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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246546, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539425

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A review of Uganda's HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program in 2010 revealed poor retention outcomes for HIV-exposed infants (HEI) after testing. The review informed development of the 'EID Systems Strengthening' model: a set of integrated initiatives at health facilities to improve testing, retention, and clinical care of HIV-exposed and infected infants. The program model was piloted at several facilities and later scaled countrywide. This mixed-methods study evaluates the program's impact and assesses its implementation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at 12 health facilities in Uganda, comprising all HEI tested by DNA PCR from June 2011 to May 2014 (n = 707). Cohort data were collected manually at the health facilities and analyzed. To assess impact, retention outcomes were statistically compared to the baseline study's cohort outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative assessment of program implementation through 1) structured clinic observation and 2) key informant interviews with health workers, district officials, NGO technical managers, and EID trainers (n = 51). RESULTS: The evaluation cohort comprised 707 HEI (67 HIV+). The baseline study cohort contained 1268 HEI (244 HIV+). Among infants testing HIV+, retention in care at an ART clinic increased from 23% (57/244) to 66% (44/67) (p < .0001). Initiation of HIV+ infants on ART increased from 36% (27/75) to 92% (46/50) (p < .0001). HEI receiving 1st PCR results increased from 57% (718/1268) to 73% (518/707) (p < .0001). Among breastfeeding HEI with negative 1st PCR, 55% (192/352) received a confirmatory PCR test, a substantial increase from baseline period. Testing coverage improved significantly: HIV+ pregnant women who brought their infants for testing after birth increased from 18% (67/367) to 52% (175/334) (p < .0001). HEI were tested younger: mean age at DBS test decreased from 6.96 to 4.21 months (p < .0001). Clinical care for HEI was provided more consistently. Implementation fidelity was strong for most program components. The strongest contributory interventions were establishment of 'EID Care Points', integration of clinical care, longitudinal patient tracking, and regular health worker mentorship. Gaps included limited follow up of lost infants, inconsistent buy-in/ownership of health facility management, and challenges sustaining health worker motivation. DISCUSSION: Uganda's 'EID Systems Strengthening' model has produced significant gains in testing and retention of HEI and HIV+ infants, yet the country still faces major challenges. The 3 core concepts of Uganda's model are applicable to any country: establish a central service point for HEI, equip it to provide high-quality care and tracking, and develop systems to link HEI to the service point. Uganda's experience has shown the importance of intensively targeting systemic bottlenecks to HEI retention at facility level, a necessary complement to deploying rapidly scalable technologies and other higher-level initiatives.

2.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We monitored a large-scale implementation of the Simple Amplification-Based Assay semi-quantitative viral load test for HIV-1 version I (SAMBA I Viral Load = SAMBA I VL) within Médecins Sans Frontières' HIV programmes in Malawi and Uganda, to assess its performance and operational feasibility. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of routine programme data between August 2013 and December 2016. The dataset included samples collected for VL monitoring and tested using SAMBA I VL in five HIV clinics in Malawi (four peripheral health centres and one district hospital), and one HIV clinic in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. SAMBA I VL was used for VL testing in patients who had been receiving ART for between 6 months and ten years, to determine whether plasma VL was above or below 1000 copies/mL of HIV-1, reflecting ART failure or efficacy. Randomly selected samples were quantified with commercial VL assays. SAMBA I instruments and test performance, site throughput, and delays in communicating results to clinicians and patients were monitored. RESULTS: Between August 2013 and December 2016 a total of 60 889 patient samples were analysed with SAMBA I VL. Overall, 0.23% of initial SAMBA I VL results were invalid; this was reduced to 0.04% after repeating the test once. Global test failure, including instrument failure, was 1.34%. Concordance with reference quantitative testing of VL was 2620/2727, 96.0% (1338/1382, 96.8% in Malawi; 1282/1345, 95.3% in Uganda). For Chiradzulu peripheral health centres and Arua Hospital HIV clinic, where testing was performed on-site, same-day results were communicated to clinicians for between 91% and 97% of samples. Same-day clinical review was obtained for 84.7% across the whole set of samples tested. CONCLUSIONS: SAMBA I VL testing is feasible for monitoring cohorts of 1000 to 5000 ART-experienced patients. Same-day results can be used to inform rapid clinical decision-making at rural and remote health facilities, potentially reducing time available for development of resistance and conceivably helping to reduce morbidity and mortality.

