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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 394, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622281

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is a serious potentially fatal hepatocellular disease caused by the hepatitis B virus. In the fishing communities of Lake Victoria Uganda, the hepatitis B virus infection burden is largely unknown. This study assessed the prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B in these communities. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that tested serum samples collected from 13 to 49-year-old study participants that were residing in two Ugandan Lake Victoria fishing communities of Kasenyi (a mainland) and Jaana (an island). The samples were collected between 2013 and 2015 during the conduct of an HIV epidemiological cohort study in these communities. A total of 467 twelve-month follow-up and 50 baseline visit samples of participants lost to follow-up were tested for hepatitis B serological markers to determine prevalence. To determine hepatitis B virus incidence, samples that were hepatitis B positive at the follow-up visit had their baseline samples tested to identify hepatitis B negative samples whose corresponding follow-up samples were thus incident cases. RESULTS: The baseline mean age of the 517 study participants was 31.1 (SD ± 8.4) years, 278 (53.8%) of whom were females. A total of 36 (7%) study participants had hepatitis B virus infection, 22 (61.1%) of whom were male. Jaana had a higher hepatitis B virus prevalence compared to Kasenyi (10.2% vs 4.0%). In total, 210 (40.6%) study participants had evidence of prior hepatitis B virus infection while 48.6% had never been infected or vaccinated against this disease. A total of 20 (3.9%) participants had results suggestive of prior hepatitis B vaccination. Hepatitis B incidence was 10.5 cases/100PY (95% CI: 7.09-15.53). Being above 25 years of age and staying in Jaana were significant risk factors for hepatitis B virus acquisition (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2; p < 0.01 and 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8; p < 0.01 respectively). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B virus incidence in Lake Victoria fishing communities of Uganda is very high, particularly in the islands. Interventions to lower hepatitis B virus transmission in these communities are urgently needed.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481816

RESUMO

One principle of tuberculosis control is to prevent the development of tuberculosis disease by treating individuals with latent tuberculosis infection. The diagnosis of latent infection using the tuberculin skin test is not straightforward because of concerns about immunologic cross reactivity with the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and environmental mycobacteria. To parse the effects of BCG vaccine and environmental mycobacteria on the tuberculin skin test, we estimated the frequency distribution of skin test results in two divisions of Kampala, Uganda, ten years apart. We then used mixture models to estimate parameters for underlying distributions and defined clinically meaningful criteria for latent infection, including an indeterminate category. Using percentiles of two underlying normal distributions, we defined two skin test readings to demarcate three ranges. Values of 10 mm or greater contained 90% of individuals with latent infection; values less than 7.2 mm contained 80% of individuals without infection. Contacts with values between 7.2 and 10 mm fell into an indeterminate zone where it was not possible to assign infection. We conclude that systematic tuberculin skin test surveys within populations at risk, combined with mixture model analysis, may be a reproducible, evidence-based approach to define meaningful criteria for latent tuberculosis infection.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e039895, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-cost digital adherence technologies (DATs) such as 99DOTS have emerged as an alternative to directly observed therapy (DOT), the current standard for tuberculosis (TB) treatment supervision. However, there are limited data to support DAT scale-up. The 'DOT to DAT' trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and implementation of a 99DOTS-based TB treatment supervision strategy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, with hybrid type 2 effectiveness-implementation design. The trial will include all adults (estimated N=1890) treated for drug-susceptible pulmonary TB over an 8-month period at 18 TB treatment units in Uganda. Three sites per month will switch from routine care (DOT) to the intervention (99DOTS-based treatment supervision) beginning in month 2, with the order determined randomly. 99DOTS enables patients to be monitored while self-administering TB medicines. Patients receive daily automated short message service (SMS) dosing reminders and confirm dosing by calling toll-free numbers. The primary effectiveness outcome is the proportion of patients completing TB treatment. With 18 clusters randomised into six steps and an average cluster size of 15 patients per month, the study will have 89% power to detect a 10% or greater increase in treatment completion between the routine care and intervention periods. Secondary outcomes include more proximal effectiveness measures as well as quantitative and qualitative assessments of the reach, adoption and implementation of the intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was granted by institutional review boards at Makerere University School of Public Health and the University of California San Francisco. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, presentations at scientific conferences and presentations to key stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PACTR201808609844917.

