Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 50
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Psychother Res ; : 1-18, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382841

RESUMO

Objective: This study used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) model in a multilevel framework to investigate how the dyadic dynamics between therapist and client in perceiving working alliance (WA) was associated with the clients' session evaluation. Method: Participants were 33 therapists and their 180 clients. Therapists' and clients' WA ratings after each session were entered into the ODE model to estimate four coefficients capturing their consistency of perceptions of WA, and the levels to which one's perception influenced and was influenced by the other's perception. These dynamic coefficients were disaggregated into between-therapist and within-therapist components and entered into the Hierarchical Linear Model to predict client's session evaluation. Results: First, when therapists were generally more stable/consistent in perceiving their WA with all clients, they tended to have higher client evaluations of session quality. Second, when therapists were generally not influential on clients or not receptive to clients' influence, therapists' higher influence or openness to being influenced with a particular client was related to better session outcome. Third, when a therapist was generally highly influential, the more that therapist was influential to a particular client, that client reported worse session outcome. Conclusion: Implications about therapy dynamics and the use of ODE models were discussed.

2.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448935

RESUMO

We examined the effects of deliberate practice training focused on immediacy (Im) for 7 doctoral student trainees. Training included an 8-hr workshop, 4 individual 50-min sessions, and 4 individual 30-min homework sessions. Qualitative results indicated that trainees found the deliberate practice training to be effective, especially in helping them become aware of and manage emotions and countertransference, which had inhibited them from using Im. In addition, there was a moderate and significant effect of training on the trainee's self-efficacy for using Im, a small and significant effect on therapist-rated working alliance, and no significant effect for client-rated working alliance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(5): 640-649, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157528

RESUMO

Although recent research has provided empirical support for the codevelopment of group interaction (defined as development in a common direction of perceptions of group relationships), no studies have yet investigated the "causes" of codevelopment among group members in the long term. The aim of the current study is to examine how the perceptions of an individual group member, and other group members, regarding group relationships influence each other over the course of treatment. We analyzed group data from 168 adult obese patients who participated in (1 of 20) 12-session therapy groups for weight management. Group relationships were measured by the Group Questionnaire (Krogel et al., 2013), which was administered to group members in early, middle and late group sessions. The longitudinal version of the group actor-partner interdependence model was used to analyze the influence among members. Results showed that there is no mutual influence in the codevelopment of both positive bonding and negative relationship. However, positive bonding of other group members in the middle of the group influenced positive bonding of the individual group member in the late group session. Moreover, individual group member negative relationships in early and middle sessions influenced other group member negative relationships in middle and late sessions. Finally, there was evidence of mutual influence in the codevelopment of positive working early in the group. The findings show that the process of influence among members is complex with regard to the specific dimension of the group relationship assessed and the time spent in group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
J Reprod Infant Psychol ; : 1-13, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study aims to evaluate the effect of psychological counselling on quality of life, marital satisfaction and need for parenthood in couples undergoing fertility treatments (ART). BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines on the ART suggest that psychological counselling should target both members of the infertile couple in order to improve their conjoint management of the infertility-related stress. However, studies on the dyadic outcome of couples are scarce. METHODS: 262 patients were originally considered in the study and completed questionnaires on quality of life, need for parenthood and marital satisfaction, before treatment (T1) and at the day of intrauterine insemination/embryo transfer (T2). For the purposes of this study, 34 counselled couples were then matched to 34 non-counselled couples by propensity scores. The Common Fate Model (CFM) was used to examine dyadic changes. RESULTS: Couples receiving counselling had higher dyadic quality of life and lower dyadic stress due to the need for parenthood at T2 compared to non-counselled couples. No differences were found on marital satisfaction. CONCLUSION: The findings provide support for the effectiveness of counselling on interpersonal outcome. The CFM allows researchers to examine how the dyad as a whole responds to counselling, highlighting the change in the couple's relational dynamics.