3.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell disease is an important public health issue that is increasingly recognized as a substantial contributor to morbidity and early childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide information from large-scale, long-term sickle cell screening efforts in Africa. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the centralized public health laboratory database in Uganda to examine epidemiological trends in sickle cell screening over a five-year period, comparing age and geographic adjustments to prevalence among different testing cohorts of children aged 0-24 months, and calculating screening coverage within high-burden districts. RESULTS: A total of 324,356 children aged 0-24 months were screened for sickle cell trait and disease from February 2014 to March 2019. A high national burden of sickle cell disease (0.9%) was confirmed among a cohort of samples co-tested with HIV. In the cohort of samples referred specifically for sickle cell testing, the overall prevalence of sickle cell disease was 9.7% and particularly elevated in high-burden districts where focused screening occurred. The majority of children were screened before age 4 months, but the sickle specific cohort had a larger proportion of affected children tested between age 5-9 months, coincident with onset of disease signs and symptoms. Successful screening coverage of sickle cell disease births was achieved in several high-burden districts. CONCLUSIONS: Examination and analysis of national sickle cell screening trends in Uganda documents the successes of focused screening strategies as an important step toward universal screening. With this evidence and increased healthcare provider knowledge, Uganda can optimize sickle cell diagnosis and management across the country.

4.
J Community Genet ; 11(3): 253-268, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415570

RESUMO

In an effort to explore new knowledge and to develop meaningful collaborations for improving child health, the First Pan African Workshop on Newborn Screening was convened in June 2019 in Rabat, Morocco. Participants included an informal network of newborn screening stakeholders from across Africa and global experts in newborn screening and sickle cell disease. Over 150 attendees, representing 20 countries, were present including 11 African countries. The agenda focused on newborn screening rationale, techniques, system development, implementation barriers, ongoing research, and collaborations both globally and across Africa. We provide an overview of the workshop and a description of the newborn screening activities in the 11 African countries represented at the workshop, with a focus on sickle cell disease.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226987, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, nearly 22 million HIV-infected patients are currently accessing antiretroviral treatment; however, almost one million people living with HIV died of AIDS-related illnesses in 2018. Advanced HIV disease remains a significant issue to curb HIV-related mortality. METHODS: We analyzed 864,389 CD4 testing records collected by 1,016 Alere Pima Analyzers implemented at a variety of facilities, including peripheral facilities, between January 2012 and December 2016 across four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Routinely collected data and programmatic records were used to analyze the median CD4 counts and proportions of patients with advanced HIV disease by country, facility type, and year. RESULTS: Median CD4 counts were between 409-444 cells/ul each year since 2012 with a median in 2016 of 444 cells/ul (n = 319,829). The proportion of test results returning CD4 counts above 500 cells/ul has increased slowly each year with 41.8% (95% CI: 41.6-41.9%) of tests having a CD4 count above 500 cells/ul in 2016. Median CD4 counts were similar across facility types. The proportion of test results indicating advanced HIV disease has remained fairly consistent: 19.4% (95% CI: 18.8-20.1%) in 2012 compared to 16.1% (95% CI: 16.0-16.3%) in 2016. The proportion of test results indicating advanced HIV disease annually ranged from 14.5% in Uganda to 29.8% in Cameroon. 6.9% (95% CI: 6.8-7.0%) of test results showed very advanced HIV disease (CD4<100 cells/ul) in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of CD4 test results indicating advanced disease was relatively high and consistent across four high HIV burden countries.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Camarões , Coleta de Dados , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Uganda
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(7): 1726-1731, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detectable serum or plasma cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) precedes symptomatic cryptococcal meningitis. The World Health Organization recommends CrAg screening for human immunodeficiency virus-positive persons with CD4 count <100 cells/µL initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, an increasing proportion of patients with cryptococcosis are now ART experienced. Whether CrAg screening is cost-effective in those with virologic failure is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively performed nationwide plasma CrAg testing among ART-experienced Ugandan adults with virologic failure (≥1000 copies/mL) using leftover plasma after viral load testing during September 2017-January 2018. For those who were CrAg positive, we obtained ART history, meningitis occurrence, and 6-month survival via medical records review. RESULTS: Among 1186 subjects with virologic failure, 35 (3.0%) were CrAg positive with median ART duration of 41 months (interquartile range, 10-84 months). Among 25 subjects with 6-month outcomes, 16 (64%) survived, 7 (28%) died, and 2 (8%) were lost. One survivor had suffered cryptococcal meningitis 2 years prior. Two others developed cryptococcal meningitis and survived. Five survivors were known to have received fluconazole. Thus, meningitis-free survival at 6 months was 61% (14/23). Overall, 91% (32/35) of CrAg-positive persons had viral load ≥5000 copies/mL compared with 64% (735/1151) of CrAg-negative persons (odds ratio, 6.0 [95% confidence interval, 1.8-19.8]; P = .001). CrAg prevalence was 4.2% (32/768) among those with viral loads ≥5000 copies/mL and 0.7% (3/419) among those with viral loads <5000 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the CD4 threshold of <100 cells/µL, reflexive CrAg screening should be considered in persons failing ART in Uganda with viral loads ≥5000 copies/mL.