4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited data exist on the epidemiology of acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) in low-income countries (LICs). We sought to determine the prevalence of AHRF in critically ill adult patients admitted to a Ugandan tertiary referral hospital; determine clinical and treatment characteristics as well as assess factors associated with mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at the Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Uganda. Critically ill adults who were hospitalised at the emergency department and met the criteria for AHRF (acute shortness of breath for less than a week) were enrolled and followed up for 90 days. Multivariable analyses were conducted to determine the risk factors for death. RESULTS: A total of 7300 patients was screened. Of these, 327 (4.5%) presented with AHRF. The majority (60 %) was male and the median age was 38 years (IQR 27-52). The mean plethysmographic oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 77.6% (SD 12.7); mean SpO2/FiO2 ratio 194 (SD 32) and the mean Lung Injury Prediction Score (LIPS) 6.7 (SD 0.8). Pneumonia (80%) was the most common diagnosis. Only 6% of the patients received mechanical ventilatory support. In-hospital mortality was 77% with an average length of hospital stay of 9.2 days (SD 7). At 90 days after enrolment, the mortality increased to 85%. Factors associated with mortality were severity of hypoxaemia (risk ratio (RR) 1.29 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.54), p=0.01); a high LIPS (RR 1.79 (95% CI 1.79 1.14 to 2.83), p=0.01); thrombocytopenia (RR 1.23 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.38), p=0.01); anaemia (RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.31), p=0.03) ; HIV co-infection (RR 0.84 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.97), p=0.019) and male gender (RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.31) p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AHRF among emergency department patients in a tertiary hospital in an LIC was low but was associated with very high mortality. Pneumonia was the most common cause of AHRF. Mortality was associated with higher severity of hypoxaemia, high LIPS, anaemia, HIV co-infection, thrombocytopenia and being male.

5.
Int J Reprod Med ; 2020: 8016483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062664

RESUMO

Background: Contraceptive practices of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIAs) have implications related to pregnancy prevention, risks of HIV heterosexual transmission, reinfection, and vertical transmission. The study assessed contraceptive use among sexually active PHIAs in Uganda. Methods: Mixed methods consisting of a survey and in-depth interviews were employed among 213 sexually active PHIAs who were attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics. The study was guided by Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use as a theoretical framework to identify factors that influence contraceptive use. These factors include health care factors, personal characteristics, enabling factors, and needs. The outcome was contraceptive use. Multivariable logistic regression was used to establish determinants of contraceptive use. Qualitative data were analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Most PHIAs were female (67.6%); the mean (SD) and median (IQR) age was 17.5 (±1.4) and 18 (17-19) years. The mean age of sexual debut and at marriage were 15 (±1.7) and 17 (±1.1), respectively. Condoms were the most known method of family planning (indicated by 55.4%). Only 16.9% of the participants knew about dual protection (condom use for FP as well as HIV/STI prevention). Of the PHIAs, 43.6% had ever used modern contraception and 56.9% of the females had ever been pregnant. The odds of contraceptive ever-use were significantly higher among adolescents aged 17-19 years (OR 5.1, 95% CI: 2.1-13.3) compared to those aged 10-16 years, those in school (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.07-3.2) compared to those out of school, and those with perceived need to use FP (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) compared to their counterparts. The odds of contraceptive used were lower among females (OR 0.13, 95% CI: 0.06-0.28) compared to males. From the in-depth interviews, the attitude of health workers, availability of health workers, having a friend using family planning, and waiting time were viewed to affect contraceptive use. Conclusion: Contraceptive use among sexually active perinatally HIV-infected adolescents was (43.6%). However, out of those who used family planning majority were using short-term methods. The unmet need for family planning was high (47%) with high reports of pregnancy (56.9%). The factors associated with contraceptive use included education, age, sex (predisposing factors), and perceived need of family planning (need factors). Other factors that could affect contraceptive use from qualitative analysis included attitude of health workers, availability of health workers, having a friend using family planning (predisposing factors), and waiting time (health system factors). HIV care for adolescents should be promoted using SRH approach. There is a need to provide training for all providers to cater for SRH services. We should continue to provide youth-responsive adolescent sexual and reproductive health services across all ART facilities and build a supportive environment and continue to integrate SRH services into HIV care.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064142

