*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2216241120, 2023 Jan 17.*

##### RESUMO

Perturbative considerations account for the properties of conventional metals, including the range of temperatures where the transport scattering rate is 1/τtrâ=â2πλT, where λ is a dimensionless strength of the electron-phonon coupling. The fact that measured values satisfy λââ²â1 has been noted in the context of a possible "Planckian" bound on transport. However, since the electron-phonon scattering is quasielastic in this regime, no such Planckian considerations can be relevant. We present and analyze Monte Carlo results on the Holstein model which show that a different sort of bound is at play: a "stability" bound on λ consistent with metallic transport. We conjecture that a qualitatively similar bound on the strength of residual interactions, which is often stronger than Planckian, may apply to metals more generally.

##### Assuntos

Elétrons , Metais , Movimento Celular , Método de Monte Carlo , Fônons*Phys Rev Lett ; 129(22): 227202, 2022 Nov 23.*

##### RESUMO

The two-dimensional Wigner crystal (WC) occurs in the strongly interacting regime (r_{s}â«1) of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The magnetism of a pure WC is determined by tunneling processes that induce multispin ring-exchange interactions, resulting in fully polarized ferromagnetism for large enough r_{s}. Recently, Hossain et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 32244 (2020)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.2018248117] reported the occurrence of a fully polarized ferromagnetic insulator at r_{s}â³35 in an AlAs quantum well, but at temperatures orders of magnitude larger than the predicted exchange energies for the pure WC. Here, we analyze the large r_{s} dynamics of an interstitial defect in the WC, and show that it produces local ferromagnetism with much higher energy scales. Three hopping processes are dominant, which favor a large, fully polarized ferromagnetic polaron. Based on the above results, we speculate concerning the phenomenology of the magnetism near the metal-insulator transition of the 2DEG.

##### Assuntos

Elétrons , Temperatura*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2119429119, 2022 04 12.*

##### RESUMO

Charge density waves (CDWs) have been observed in nearly all families of copper-oxide superconductors. But the behavior of these phases across different families has been perplexing. In La-based cuprates, the CDW wavevector is an increasing function of doping, exhibiting the so-called Yamada behavior, while in Y- and Bi-based materials the behavior is the opposite. Here, we report a combined resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS) and neutron scattering study of charge and spin density waves in isotopically enriched La1.8−xEu0.2SrxCuO4 over a range of doping 0.07≤x≤0.20. We find that the CDW amplitude is temperature independent and develops well above experimentally accessible temperatures. Further, the CDW wavevector shows a nonmonotonic temperature dependence, exhibiting Yamada behavior at low temperature with a sudden change occurring near the spin ordering temperature. We describe these observations using a LandauGinzburg theory for an incommensurate CDW in a metallic system with a finite charge compressibility and spin-CDW coupling. Extrapolating to high temperature, where the CDW amplitude is small and spin order is absent, our analysis predicts a decreasing wavevector with doping, similar to Y and Bi cuprates. Our study suggests that CDW order in all families of cuprates forms by a common mechanism.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(1)2022 Jan 04.*

##### RESUMO

Unidirectional ("stripe") charge density wave order has now been established as a ubiquitous feature in the phase diagram of the cuprate high-temperature superconductors, where it generally competes with superconductivity. Nonetheless, on theoretical grounds it has been conjectured that stripe order (or other forms of "optimal" inhomogeneity) may play an essential positive role in the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we report density matrix renormalization group studies of the Hubbard model on long four- and six-leg cylinders, where the hopping matrix elements transverse to the long direction are periodically modulated-mimicking the effect of putative period 2 stripe order. We find that even modest amplitude modulations can enhance the long-distance superconducting correlations by many orders of magnitude and drive the system into a phase with a substantial spin gap and superconducting quasi-long-range order with a Luttinger exponent, [Formula: see text].