8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(3): 281-286, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanded access to HIV antiretrovirals has dramatically reduced mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, there is increasing concern around false-positive HIV test results in perinatally HIV-exposed infants but few insights into the use of indeterminate range to improve infant HIV diagnosis. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the use of an indeterminate range for HIV early infant diagnosis. Published and unpublished studies from 2000 to 2018 were included. Study quality was evaluated using GRADE and QUADAS-2 criteria. A random-effects model compared various indeterminate ranges for identifying true and false positives. RESULTS: The review identified 32 studies with data from over 1.3 million infants across 14 countries published from 2000 to 2018. Indeterminate results accounted for 16.5% of initial non-negative test results, and 76% of indeterminate results were negative on repeat testing. Most results were from Roche tests. In the random-effects model, an indeterminate range using a polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold value of ≥33 captured over 93% of false positives while classifying fewer than 9% of true positives as indeterminate. CONCLUSIONS: Without the use of an indeterminate range, over 10% of infants could be incorrectly diagnosed as HIV positive if their initial test results are not confirmed. Use of an indeterminate range appears to lead to substantial improvements in the accuracy of early infant diagnosis testing and supports current recommendations to confirm all initial positive tests.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Bases de Dados Factuais , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
9.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219021, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2010, point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing platforms have been introduced in both urban and rural settings to expand access to testing by bringing diagnostic services closer to patients. We conducted an analysis of routinely collected CD4 testing data to determine the invalid result rates associated with POC CD4 testing. METHODS: We analyzed 981,152 CD4 testing records collected from Alere Pima Analyzers between January 2011 and December 2016 across five countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Routinely collected data and programmatic records were used to determine the rate of invalid test results per month, by facility type, and by operator based on cumulative usage during the study period. In addition, frequency of invalid test types and utilization of control beads were assessed. RESULTS: Across the five countries, 75,530 invalid messages were returned, resulting in an overall invalid result rate of 7.7%. The invalid result rate by country ranged from 6.6% to 11.2%. Invalid result rates were consistent across facility types. Invalid result rates were inversely correlated with operator usage: low volume operators (<50 tests over study period) experienced an invalid result rate of 10.2%, while high volume operators (>500 tests over study period) experienced an invalid result rate of 5.5%. Two invalid result types (exposure position control and reagent control) accounted for nearly 50% of invalid results. Routine data showed that control beads were run on 88.3% of days that the device was used. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis found that the rate of invalid results was consistent across all types of health facilities, indicating that decentralization of POC CD4 testing to lower level health facilities did not exhibit high invalid result rates or increase cartridge wastage. Additionally, invalid result rates were inversely correlated to operator usage, with high-volume operators experiencing lower invalid result rates than low-volume operators. POC CD4 testing can, therefore, be performed in decentralized national testing programs; however, adequate training, quality assurance, routine monitoring, and ongoing mentorship should also be implemented for success.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Testes Imediatos , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , África ao Sul do Saara , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serviços de Saúde Rural