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although households of tuberculosis cases represent a setting for intense transmission of M. tuberculosis, household exposure accounts for less than 20% of transmission within a community. OBJECTIVES: To estimate excess risk of M. tuberculosis infection among household and extra-household contacts of index cases. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in Kampala, Uganda, to delineate social networks of tuberculosis cases and matched controls without tuberculosis. We estimated the age-stratified prevalence difference of tuberculous infection between case and control networks, partitioned as household and extra-household contacts. RESULTS: We enrolled 123 index cases, 124 index controls, and 2415 first-degree network contacts. The prevalence of infection was highest among household contacts of cases (61.5%), lowest among household contacts of controls (25.2%), and intermediary among extra-household tuberculosis contacts (44.9%) and extra-household control contacts (41.2%). The age-adjusted prevalence difference between extra-household contacts of cases and their controls was 5.4%. The prevalence of infection was similar among the majority of extra-household case contacts and corresponding controls (47%). CONCLUSIONS: Most first-degree social network members of tuberculosis cases do not have adequate contact with the index case to experience additional risk for infection but appear instead to acquire infection through unrecognized exposures with infectious cases in the community.

7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 901, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda has one of the highest maternal deaths at a ratio of 336 per 100,000 live births. As Uganda strives to achieve sustainable development goals, appropriate antenatal care is key to reduction of maternal mortality. We explored women's reported receipt of seven of the Uganda guidelines components of antenatal care, and associated factors in hard to reach Lake Victoria island fishing communities of Kalangala district. METHODS: A cross sectional survey among 486 consenting women aged 15-49 years, who were pregnant at any time in the past 6 months was conducted in 6 island fishing communities of Kalangala district, Uganda, during January-May 2018. Interviewer administered questionnaires, were used to collect data on socio-demographics and receipt of seven of the Uganda guidelines components of antenatal care. Regression modeling was used to determine factors associated with receipt of all seven components. RESULTS: Over three fifths (65.0%) had at least one ANC visit during current or most recent pregnancy. Fewer than a quarter of women who reported attending care at least four times received all seven ANC components [(23.6%), P < 0.05]. Women who reported receipt of ANC from the mainland were twice as likely to have received all seven components as those who received care from islands (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI:0.9-3.7). Receipt of care from a doctor was associated with thrice likelihood of receiving all components relative to ANC by a midwife or nurse (aOR = 3.2; 95% CI:1.1-9.1). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that the delivery of antenatal care components per Ugandan guidelines is poor in these communities. Cost effective endeavors to improve components of antenatal care received by women are urgently needed. Task shifting some components of ANC to community health workers may improve care in these island communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201903906459874 (Retrospectively registered).

8.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900781

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Detailed data on the characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. OBJECTIVE: We determined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Uganda. MEASUREMENTS: As of the 16 May 2020, a total of 203 cases had been confirmed. We report on the first 56 patients; 29 received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and 27 did not. Endpoints included admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation or death during hospitalisation. MAIN RESULTS: The median age was 34.2 years; 67.9% were male; and 14.6% were <18 years. Up 57.1% of the patients were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever (21.4%), cough (19.6%), rhinorrhea (16.1%), headache (12.5%), muscle ache (7.1%) and fatigue (7.1%). Rates of comorbidities were 10.7% (pre-existing hypertension), 10.7% (diabetes) and 7.1% (HIV), Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥30 36.6%. 37.0% had a blood pressure (BP) of >130/90 mm Hg, and 27.8% had BP of >140/90 mm Hg. Laboratory derangements were leucopenia (10.6%), lymphopenia (11.1%) and thrombocytopenia (26.3%). Abnormal chest X-ray was observed in 14.3%. No patients reached the primary endpoint. Time to clinical recovery was shorter among patients who received HCQ, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients with COVID-19 presented with mild disease and exhibited a clinical trajectory not similar to other countries. Outcomes did not differ by HCQ treatment status in line with other concluded studies on the benefit of using HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 65, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a 3-month (12-dose) regimen of weekly isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) was recommended by the World Health Organization for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on common antiretroviral therapy regimens. The best approach to delivering 3HP to PLHIV remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a three-armed randomized trial assessing optimized strategies for delivering 3HP to PLHIV. The trial will be conducted at the Mulago Immune Suppression Syndrome (i.e., HIV/AIDS) clinic in Kampala, Uganda. We plan to recruit 1656 PLHIV, randomized 1:1 to each of the three arms (552 per arm). Using a hybrid type 3 effectiveness-implementation design, this pragmatic trial aims to (1) compare the acceptance and completion of 3HP among PLHIV under three delivery strategies: directly observed therapy (DOT), self-administered therapy (SAT), and informed patient choice of either DOT or SAT (with the assistance of a decision aid); (2) to identify processes and contextual factors that influence the acceptance and completion of 3HP under each delivery strategy; and (3) to estimate the costs and compare the cost-effectiveness of three strategies for delivering 3HP. The three delivery strategies were each optimized to address key barriers to 3HP completion using a theory-informed approach. We hypothesize that high levels of treatment acceptance and completion can be achieved among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa and that offering PLHIV an informed choice between the optimized DOT and SAT delivery strategies will result in greater acceptance and completion of 3HP. The design and planned evaluation of the delivery strategies were guided by the use of implementation science conceptual frameworks. DISCUSSION: 3HP-one of the most promising interventions for TB prevention-will not be scaled up unless it can be delivered in a patient-centered fashion. We highlight shared decision-making as a key element of our trial design and theorize that offering PLHIV an informed choice between optimized delivery strategies will facilitate the highest levels of treatment acceptance and completion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03934931 ; Registered 2 May 2019.