5.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475055

RESUMO

We investigated the antecedents, occurrences, and consequences of 183 silence events in the first 5 and last 5 sessions of a 73-session case of successful psychodynamic psychotherapy. Silences generally occurred within client speaking turns, such that the client often paused to reflect while speaking. In the last 5 sessions, as compared with the first 5 sessions, the client was more collaborative before and after silences, silences were shorter, the therapist was more connectional during silences (e.g., shared emotion and meaning with client), and the client was more emotional after silences. Antecedent client collaboration, duration of the silence, therapist behavior during silence events, client behavior during silence events, and who broke the silence all related to change in collaboration from before to after the silence events. We concluded that silence was helpful in this case because of client factors (the client naturally paused a lot during discussion, the client was quite reflective and insightful), therapist factors (the therapist was comfortable with and believed in silence), and relationship factors (there was a strong therapeutic relationship). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
J Couns Psychol ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299124

RESUMO

We investigated how concealment and disclosure of secrets, two related but distinct processes, unfolded over the course of open-ended therapy for 39 clients and 9 therapists, using hierarchical linear modeling to identify longitudinal patterns and investigate relationships with working alliance and session quality. Results indicated that over the course of therapy, 85% of clients disclosed at least one secret and 41% concealed at least one secret, with 18% of sessions including a disclosure and 4% of sessions including concealment. Over time, clients were less likely to disclose secrets, and the secrets they chose to conceal were rated as less significant. Clients rated the working alliance lower after sessions when they disclosed secrets versus when they did not disclose, although the working alliance was not rated as poorly when the disclosed secrets were viewed as significant. Clients rated session quality higher after sessions when they disclosed secrets versus when they did not disclose, particularly when they disclosed preoccupying secrets. Clients tended to feel neutral or positive about their disclosures. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 55(4): 434-444, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335456

RESUMO

Although writing about the real relationship has existed from the beginnings of the "talking cure," it is only in recent years that empirical research has focused on this phenomenon. The real relationship is the personal relationship between patient and therapist marked by the extent to which each is genuine with the other and perceives/experiences the other in ways that are realistic. The strength of the real relationship is determined by both the extent to which it exists and the degree to which it is positive or favorable. In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on the association between the strength of the real relationship and the outcome of psychotherapy. Summed across 16 studies, this meta-analysis revealed a moderate association with outcome (r = .38, 95% confidence interval [.30, .44], p < .001, d = 0.80, N = 1.502). This real relationship-outcome association was independent of the type of outcome studied (treatment outcome, treatment progress, and session outcome) and of the source of the measure (whether the client or the therapist rated the real relationship and/or treatment outcome). We also present commonly used measures of the real relationship, limitations of the research, and patient contributions. The article concludes with diversity considerations and practice recommendations for developing and strengthening the real relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

8.
J Couns Psychol ; 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091622

RESUMO

Recent research on attachment in therapy indicates that therapist attachment style is related to therapists' agreement with their clients on the quality of their working alliance (WA; Kivlighan & Marmarosh, 2016). This study builds on these findings by examining how both the therapist's and the client's attachment style may be related to their agreement on the WA. The authors expected that less anxious and less avoidant clients working with less anxious and less avoidant therapists would have higher WA agreement. Using hierarchical linear modeling, they analyzed archival session data from 158 clients and 27 therapists at a community clinic. In terms of overall level agreement (averaged across sessions), therapists and clients significantly disagreed on their WA ratings, with therapists rating the WA lower than did their clients; but there was more therapist-client level-agreement when therapists had relatively less attachment avoidance. In terms of (linear) WA agreement from session to session, the authors found no main effects for either therapist or client attachment style alone, but several significant interactions between therapist and client attachment styles. Session-to-session agreement on the WA was higher when clients and therapist had "matching" (both higher or both lower in attachment anxiety or attachment avoidance) or "complementary" (one higher in attachment avoidance, the other lower in attachment anxiety, or one higher in attachment anxiety, the other lower in attachment avoidance) attachment styles than when styles were noncomplementary. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the attachment-related communication, signaling, and behavior that may be occurring in therapy dyads. (PsycINFO Database Record

9.
J Couns Psychol ; 65(5): 661-668, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035590

RESUMO

To promote psychological help-seeking, researchers have studied interventions to reduce self-stigma, a personally held belief that seeking psychological help would make one undesirable and socially unacceptable. We examined the differential impact of individual- and group-level changes in self-stigma on psychological help-seeking attitudes using data from 189 college students nested within 20 sections of a semester-long helping skills lab groups. We applied multi-level polynomial regression and response surface analysis to determine whether discrepancy between pre- and posttest self-stigma scores (i.e., reduction in self-stigma) predicted change in attitudes at the individual- and section-levels. Individual reduction in self-stigma did not predict psychological help-seeking attitudes but students who maintained consistently low to moderate levels of self-stigma throughout the course developed significantly more positive attitude toward psychological help-seeking. On the other hand, we found that greater section level reductions in self-stigma significantly predicted more positive psychological help-seeking attitudes, suggesting potential importance of group norm changes and effects in modifications of individual attitudes. Implications for research and stigma reduction strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