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 516, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cholera outbreak started on 29 February in Bwikhonge Sub-county, Bulambuli District in Eastern Uganda. Local public health authorities implemented initial control measures. However, in late March, cases sharply increased in Bwikhonge Sub-county. We investigated the outbreak to determine its scope and mode of transmission, and to inform control measures. METHODS: We defined a suspected case as sudden onset of watery diarrhea from 1 March 2016 onwards in a resident of Bulambuli District. A confirmed case was a suspected case with positive stool culture for V. cholerae. We conducted descriptive epidemiologic analysis of the cases to inform the hypothesis on mode of transmission. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study involving 100 suspected case-patients and 100 asymptomatic controls, individually-matched by residence village and age. We collected seven water samples for laboratory testing. RESULTS: We identified 108 suspected cases (attack rate: 1.3%, 108/8404), including 7 confirmed cases. The case-control study revealed that 78% (78/100) of case-patients compared with 51% (51/100) of control-persons usually collected drinking water from the nearby Cheptui River (ORMH = 7.8, 95% CI = 2.7-22); conversely, 35% (35/100) of case-patients compared with 54% (54/100) of control-persons usually collected drinking water from borehole pumps (ORMH = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13-0.65). The index case in Bwikhonge Sub-county had onset on 29 February but the outbreak had been on-going in the neighbouring sub-counties in the previous 3 months. V. cholera was isolated in 2 of the 7 river water samples collected from different locations. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this cholera outbreak was caused by drinking contaminated water from Cheptui River. We recommended boiling and/or treating drinking water, improved sanitation, distribution of chlorine tablets to the affected villages, and as a long-term solution, construction of more borehole pumps. After implementing preventive measures, the number of cases declined and completely stopped after 6th April.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Água Potável/microbiologia , Rios/microbiologia , Poluição da Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saneamento , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Poluição da Água/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(8): e27807, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Uganda Sickle Surveillance Study provided evidence for a large sickle burden among HIV-exposed infants in Uganda. To date, however, no large scale screening program has been developed for Central or East Africa. METHODS: A 3-year targeted sickle cell screening project in Uganda was designed by the Ministry of Health to (1) determine sickle cell trait and disease prevalence within high-burden districts, (2) document the prevalence among HIV-exposed and nonexposed children, (3) confirm previously suggested HIV comorbidity, and (4) estimate the co-inheritance of known genetic modifiers of sickle cell disease. RESULTS: A total of 163 334 dried blood spot samples collected between April 2015 and March 2018 were analyzed, including 112 352 samples within the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis program. A high burden with >1% sickle cell disease was found within targeted East Central and Mid-Northern districts, in both HIV-exposed and nonexposed children. Based on crude birth-rate data, 236 905 sickle cell trait births and 16 695 sickle cell disease births will occur annually in Uganda. Compared to sickle cell disease without HIV, the odds ratio of having sickle cell disease plus HIV was 0.50 (95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.64, P < .0001). Alpha-thalassemia trait and G6PD deficiency were common with sickle cell disease, but with different geospatial distribution. CONCLUSIONS: High sickle cell burden and potential HIV comorbidity are confirmed in Uganda. Genetic modifiers are common and likely influence laboratory and clinical phenotypes. These prospective data document that targeted sickle cell screening is feasible and effective in Uganda, and support development of district-level comprehensive care programs.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Genes Modificadores , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Talassemia alfa/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/complicações , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , HIV/genética , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Talassemia alfa/complicações , Talassemia alfa/epidemiologia , Talassemia alfa/genética
12.
J Blood Med ; 10: 59-67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787644