10.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 31(6): 632-645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604172

RESUMO

This study explored men's views of workplace-based HIV self-testing and the barriers and facilitators of linkage to posttest services. Six focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews were held with employers and employees in private security companies in Uganda (N = 70). Using content analysis, five categories emerged. The first category was the mitigation of potential harm, including reduction of stigma and discrimination, and the need for posttest support. The second category was a perceived need for on-site services where the men proposed on-site prevention services and HIV treatment and care. In the third category, which was strengthening linkage mechanisms, participants proposed expanded clinic hours, improved health facility efficiency, and provision of referral documentation. The fourth and fifth categories were organizational support and social support, respectively. There is need for employers and employees to work together for the success of workplace-based HIV initiatives.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 892, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of infection from respiratory pathogens increases according to the contact rate between the infectious case and susceptible contact, but the definition of adequate contact for transmission is not standard. In this study we aimed to identify factors that can explain the level of contact between tuberculosis cases and their social networks in an African urban environment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Kampala, Uganda from 2013 to 2017. We carried out an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in social network data from tuberculosis cases and their contacts. We evaluated the factorability of the data to EFA using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO). We used principal axis factoring with oblique rotation to extract and rotate the factors, then we calculated factor scores for each using the weighted sum scores method. We assessed construct validity of the factors by associating the factors with other variables related to social mixing. RESULTS: Tuberculosis cases (N = 120) listed their encounters with 1154 members of their social networks. Two factors were identified, the first named "Setting" captured 61% of the variance whereas the second, named 'Relationship' captured 21%. Median scores for the setting and relationship factors were 10.2 (IQR 7.0, 13.6) and 7.7 (IQR 6.4, 10.1) respectively. Setting and Relationship scores varied according to the age, gender, and nature of the relationship among tuberculosis cases and their contacts. Family members had a higher median setting score (13.8, IQR 11.6, 15.7) than non-family members (7.2, IQR 6.2, 9.4). The median relationship score in family members (9.9, IQR 7.6, 11.5) was also higher than in non-family members (6.9, IQR 5.6, 8.1). For both factors, household contacts had higher scores than extra-household contacts (p < .0001). Contacts of male cases had a lower setting score as opposed to contacts of female cases. In contrast, contacts of male and female cases had similar relationship scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cross-sectional study from an urban African setting, we identified two factors that can assess adequate contact between tuberculosis cases and their social network members. These findings also confirm the complexity and heterogeneity of social mixing.


Assuntos
Família , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Meio Social , Rede Social , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720923101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450758