10.
J Couns Psychol ; 65(4): 463-473, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999371

RESUMO

We studied 814 client laughter events nested within 330 sessions nested within 33 clients nested within 16 therapists at one community clinic in which doctoral student therapists provided psychodynamic psychotherapy to adult community clients. Each laughter event in Sessions 1 to 5 and 16 to 20 was rated for cheerfulness, politeness, reflectiveness, contemptuousness, and nervousness. Across all clients, there was an average of about one laughter even per session. The average laughter event lasted 3.5 seconds, and was characterized primarily by politeness and reflectiveness. Overall amount of client laughter and the characteristics of client laughter did not change across sessions. Most of the variance in the laughter characteristics was at the session level, with less variance attributable to clients and therapists. When client attachment avoidance was high, laughter was less cheerful and more contemptuous. When client attachment anxiety was high, laughter was more nervous. Sessions with more reflective laughter were evaluated more positively by clients, and therapists whose clients had more reflective laughter had more positive client session evaluations. Furthermore, within a therapist's caseload, clients with the most nervous and contemptuous laughter evaluated sessions most positively. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

11.
Acad Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry residents train in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), evidence-supported treatments used in mental health care that can facilitate clinical reasoning, foster therapeutic alliances, and improve clinical outcomes. However, empirically derived milestones are needed to evaluate competency. This exploratory pilot examined changes over 1 year of training in junior psychiatry residents' competency milestone elements in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and CBT. METHODS: Seventy-nine randomly selected audio-recorded sessions from differing phases of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and CBT with five junior residents and ten patients were rated using the Psychotherapy Process Q-sort (PQS). RESULTS: In both treatments, patient engagement with attention to in-session emotions improved. In CBT, residents were directive, supported patients' self-efficacy, emphasized patients' accepting responsibility for their problems, discussed homework such as thought records, and focused on termination in the concluding sessions. In Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, residents attended to emotional arousal and linked patients' feelings or perceptions to past situations or behavior. Growth and hierarchical linear modeling differentiated these treatments, with CBT v. Psychodynamic adherence to PQS modality-specific ideal elements being 52% v.19%. CONCLUSION: Teaching and observation using empirically derived observable psychotherapy practice behaviors is feasible and can be used to assess milestone elements for competency-based education of psychiatry trainees.

12.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 55(2): 164-169, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863396

RESUMO

Experienced leaders of psychotherapy groups are surprisingly inaccurate in their judgments about their members' perceptions of positive bonding relationships with the leader and other group members. The practical implication is worrisome: the lower the leader's degree of accuracy, the worse the member therapeutic outcomes tend to be. A promising approach to improving leaders' appraisals of their members' perceptions of positive bonding relationships is to provide them, after each session, feedback about their own and their members' bonding relationship perceptions. Profiling trajectories of leaders' and members' perceptions over time yields rich "stories" of relationship development, that if strategically packaged into brief, concise, and vivid reports, and delivered as a formal "group member feedback" intervention, would direct leaders' attention to those emerging, but easily overlooked, countertherapeutic relationships, requiring immediate, well-informed targeted interventions. To increase the utility of such reports, training leaders use intuitively appealing, but structured heuristics ("interpersonal-fit-with-the-group" and "intrapersonal-split-relationships"), accelerate leaders' recognition of patterns in perceptions as they change over time, and free up their cognitive resources for determining whether to intervene into the group process at the appropriate level: intraindividual, interpersonal, or group-as-a-whole. To illustrate the use of these heuristics, we present two hypothetical cases, with visual displays of congruent and discrepant perceptions of bonding relationship perceptions between members over time, and make tentative recommendations about where and when leaders might intervene to achieve optimal impact. (PsycINFO Database Record

13.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 55(1): 9-19, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565618