RESUMO

Background: Early identification through newborn screening is the first step in active management of sickle cell disease (SCD). Uganda currently screens newborns and infants under 2 years for SCD in high HIV-burden districts using isoelectric focusing with dried blood spot samples. Our analysis sought to estimate the costs per child screened for SCD using this method in Uganda and then to use those data to estimate the price threshold for screening with a point-of-care (POC) test. Methods: We estimated the financial and economic costs per child screened for SCD using data from health facilities and the Central Public Health Laboratory. These costs included sample collection, transportation, and laboratory processing. Price thresholds for a POC test were estimated using two scenarios. Results: The price threshold of an SCD POC test used for diagnosis would be $3.77 when taking into account only financial costs and $5.14 when taking into account economic costs. Thresholds for a POC test used for screening would be $3.07-$3.51 and $4.38-$5.09, respectively, depending on test specificity. Conclusion: The price threshold of a POC test for SCD will depend on the assumptions on how it will be used - either as a screening or diagnostic test. If used for screening, test specificity will have significant impact. Results from this type of costing study can allow developers to incorporate quantitatively estimated price thresholds for innovative products into target product profiles early in the product development cycle.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 416, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda's HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program rapidly scaled up testing of HIV-exposed infants (HEI) in its early years. However, little was known about retention outcomes of HEI after testing. Provision of transport refunds to HEI caregivers was piloted at 3 hospitals to improve retention. This study was conducted to quantify retention outcomes of tested HEI, identify factors driving loss-to-follow-up, and assess the effect of transport refunds on HEI retention. METHODS: This mixed-methods study included 7 health facilities- retrospective cohort review at 3 hospitals and qualitative assessment at all facilities. The cohort comprised all HEI tested from September-2007 to February-2009. Retention data was collected manually at each hospital. Qualitative methods included health worker interviews and structured clinic observation. Qualitative data was synthesized, analyzed and triangulated to identify factors driving HEI loss-to-follow-up. RESULTS: The cohort included 1268 HEI, with 244 testing HIV-positive. Only 57% (718/1268) of tested HEI received results. The transport refund pilot increased the percent of HEI caregivers receiving test results from 54% (n = 763) to 58% (n = 505) (p = .08). HEI were tested at late ages (Mean = 7.0 months, n = 1268). Many HEI weren't tested at all: at 1 hospital, only 18% (67/367) of HIV+ pregnant women brought their HEI for testing after birth. Among HIV+ infants, only 40% (98/244) received results and enrolled at an ART Clinic. Of enrolled HIV+ infants, only 43% (57/98) were still active in chronic care. 36% (27/75) of eligible HIV+ infants started ART. Our analysis identified 6 categories of factors driving HEI loss-to-follow-up: fragmentation of EID services across several clinics, with most poorly equipped for HEI care/follow-up; poor referral mechanisms and data management systems; inconsistent clinical care; substandard counseling; poor health worker knowledge of EID; long sample-result turnaround times. DISCUSSION: The poor outcomes for HEI and HIV+ infants have highlighted an urgent need to improve retention and linkage to care. To address the identified gaps, Uganda's Ministry of Health and the Clinton Health Access Initiative developed a new implementation model, shifting EID from a lab-based diagnostic service to an integrated clinic-based chronic care model. This model was piloted at 21 facilities. An evaluation is needed.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda de Seguimento , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda
15.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21(2)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479861