RESUMO

Background: Uganda has one of the highest maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, with a mortality ratio of 336 per 100 000 live births. Early regular antenatal care (ANC) helps prevent adverse outcomes, including deaths, through prevention, identification, treatment, and/or referral of at-risk women. We explored ANC practices and associated factors among women from hard-to-reach Lake Victoria islands fishing communities in Kalangala district, Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 486 consenting women aged 15 to 49 years, who were pregnant or had a birth or abortion in the past 6 months was conducted in 6 island fishing communities of Kalangala district, Uganda, during January to May 2018. ODK software interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sociodemographics and ANC practices. Regression modeling using STATA version 15 was used to determine factors associated with ANC visits. Results: Women's median (range) age was 26 (15-45) years, 63% (304/486) had up to primary level education, 45% (219/486) were housewives (stay home mums), 87% (423/486) were married. ANC visits ranged from 0 to 10, with over three-fifths of women having their first visit late after 3 months of being pregnant (63%, 198/316). Women without a history of pregnancy loss (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), those not staying with their partners (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-6.0), and those whose partners were working in fishing-related activities (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.0) were likely to have started care late. Women from communities with a public health facility and those with partners working in none fishing-related activities had the highest predicted number of visits. Conclusion: Antenatal practices among these communities are characterized by late start of care. Community-led early ANC awareness interventions are needed. Targeted health policies need to consider public ANC facilities for each island for improved antenatal outcomes and maternal health.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0217606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retaining patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ensuring good adherence remain cornerstone of long-term viral suppression. In this era of test and treat (T&T) policy, ensuring that patients starting ART remain connected to HIV clinics is key to achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Currently, limited studies have evaluated the effect of early ART initiation on loss to follow up in a routine health care delivery setting. We studied the cumulative incidence, incidence rate of loss to follow up (LTFU), and factors associated with LTFU in a primary healthcare clinic that has practiced T&T since 2012. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed extracted routine program data on patients who started ART from January 2012 to 4th July 2016. We defined LTFU as failure of a patient to return to the HIV clinic for at least 90 days from the date of their last appointment. We calculated cumulative incidence, incidence rate and fitted a multivariable Cox proportion hazards regression model to determine factors associated with LTFU. RESULTS: Of the 7,553 patients included in our sample, 3,231 (42.8%) started ART within seven days following HIV diagnosis. There were 1,180 cases of LTFU observed over 15,807.7 person years at risk. The overall incidence rate (IR) of LTFU was 7.5 (95% CI, 7.1-7.9) per 100 person years of observation (pyo). Cumulative incidence of LTFU increased with duration of follow up from 8.9% (95% CI, 8.2-9.6%) at 6 months to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.0-21.4%) at 48 months. Predictors of elevated risk of LTFU were: starting ART within 7 days following HIV diagnosis ((aHR) = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.50-1.91), lack of a telephone set (aHR = 1.52, 95% CI, 1.35-1.71), CD4 cell count of 200-350µ/ml (aHR = 1.21, 95% CI, 1.01-1.45) and baseline WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 (aHR = 1.35, 95% CI, 1.10-1.65). Factors associated with a reduced risk of LTFU were: baseline age ≥25 years (aHR ranging from 0.62, 95% CI, 0.47-0.81 for age group 25-29 years to 0.24, 95% CI, 0.13-0.44 for age group ≥50 years), at least primary education level (aHR ranging from aHR = 0.77, 95% CI, 0.62-0.94 for primary education level to 0.50, 95% CI, 0.34-0.75 for post-secondary education level), and having a BMI ≥ 30 (aHR = 0.28, 95% CI, 0.15-0.51). CONCLUSION: The risk of loss to follow up increased with time and was higher among patients who started ART within seven days following HIV diagnosis, higher among patients without a telephone set, lower among patients aged ≥ 25 years, lower among patients with at least primary education and lower among patients with BMI of ≥ 30. In this era of T&T, it will be important for HIV programs to initiate and continue enhanced therapeutic education programs that target high risk groups, as well as leveraging on mHealth to improve patients' retention on ART throughout the cascade of care.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2825, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071350

RESUMO

Blood transfusion is fundamental in managing hematologic malignancies. We sought to evaluate the need and availability of blood products for patients with hematological malignancies at Uganda Cancer Institute. We prospectively studied the demand and supply of blood for patients with thrombocytopenia (platelet count ≤50 × 109/L), anemia (hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL), and bleeding (WHO grade ≥2). We used Poisson generalized estimating equation regression models for longitudinal binary outcomes. Among 91 patients, the median age was 26 years (IQR, 11-47). Thrombocytopenia occurred on ≥1 day in 58% of patients and on 49% of hospital days. Platelets were transfused to 39% of patients. The mean number of platelet units requested per day was 16.2 (range 0-30); 5.1 (range 0-15) were received. Anemia occurred on ≥1 day in 90% of patients; on 78% of days; and 68% received at least one blood transfusion. The mean number of blood units requested was 36.3 (range 8-57) units per day; 14 (range 0-30) were received. Bleeding occurred on ≥1 day in 19% of patients on 8% of hospital days. Thrombocytopenia and anemia were common, but product availability was substantially below that requested. We recommend increased blood collection and adherence to strict transfusion triggers as strategies to improve blood availability.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Transfusão de Sangue , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/sangue , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505576

RESUMO

Introduction: fishing communities in Uganda are key populations for HIV, with persistently higher prevalence and incidence than the general population. Methods: between March and August 2014, a cross sectional survey was conducted in 10 fishing communities of Lake Victoria in Uganda. Data was collected on socio-behavioural characteristics using interviewer administered questionnaires and venous blood collected for HIV testing. Prevalent HIV infections among adolescents and young people aged 13 to 24 years was estimated and the factors associated with those infections determined using multi variable logistic regression modelling. Results: HIV prevalence was 10.8% among the 630 (96.5%) who provided a blood sample. Females were 3.5 times as likely to have HIV infection as males (aOR=3.52, 95% CI: 1.34-9.22). Young people aged 20-24 years were twice as likely to be HIV infected as those aged 13-19 years (aOR=1.77, 95% CI: 0.05-2.10), participants without formal education or those who had studied up to primary level were more likely to be HIV infected than those who had post primary education ((aOR=2.45, 95% CI: 1.19-5.07) or (5.29 (1.35-20.71) respectively). Reporting more than one sexual partner in the past 6 months was associated with HIV prevalent infection than those reporting no sexual partners (aOR=6.44, 95% CI: 1.27-32.83). Conclusion: adolescents and young people aged 13-24 years in fishing communities around Lake Victoria, Uganda, have a high HIV prevalence, with females having a three-fold higher level than males. These findings highlight-the need to improve HIV prevention among young females living in these fishing communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1136, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, HIV remains a major public health challenge, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Literature indicates that men's involvement in HIV testing, care, and treatment services is lower compared to women, therefore novel approaches are required to engage men in the cascade of HIV care. This study aimed to explore men's perception on the provision of HIV testing services in venues where English Premier League football games are televised. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted between February and May 2018. Six focus group discussions were conducted with 50 conveniently selected men aged 18 years and older using a pre-tested discussion guide. All focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Overall, HIV testing at venues telecasting English Premier League football games was acceptable to men. There was a very strong preference for health workers providing testing and counseling services be external or unknown in the local community. Possible motivators for testing services provided in these settings include subsidizing or eliminating entrance fee to venues telecasting games, integrating testing and counseling with health promotion or screening for other diseases, use of local football games as mobilization tools and use of expert clients as role models. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that HIV testing services at venues where EPL football games are televised is generally acceptable to men. In implementing such services, consideration should be given to preferences for external or unknown health workers and the motivating factors contributing to the use of these services. Given that HIV testing is currently not conducted in these settings, further research should be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a means of enhancing HIV testing among Ugandan men.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol , Adulto , Idoso , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2296, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127086

RESUMO

Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) infection has been linked with an increased risk of HIV acquisition in women. Therefore, defining the mechanism(s) by which Sm alters HIV susceptibility might lead to new HIV prevention strategies. Here, we analyze the impact of standard Sm therapy in HIV-uninfected Sm+ Ugandan adult women on genital HIV susceptibility and mucosal and systemic immunology. Schistosomiasis treatment induces a profound reduction of HIV entry into cervical and blood CD4+ T cells that is sustained for up to two months, despite transient systemic and mucosal immune activation and elevated genital IL-1α levels. Genital IFN-α2a levels are also elevated post-treatment, and IFN-α2a blocks HIV entry into primary CD4+ T cells ex vivo. Transcriptomic analysis of blood mononuclear cells post-Sm treatment shows IFN-I pathway up-regulation and partial reversal of Sm-dysregulated interferon signaling. These findings indicate that Sm therapy may reduce HIV susceptibility for women with Sm infection, potentially through de-repression of IFN-I pathways.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/parasitologia , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Colo do Útero/citologia , Colo do Útero/imunologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Cultura Primária de Células , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/sangue , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomicidas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Uganda , Regulação para Cima , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 82(1): e13143, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081958