RESUMO

Using data from 3,263 sessions nested within 144 clients, nested within 19 therapists, we examined client- and therapist-rated working alliance (WA) and real relationship (RR) at Session 3 and growth in WA and RR across the course of open-ended psychodynamic psychotherapy for clients who identified as racial/ethnic minority (REM) or as White. To be included in the analyses, therapists had to work with at least 2 REM and 2 White clients. There were no significant therapist effects for the interaction between client- or therapist-rated WA and client REM status at Session 3, or for client- or therapist-rated RR and client REM status at Session 3. There were, however, significant therapist effects due to client REM status on the interaction between client-rated linear growth in WA and RR, showing that some therapists had stronger WA and RR growth with REM than that with White clients, whereas other therapists had stronger alliance growth with White than that with REM clients. There were significant therapist effects on therapist-rated linear growth in both WA and RR, which indicated that some therapists reported stronger WA and RR growth with all of their clients, whereas other therapists reported weaker WA and RR growth for all of their clients, although this differential WA and RR growth was not related to clients' REM status. Implications for practice and research are discussed in this paper. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Competência Cultural/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Psychother Res ; : 1-13, 2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303042

RESUMO

To test a sequential model of psychotherapy process and outcome, we included previous client distress, therapist psychodynamic techniques, dyadic working alliance, and current client distress. For 114 sets of eight-session segments in 40 cases of psychodynamic psychotherapy, clients completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45 and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32 after the first and final session, judges reliably coded one middle sessions on the Psychodynamic subscale of the Multitheoretical List of Therapeutic Interventions, and clients and therapists completed the Working Alliance Inventory after every session. Results indicated that higher use of psychodynamic techniques was associated with higher levels of the working alliance, which in turn was associated decreased client distress; and working alliance was higher later in psychotherapy. There was a significant indirect effect of psychodynamic techniques on decreases in distress mediated by the working alliance. Implications for theory, practice, and research are provided. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: Conducted a longitudinal, latent variable examination of the relationships of psychodynamic techniques and working alliance on client distress. Psychodynamic techniques have an indirect effect on decreases in client distress through the dyadic working alliance.

15.
Psychother Res ; 28(4): 571-580, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27325202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine how counselors' attachment anxiety and avoidance related to congruence between counselors' and clients' Working alliance (WA) ratings. Congruence strength was defined as the regression coefficient for clients' WA ratings predicting counselors' WA ratings. Directional bias was defined as the difference in level between counselors' and clients' WA ratings. METHOD: Twenty-seven graduate student counselors completed an attachment measure and they and their 64 clients completed a measure of WA early in therapy. The truth-and-bias analysis was adapted to analyze the data. RESULTS: As hypothesized counselors' WA ratings were significantly and positively related to clients' WA ratings. Also as hypothesized, counselors' WA ratings were significantly lower than their clients' WA ratings (directional bias). Increasing counselor attachment anxiety was related to increasing negative directional bias; as counselors' attachment anxiety increased the difference between counselors and clients WA ratings became more negative. There was a significant interaction between counselor attachment anxiety and congruence strength in predicting counselor WA ratings. There was a stronger relationship between client WA ratings and counselor WA ratings for counselors low versus high in attachment anxiety. CONCLUSION: Counselors' attachment anxiety is realted to their ability to accurately percieve their clients' WA.

16.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 54(3): 273-280, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922006

RESUMO

The development and factor analysis of the Adventure Therapy Experience Scale (ATES) is the first attempt found in the literature to empirically and quantitatively identify therapeutic factors theorized to affect change in the adventure therapy experience (Russell & Gillis, 2017). This study utilizes the ATES to explore how its inherent factors may impact treatment outcome utilizing a routine outcome monitoring process to empirically test how these factors may contribute to treatment outcome over time. The sample of 168 males 21.5 years of age completed an average of 79.6 days in the 90-day adventure-based substance use disorder residential treatment program. In the model, adventure-based experiences are a primary treatment tool. For outcome monitoring, all clients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2) at intake, every 2 weeks, and at discharge. In addition, clients were administered the 18-item ATES every 2 weeks. The ATES contains 2 items measuring how helpful the adventure experience was as well as how mindful they were of their treatment process during the experience. Clients also answer 16 Likert items measuring responses on 4 subscales: group adventure, nature, challenge, and reflection. Results reveal that clients, on average, improved in their psycho-social functioning as measured by the OQ 45.2. Weeks with higher helpfulness, mindfulness, and group adventure scores than the client's average helpfulness, mindfulness, and group adventure score, had greater decreases in OQ scores than weeks with lower helpfulness, mindfulness, and group adventure scores. Clients with higher aggregate helpfulness and group adventure scores, across all treatment weeks, had greater decreases in OQ scores than clients with lower aggregate helpfulness and group adventure scores. Implications for practice and future research are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Psicoterapia/métodos , Tratamento Domiciliar/métodos , Ajustamento Social , Esportes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Alberta , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Meio Selvagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Couns Psychol ; 64(4): 394-409, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383942