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite notable progress towards PMTCT, only 50% of HIV-exposed infants in sub-Saharan Africa were tested within the first 2 months of life and only 30% of HIV-infected infants are on antiretroviral treatment. This study assessed HIV prevalence in infants and children receiving care at various service entry points in primary healthcare facilities in Uganda. METHODS: A total of 3600 infants up to 24 months of age were systematically enrolled and tested at four regional hospitals across Uganda. Six hundred infants were included and tested from six facility entry points: PMTCT, immunization, inpatient, nutrition, outpatient and community outreach services. FINDINGS: The traditional EID entry point, PMTCT, had a prevalence of 3.8%, representing 19.6% of the total HIV-positive infants identified in the study. Fifty percent of the 117 identified HIV-positive infants were found in the nutrition wards, which had a prevalence of 9.8% (p < 0.001 compared to PMTCT). Inpatient wards had a prevalence of 3.5% and yielded 17.9% of the HIV-positive infants identified. Infants tested at immunization wards and through outreach services identified 0.8% and 1.7% of the HIV-positive infants respectively, and had a prevalence of less than 0.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Expanding routine early infant diagnosis screening beyond the traditional PMTCT setting to nutrition and inpatient entry points will increase the identification of HIV-infected infants. Careful reflection for appropriate testing strategies, such as maternal re-testing to identify new HIV infections and HIV-exposed infants in need of follow-up testing and care, at immunization and outreach services should be considered given the expectedly low prevalence rates. These findings may help HIV care programmes significantly expand testing to improve access to early infant diagnosis and paediatric treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 77(3): 331-336, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the performance and utility of rapid serological tests in infants to determine HIV exposure are unclear and in some instances contradictory. This study sought to understand the performance of rapid serological tests in high HIV burden, high Option B+ coverage settings to be used as an HIV exposure screening tool. METHODS: A total of 3600 infants up to 24 months of age at 4 regional hospitals in Uganda were systematically enrolled and tested simultaneously using both HIV rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests. RESULTS: Only 58 of the 94 HIV-positive infants who received both rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests were positive with the rapid serological test (sensitivity: 61.7%; 95% confidence interval: 51.1 to 71.5). Using rapid serological tests to screen infants for exposure to HIV and follow-up nucleic acid-based testing would have missed 38.3% (36 of 94) of HIV-positive infants. Finally, several HIV-positive infants who were negative by rapid serological test presented to well-child entry points and were considered healthy. All 3 HIV-positive infants presenting to outreach and immunization were negative by rapid serological testing and 73% (8 of 11) presenting to outpatient. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the use of rapid serological tests may have inadequate performance as an indicator of exposure and potential HIV infection among infants presenting at both well-child (immunization and community outreach) and sick-infant (nutrition and inpatient) entry points. To improve the identification of HIV-positive infants, nucleic acid-based testing should instead be considered in infants aged younger than 18 months.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Uganda
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 76(2): e52-e57, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902680

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and the prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy are critical to achieving a reduction in the morbidity and mortality of infected infants. The Simple AMplification-Based Assay (SAMBA) HIV-1 Qual Whole Blood Test was developed specifically for early infant diagnosis and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs implemented at the point-of-care in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We have evaluated the performance of this test run on the SAMBA I semiautomated platform with fresh whole blood specimens collected from 202 adults and 745 infants in Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Results were compared with those obtained with the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 assay as performed with fresh whole blood or dried blood spots of the same subjects, and discrepancies were resolved with alternative assays. RESULTS: The performance of the SAMBA and CAP/CTM assays evaluated at 5 laboratories in the 3 countries was similar for both adult and infant samples. The clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the SAMBA test were 100%, 99.2%, 98.7%, and 100%, respectively, with adult samples, and 98.5%, 99.8%, 99.7%, and 98.8%, respectively, with infant samples. DISCUSSION: Our data suggest that the SAMBA HIV-1 Qual Whole Blood Test would be effective for early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants at point-of-care settings in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Testes Imediatos , Adulto , DNA Viral/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , RNA Viral/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes , Uganda , Carga Viral , Zimbábue
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 326, 2017 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is limited information about virological non-suppression and its determinants among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals enrolled in HIV care in many resource-limited settings. We estimated the proportion of virologically non-suppressed patients, and identified the factors associated with virological non-suppression. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using routinely collected program data from viral load (VL) samples collected across the country for testing at the Central Public Health Laboratories (CPHL) in Uganda. Data were generated between August 2014 and July 2015. We extracted data on socio-demographic, clinical and VL testing results. We defined virological non-suppression as having ≥1000 copies of viral RNA/ml of blood for plasma or ≥5000 copies of viral RNA/ml of blood for dry blood spots. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression. RESULTS: The study was composed of 100,678 patients; of these, 94,766(94%) were for routine monitoring, 3492(4%) were suspected treatment failures while 1436(1%) were repeat testers after suspected failure. The overall proportion of non-suppression was 11%. Patients on routine monitoring registered the lowest (10%) proportion of non-suppressed patients. Virological non-suppression was higher among suspected treatment failures (29%) and repeat testers after suspected failure (50%). Repeat testers after suspected failure were six times more likely to have virological non-suppression (ORadj = 6.3, 95%CI = 5.5-7.2) when compared with suspected treatment failures (ORadj = 3.3, 95%CI = 3.0-3.6). The odds of virological non-suppression decreased with increasing age, with children aged 0-4 years (ORadj = 5.3, 95%CI = 4.6-6.1) and young adolescents (ORadj = 4.1, 95%CI = 3.7-4.6) registering the highest odds. Poor adherence (ORadj = 3.4, 95%CI = 2.9-3.9) and having active TB (ORadj = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.6-2.4) increased the odds of virological non-suppression. However, being on second/third line regimens (ORadj = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78-0.95) protected patients against virological non-suppression. CONCLUSION: Young age, poor adherence and having active TB increased the odds of virological non-suppression while second/third line ART regimens were protective against non-suppression. We recommend close follow up and intensified targeted adherence support for repeat testers after suspected failure, children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , RNA Viral/sangue , Falha de Tratamento , Uganda , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75 Suppl 1: S51-S58, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398997