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Biological mechanisms of foreskin HIV acquisition are poorly defined. The inner foreskin is preferentially infected in explant models, so we hypothesized that this site would be enriched for HIV-susceptible CD4+ T cells and proinflammatory/chemoattractant cytokines. METHOD OF STUDY: A total of 42 HIV-uninfected Ugandan men without genital symptoms provided foreskin tissues and swabs at the time of elective penile circumcision. The immune phenotype of foreskin-derived CD4+ T cells and entry of a CCR5-tropic HIV pseudovirus was characterized, and specific cytokine levels assayed by multiplexed chemiluminescent ELISA. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, outer foreskin CD4+ T cells more frequently expressed CCR5 (median 29.2% vs 22.9%, P = 0.01) and CD69 (median 36.5% vs 15%, P < 0.01), and on a per-cell basis, HIV entry was higher. However, overall CD4+ T cell density was approximately twofold higher in the inner foreskin, and several highly susceptible T cell subsets were increased at this site, including Th17 cells (20.0% vs 14.1%, P = 0.0021). Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were also higher on the inner foreskin surface (IL-17, IL-8, RANTES and IL-1ß; all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There was marked heterogeneity in CD4+ T cell populations and immune milieu between inner and outer foreskin tissues. Despite higher per-cell viral entry into CD4+ T cells from the outer foreskin, the higher target cell density and enriched pro-inflammatory cytokines of the inner foreskin suggest that this may be a preferential site for HIV acquisition.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/virologia , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211648, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of platelet transfusions in treatment of hematologic cancer patients, the optimal platelet count threshold for prophylactic transfusion is unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We followed patients admitted to the Uganda Cancer Institute with a hematological malignancy in 3 sequential 4-month time-periods using incrementally lower thresholds for prophylactic platelet transfusion: platelet counts ≤ 30 x 109/L in period 1, ≤ 20 x 109/L in period 2, and ≤ 10 x 109/L in period 3. Clinically significant bleeding was defined as WHO grade ≥ 2 bleeding. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to compare the frequency of clinically significant bleeding and platelet transfusions by study period, adjusting for age, sex, cancer type, chemotherapy, baseline platelet count, and baseline hemoglobin. RESULTS: Overall, 188 patients were enrolled. The median age was 22 years (range 1-80). Platelet transfusions were given to 42% of patients in period 1, 55% in period 2, and 45% in period 3. These transfusions occurred on 8% of days in period 1, 12% in period 2, and 8% in period 3. In adjusted models, period 3 had significantly fewer transfusions than period 1 (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9; p = 0.01) and period 2 (RR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7; p<0.001). Eighteen patients (30%) had clinically significant bleeding on at least one day in period 1, 23 (30%) in period 2, and 15 (23%) in period 3. Clinically significant bleeding occurred on 8% of patient-days in period 1, 9% in period 2, and 5% in period 3 (adjusted p = 0.41). Thirteen (21%) patients died in period 1, 15 (22%) in period 2, and 11 (19%) in period 3 (adjusted p = 0.96). CONCLUSION: Lowering the threshold for platelet transfusion led to fewer transfusions and did not change the incidence of clinically significant bleeding or mortality, suggesting that a threshold of 10 x 109/L platelets, used in resource-rich countries, may be implemented as a safe level for transfusions in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transfusão de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1051, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705307

RESUMO

Although fishing communities (FCs) in Uganda are disproportionately affected by HIV-1 relative to the general population (GP), the transmission dynamics are not completely understood. We earlier found most HIV-1 transmissions to occur within FCs of Lake Victoria. Here, we test the hypothesis that HIV-1 transmission in FCs is isolated from networks in the GP. We used phylogeography to reconstruct the geospatial viral migration patterns in 8 FCs and 2 GP cohorts and a Bayesian phylogenetic inference in BEAST v1.8.4 to analyse the temporal dynamics of HIV-1 transmission. Subtype A1 (pol region) was most prevalent in the FCs (115, 45.1%) and GP (177, 50.4%). More recent HIV transmission pairs from FCs were found at a genetic distance (GD) <1.5% than in the GP (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.001). The mean time depth for pairs was shorter in FCs (5 months) than in the GP (4 years). Phylogeographic analysis showed strong support for viral migration from the GP to FCs without evidence of substantial viral dissemination to the GP. This suggests that FCs are a sink for, not a source of, virus strains from the GP. Targeted interventions in FCs should be extended to include the neighbouring GP for effective epidemic control.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1/classificação , Humanos , Lagos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
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