RESUMO

We examined how congruence and discrepancy in clients' and therapists' ratings of the working alliance (WA) and real relationship (RR) were related to client-rated session quality (SES; Session Evaluation Scale). Ratings for 2517 sessions of 144 clients and 23 therapists were partitioned into therapist-level, client-level, and session-level components and then analyzed using multilevel, polynomial regression and response surface analysis. For both clients and therapists, at all levels of analysis (except the therapist level for therapist ratings), SES was highest when combined WA and RR ratings were high, and lowest when combined ratings were low. For client ratings, discrepancy between WA and RR, at the client and session levels, was associated with greater session quality. Some clients perceived greater session quality when, across all sessions, WA was stronger than RR and other clients perceived greater session quality when RR was stronger than WA. Within clients, session quality was highest when some sessions had a stronger WA than RR whereas other sessions had a stronger RR than WA. These findings are compatible with a responsiveness framework, therapists varied the balance of WA and RR to suit situational demands or needs of different clients. When therapists rated WA and RR the opposite pattern of results emerged; clients perceived greater session quality when therapists' WA and RR ratings, for a session were high and consistent (i.e., no discrepancy between WA and RR). In addition, across all sessions, clients perceived greater session quality when WA and RR ratings were high and consistent. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychother Res ; 27(6): 737-748, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal analysis examined the relationship between amount of therapist immediacy in sessions and client post-session ratings of working alliance (WAI), real relationship (RRI), and session quality (SES). METHOD: Using hierarchal linear modeling (HLM), we disaggregated the variables into within-client (differences between sessions in immediacy) and between-clients (differences between clients in immediacy) components, in order to test associations over time in treatment. Three hundred and sixty four sessions were nested within 16 clients and 9 therapists. RESULTS: When therapists used more immediacy in a session, clients gave higher SES ratings for that session, compared to their sessions with less immediacy (within-client effect). For WAI, it appeared to matter when immediacy was used in treatment. The interaction effect between time in treatment and within-client immediacy revealed that early in treatment, more immediacy in a session was related to lower WAI for that session, whereas later in treatment, more immediacy in a session was related to higher WAI for that session. Another interaction effect was found between time in treatment and between-clients immediacy. Clients with less immediacy in treatment, gave higher SES scores for early sessions, than clients with more immediacy in treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Immediacy has an overall positive effect on session quality, but the time in which it is used in treatment and client characteristics should be taken into account both in practice and research.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Couns Psychol ; 63(6): 693-703, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27442907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using propositions from Kiesler (1988)'s model of therapeutic metacommunication, this study investigated the relationship between therapist metacommunication and subsequent client collaboration and how this relationship was moderated by timing, therapist control, and affiliation. Building on Curran and Bauer (2011)'s data disaggregation approach, we examined the interaction of timing, between-session therapist control and affiliation, and within-session (between speaking-turn) therapist metacommunication. METHOD: The first 4 sessions from counseling dyads for 2 advanced students in an APA-accredited counseling psychology doctoral program and 1 licensed psychologist were recorded, transcribed, and coded for analysis. Client statements were coded for collaboration and therapist statements were coded for metacommunication, approach-avoidance (level of affiliation), and dominance-submission (level of control). RESULTS: (a) There was a significant 3-way interaction of metacommunication, time, and between-session dominance-submission, such that metacommunication significantly predicted subsequent client collaboration in later speaking turns within a session, and when the therapist generally showed low dominance in that session. (b) There was a significant 3-way interaction of metacommunication, time, and between-session approach-avoidance. Specifically, early in sessions therapist approach buffered the negative effect of metacommunication on collaboration, and later in sessions therapist neutrality (less approaching) facilitated a positive effect of metacommunication on client collaboration. (c) There was a significant 2-way interaction of between-speaking-turn metacommunication and within-session time in predicting subsequent client collaboration, such that early in sessions metacommunication did not predict collaboration, whereas later in sessions more metacommunication was associated with higher collaboration. These results were discussed in relation to the therapeutic metacommunication model proposed by Kiesler (1988). (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Aconselhamento/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Couns Psychol ; 63(4): 419-28, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27379603

RESUMO

Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Conflito (Psicologia) , Processos Grupais , Relações Interpessoais , Apego ao Objeto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA