by elevation. Contrasting responses of predator and prey species to elevation may lead to changes in food web structure. We investigated how the quantitative structure of a herbivore-parasitoid food web changes with elevation in an Australian subtropical rain forest. On four occasions, spread over 1 year, we hand-collected leaf miners at twelve sites, along three elevational gradients (between 493 m and 1159 m a.s.l). A total of 5030 insects, including 603 parasitoids, were reared, and summary food webs were created for each site. We also carried out a replicated manipulative experiment by translocating an abundant leaf-mining weevil Platynotocis sp., which largely escaped parasitism at high elevations (≥ 900 m a.s.l.), to lower, warmer elevations, to test if it would experience higher parasitism pressure. We found strong evidence that the environmental change that occurs with increasing elevation affects food web structure. Quantitative measures of generality, vulnerability and interaction evenness decreased significantly with increasing elevation (and decreasing temperature), whilst elevation did not have a significant effect on connectance. Mined plant composition also had a significant effect on generality and vulnerability, but not on interaction evenness. Several relatively abundant species of leaf miner appeared to escape parasitism at higher elevations, but contrary to our prediction, Platynotocis sp. did not experience greater levels of parasitism when translocated to lower elevations. Our study indicates that leaf-mining herbivores and their parasitoids respond differently to environmental conditions imposed by elevation, thus producing structural changes in their food webs. Increasing temperatures and changes in vegetation communities that are likely to result from climate change may have a restructuring effect on host-parasitoid food webs. Our translocation experiment, however, indicated that leaf miners currently escaping parasitism at high elevations may not automatically experience higher parasitism under warmer conditions and future changes in food web structure may depend on the ability of parasitoids to adapt to novel hosts.


Assuntos
Altitude , Cadeia Alimentar , Insetos/fisiologia , Insetos/parasitologia , Plantas/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Floresta Úmida , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e108450, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25251538

RESUMO

We have investigated the processes of community assembly using size classes of trees. Specifically our work examined (1) whether point process models incorporating an effect of size-class produce more realistic summary outcomes than do models without this effect; (2) which of three selected models incorporating, respectively environmental effects, dispersal and the joint-effect of both of these, is most useful in explaining species-area relationships (SARs) and point dispersion patterns. For this evaluation we used tree species data from the 50-ha forest dynamics plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama and the comparable 20 ha plot at Bubeng, Southwest China. Our results demonstrated that incorporating an size-class effect dramatically improved the SAR estimation at both the plots when the dispersal only model was used. The joint effect model produced similar improvement but only for the 50-ha plot in Panama. The point patterns results were not improved by incorporation of size-class effects using any of the three models. Our results indicate that dispersal is likely to be a key process determining both SARs and point patterns. The environment-only model and joint-effects model were effective at the species level and the community level, respectively. We conclude that it is critical to use multiple summary characteristics when modelling spatial patterns at the species and community levels if a comprehensive understanding of the ecological processes that shape species' distributions is sought; without this results may have inherent biases. By influencing dispersal, the effect of size-class contributes to species assembly and enhances our understanding of species coexistence.


Assuntos
Árvores/química , Clima Tropical , China , Modelos Teóricos , Panamá
14.
Science ; 338(6113): 1481-4, 2012 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23239740

RESUMO

Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Artrópodes/classificação , Biodiversidade , Animais , Herbivoria , Chuva , Árvores , Clima Tropical
15.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 27(12): 689-97, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22959162

RESUMO

The global biodiversity crisis concerns not only unprecedented loss of species within communities, but also related consequences for ecosystem function. Community ecology focuses on patterns of species richness and community composition, whereas ecosystem ecology focuses on fluxes of energy and materials. Food webs provide a quantitative framework to combine these approaches and unify the study of biodiversity and ecosystem function. We summarise the progression of food-web ecology and the challenges in using the food-web approach. We identify five areas of research where these advances can continue, and be applied to global challenges. Finally, we describe what data are needed in the next generation of food-web studies to reconcile the structure and function of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Plantas
16.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 39(1): 25-40, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16680564

RESUMO

Predatory mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on tree trunks without significant epiphytic growth in a subtropical rainforest in Eastern Australia were assessed for habitat specificity (i.e. whether they are tree trunk specialists or occupying other habitats) and the influence of host tree and bark structure on their abundance, species richness and species composition. The trunks of nine tree species from eight plant families representing smooth, intermediate and rough bark textures were sampled using a knockdown insecticide spray. In total, 12 species or morphospecies of Mesostigmata (excluding Uropodina sensu stricto) were collected, most of which are undescribed. Comparison with collections from other habitats indicates that epicorticolous Mesostigmata are mainly represented by suspended soil dwellers (six species), secondarily by generalists (four species) and a bark specialist (one species). A typical ground-dwelling species was also found but was represented only by a single individual. In terms of abundance, 50.5% of individuals were suspended soil dwellers, 40.7% bark specialists, and 8.3% generalists. Host species and bark roughness had no significant effect on abundance or species richness. Furthermore, there was no clear effect on species composition. The distribution of the most frequently encountered species suggests that most mesostigmatid mites living on bark use many or most rainforest tree species, independent of bark roughness. These findings support the hypothesis that some epicorticolous Mesostigmata use tree trunks as 'highways' for dispersing between habitat patches, while others use it as a permanent habitat.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ácaros/classificação , Ácaros/fisiologia , Árvores , Animais , Biodiversidade , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Casca de Planta , Densidade Demográfica , Árvores/classificação , Árvores/parasitologia
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