RESUMO

Investment to scale-up early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV has increased substantially in the last decade. This investment includes physical infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and specimen transportation systems as well as specialized mechanisms to deliver laboratory results to clinics. The Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive, as well as related international initiatives to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and treat children living with HIV have been important drivers of this scale-up by mobilizing resources, creating advocacy, developing normative recommendations, and providing direct technical support to countries through the global community of international stakeholders. As a result, the number of early infant diagnosis tests performed annually has increased 10-fold between 2005 and 2015, and many thousands of infants are now receiving life-saving antiretroviral therapy because of this improved access. Despite these efforts and many success stories, timely infant diagnosis remains a challenge in many Global Plan countries. The most recent data (from the end of 2015) suggest a large variation in access. Some countries report that almost 90% of HIV-exposed infants are being tested; others report that the level of access has stagnated at 30%. Still, just over half of all exposed infants in Global Plan countries receive a test in the first 2 months of life. We discuss the key factors that are responsible for this scale-up of diagnostic capacity, highlight some of the challenges that have hampered progress, and describe priorities for the future that can help maintain momentum to achieve true universal access to HIV testing for children.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Prevenção Secundária , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Nações Unidas
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(47): 1332-1335, 2016 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27906910

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load testing as the preferred method for monitoring the clinical response of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to antiretroviral therapy (ART) (1). Viral load monitoring of patients on ART helps ensure early diagnosis and confirmation of ART failure and enables clinicians to take an appropriate course of action for patient management. When viral suppression is achieved and maintained, HIV transmission is substantially decreased, as is HIV-associated morbidity and mortality (2). CDC and other U.S. government agencies and international partners are supporting multiple countries in sub-Saharan Africa to provide viral load testing of persons with HIV who are on ART. This report examines current capacity for viral load testing based on equipment provided by manufacturers and progress with viral load monitoring of patients on ART in seven sub-Saharan countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda) during January 2015-June 2016. By June 2016, based on the target numbers for viral load testing set by each country, adequate equipment capacity existed in all but one country. During 2015, two countries tested >85% of patients on ART (Namibia [91%] and South Africa [87%]); four countries tested <25% of patients on ART. In 2015, viral suppression was >80% among those patients who received a viral load test in all countries except Côte d'Ivoire. Sustained country commitment and a coordinated global effort is needed to reach the goal for viral load monitoring of all persons with HIV on ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , Vigilância da População , Carga Viral , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos
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