*Science ; 372(6545): 973-977, 2021 05 28.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum criticality may be essential to understanding a wide range of exotic electronic behavior; however, conclusive evidence of quantum critical fluctuations has been elusive in many materials of current interest. An expected characteristic feature of quantum criticality is power-law behavior of thermodynamic quantities as a function of a nonthermal tuning parameter close to the quantum critical point (QCP). Here, we observed power-law behavior of the critical temperature of the coupled nematic/structural phase transition as a function of uniaxial stress in a representative family of iron-based superconductors, providing direct evidence of quantum critical nematic fluctuations in this material. These quantum critical fluctuations are not confined within a narrow regime around the QCP but rather extend over a wide range of temperatures and compositions.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.*

##### RESUMO

The elastocaloric effect (ECE) relates changes in entropy to changes in strain experienced by a material. As such, ECE measurements can provide valuable information about the entropy landscape proximate to strain-tuned phase transitions. For ordered states that break only point symmetries, bilinear coupling of the order parameter with strain implies that the ECE can also provide a window on fluctuations above the critical temperature and hence, in principle, can also provide a thermodynamic measure of the associated susceptibility. To demonstrate this, we use the ECE to sensitively reveal the presence of nematic fluctuations in the archetypal Fe-based superconductor Ba([Formula: see text])2[Formula: see text] By performing these measurements simultaneously with elastoresistivity in a multimodal fashion, we are able to make a direct and unambiguous comparison of these closely related thermodynamic and transport properties, both of which are sensitive to nematic fluctuations. As a result, we have uncovered an unanticipated doping dependence of the nemato-elastic coupling and of the magnitude of the scattering of low-energy quasi-particles by nematic fluctuations-while the former weakens, the latter increases dramatically with increasing doping.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(9): 097002, 2021 Aug 27.*

##### RESUMO

We have performed density-matrix renormalization group studies of a square lattice t-J model with small hole doping, Î´âª1, on long four and six-leg cylinders. We include frustration in the form of a second-neighbor exchange coupling, J_{2}=J_{1}/2, such that the undoped (Î´=0) "parent" state is a quantum spin liquid. In contrast to the relatively short range superconducting (SC) correlations that have been observed in recent studies of the six-leg cylinder in the absence of frustration, we find power-law SC correlations with a Luttinger exponent, K_{SC}≈1, consistent with a strongly diverging SC susceptibility, χâ¼T^{-(2-K_{SC})} as the temperature Tâ0. The spin-spin correlations-as in the undoped state-fall exponentially suggesting that the SC "pairing" correlations evolve smoothly from the insulating parent state.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(16): 167001, 2020 Oct 16.*

##### RESUMO

We analyze the quantum phase diagram of the Holstein-Hubbard model using an asymptotically exact strong coupling expansion. We find all sorts of interesting phases including a pair-density wave, a charge 4e (and even a charge 6e) superconductor, regimes of phase separation, and a variety of distinct charge-density-wave, spin-density-wave, and superconducting regimes. We chart the crossovers that occur as a function of the degree of retardation, i.e., the ratio of characteristic phonon frequency to the strength of interactions.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(16): 167601, 2020 Apr 24.*

##### RESUMO

In the context of recent experimental observations of an unexpectedly large thermal Hall conductivity, κ_{H}, in insulating La_{2}CuO_{4} (LCO) and SrTiO_{3} (STO), we theoretically explore conditions under which acoustic phonons can give rise to such a large κ_{H}. Both the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to κ_{H} are large in proportion to the dielectric constant, Îµ, and the "flexoelectric" coupling, F. While the intrinsic contribution is still orders of magnitude smaller than the observed effect, an extrinsic contribution proportional to the phonon mean-free path appears likely to account for the observations, at least in STO. We predict a larger intrinsic κ_{H} in certain insulating perovskites.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(51): 13430-13434, 2017 12 19.*

##### RESUMO

The paradigmatic example of a continuous quantum phase transition is the transverse field Ising ferromagnet. In contrast to classical critical systems, whose properties depend only on symmetry and the dimension of space, the nature of a quantum phase transition also depends on the dynamics. In the transverse field Ising model, the order parameter is not conserved, and increasing the transverse field enhances quantum fluctuations until they become strong enough to restore the symmetry of the ground state. Ising pseudospins can represent the order parameter of any system with a twofold degenerate broken-symmetry phase, including electronic nematic order associated with spontaneous point-group symmetry breaking. Here, we show for the representative example of orbital-nematic ordering of a non-Kramers doublet that an orthogonal strain or a perpendicular magnetic field plays the role of the transverse field, thereby providing a practical route for tuning appropriate materials to a quantum critical point. While the transverse fields are conjugate to seemingly unrelated order parameters, their nontrivial commutation relations with the nematic order parameter, which can be represented by a Berry-phase term in an effective field theory, intrinsically intertwine the different order parameters.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(19): 4905-4910, 2017 05 09.*

##### RESUMO

Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin [Formula: see text] itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting [Formula: see text] enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above [Formula: see text], we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior, including a "nodal-antinodal dichotomy" reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides. In addition, the critical fluctuations have a strong effect on the low-frequency optical conductivity, resulting in behavior consistent with "bad metal" phenomenology.

*Science ; 352(6288): 958-62, 2016 May 20.*

##### RESUMO

A key actor in the conventional theory of superconductivity is the induced interaction between electrons mediated by the exchange of virtual collective fluctuations (phonons in the case of conventional s-wave superconductors). Other collective modes that can play the same role, especially spin fluctuations, have been widely discussed in the context of high-temperature and heavy Fermion superconductors. The strength of such collective fluctuations is measured by the associated susceptibility. Here we use differential elastoresistance measurements from five optimally doped iron-based superconductors to show that divergent nematic susceptibility appears to be a generic feature in the optimal doping regime of these materials. This observation motivates consideration of the effects of nematic fluctuations on the superconducting pairing interaction in this family of compounds and possibly beyond.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 116(9): 093903, 2016 Mar 04.*

##### RESUMO

We show that, measured in a backscattering geometry, the polar Kerr effect is absent if the nonlocal electromagnetic response function respects Onsager symmetry, characteristic of thermodynamic states that preserve time-reversal symmetry. A key element is an expression for the reflectivity tensor in terms of the retarded Green's function.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 108(24): 247206, 2012 Jun 15.*

##### RESUMO

We study a generalized quantum hard-core dimer model on the square and honeycomb lattices, allowing for first and second neighbor dimers. At generalized Rokhsar-Kivelson points, the exact ground states can be constructed, and ground-state correlation functions can be equated to those of interacting (1+1)-dimensional Grassmann fields. When the concentration of second neighbor dimers is small, the ground-state correlations are shown to be short ranged corresponding to a (gaped) spin liquid phase. On a 2-torus, the ground states exhibit fourfold topological degeneracy. On a finite cylinder we have found a dramatic even-odd effect depending on the circumference and propose that this can be used as a numerical diagnostic of gapped spin-liquid phases, more generally.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 108(12): 126406, 2012 Mar 23.*

##### RESUMO

We apply the density matrix renormalization group to study the phase diagram of the infinite U Hubbard model on 2- to 6-leg ladders. Where the results are largely insensitive to the ladder width, we consider the results representative of the 2D square lattice. We find a fully polarized ferromagnetic Fermi liquid phase when n, the density of electrons per site, is in the range 1>nâ³0.800. For n=3/4 we find an unexpected insulating checkerboard phase with coexisting bond-density order with 4 sites per unit cell and block-spin antiferromagnetic order with 8 sites per unit cell. For 3/4>n, all ladders with width >2 have unpolarized ground states.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 106(25): 256804, 2011 Jun 24.*

##### RESUMO

We develop a hydrodynamic description of the resistivity and magnetoresistance of an electron liquid in a smooth disorder potential. This approach is valid when the electron-electron scattering length is sufficiently short. In a broad range of temperatures, the dissipation is dominated by heat fluxes in the electron fluid, and the resistivity is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity, κ. This is in striking contrast to the Stokes flow, in which the resistance is independent of κ and proportional to the fluid viscosity. We also identify a new hydrodynamic mechanism of spin magnetoresistance.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 105(14): 146403, 2010 Oct 01.*

##### RESUMO

We show, using density-matrix renormalization-group calculations complemented by field-theoretic arguments, that the spin-gapped phase of the one dimensional Kondo-Heisenberg model exhibits quasi-long-range superconducting correlations only at a nonzero momentum. The local correlations in this phase resemble those of the pair-density-wave state which was recently proposed to describe the phenomenology of the striped ordered high-temperature superconductor La(2-x)Ba(x)CuO4, in which the spin, charge, and superconducting orders are strongly intertwined.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 105(16): 166402, 2010 Oct 15.*

##### RESUMO

We prove that there exists a class of crystalline insulators, which we call "fragile Mott insulators," which are not adiabatically connected to any sort of band insulator provided time-reversal and certain point-group symmetries are respected, but which are otherwise unspectacular in that they exhibit no topological order nor any form of fractionalized quasiparticles. Different fragile Mott insulators are characterized by different nontrivial one-dimensional representations of the crystal point group. We illustrate this new type of insulators with two examples: the d Mott insulator discovered in the checkerboard Hubbard model at half-filling and the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki insulator on the square lattice.