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1.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(10): 2075-2083, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606441

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), coronary artery calcium (CAC) density, and cardiovascular events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS: We analyzed 1,041 participants with nonzero CAC scores who had polysomnography and CAC density data from the fifth examination of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. OSA was defined as apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the independent association between OSA and CAC density. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of OSA on associations of CAC measures with incident cardiovascular disease events by testing for interaction in Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Our analytical sample was 45% female with a mean age of 70.6 +/- 9 years. Of this sample, 36.7% (n = 383/1041) had OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h). OSA was inversely and weakly associated with CAC density (ß = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to -0.02; P = .014) and remained significantly associated after controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (ß = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0; P = .043). However, this inverse association was attenuated after controlling for body mass index (ß = -0.05; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.02; P = .174). The mean follow-up period for cardiovascular disease events was 13.3 +/- 2.8 years. Additionally, exploratory analysis demonstrated that CAC density was independently and inversely associated with cardiovascular disease events only in the non-OSA subgroup (apnea-hypopnea index ≤ 15 events/h) (hazard ratio, 0.509; 95% CI, 0.323-0.801); P = .0035). CONCLUSIONS: OSA was associated with lower CAC density, but this association was attenuated by body mass index. Further, increased CAC density was associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease events only in individuals within the non-OSA group in exploratory analysis. CITATION: Newman SB, Kundel V, Matsuzaki M, et al. Sleep apnea, coronary artery calcium density, and cardiovascular events: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(10):2075-2083.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578930

RESUMO

Backgrounds and aims: Elevated common carotid artery intima-media thickness (carotid IMT) and diminished flow-mediated dilation (FMD) are early subclinical indicators of atherosclerosis. Serum total non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations have been positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The relations between individual NEFA, carotid IMT and FMD have as yet to be assessed. Methods: We investigated the associations between fasting serum individual NEFA, carotid IMT and FMD among Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with (n = 255 for carotid IMT, 301 for FMD) or without (n = 1314 for carotid IMT, 1462 for FMD) known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Using archived samples (fasting) collected from 1996-1997 (baseline), 35 individual NEFAs were measured using gas chromatography. Carotid IMT and estimated plaque thickness (mean of maximum internal carotid IMT) were determined in 1998-1999. FMD was measured in 1997-1998. Linear regression adjusted by the Holm-Bonferroni method was used to assess relations between individual NEFA, carotid IMT and FMD. Results: In multivariable adjusted linear regression models per SD increment, the non-esterified trans fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (trans-18:2 CLA) was positively associated with carotid IMT [ß (95% CI): 44.8 (19.2, 70.4), p = 0.025] among participants with, but not without, ASCVD [2.16 (-6.74, 11.5), p = 1.000]. Non-esterified cis-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7c) was positively associated with FMD [19.7 (8.34, 31.0), p = 0.024] among participants without, but not with ASCVD. No significant associations between NEFAs and estimated plaque thickness were observed. Conclusions: In older adults, serum non-esterified CLA and palmitoleic acid were positively associated with carotid IMT and FMD, respectively, suggesting potential modifiable biomarkers for arteriopathy.

3.
Atherosclerosis ; 335: 126-134, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bone and mineral metabolism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiac valve calcification. Whether bone demineralization, a common aging-related disorder, promotes calcific valve disease remains uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with greater incidence/progression of cardiac valve calcification in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS: Using linear mixed-effects models, we related baseline measurement of BMD of the thoracic vertebrae by computed tomography (CT) in 6768 participants to serial CT assessments of aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral annular calcification (MAC) obtained over a >10-year period. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, lower BMD (per SD decrement) was associated with accelerated increase in AVC over time in women (0.76 [95% CI 0.42,1.09] Agatston -units [AU]/year) and men (1.41 [95% CI 0.48,2.33] AU/year), as well as for MAC in women (3.22 [95% CI 1.16,5.28] AU/year) and men (3.59 [95% CI 2.09,5.09] AU/year). Significant effect modification was observed, with more pronounced BMD-related acceleration of AVC and MAC progression in older or white participants of one or both sexes, as well as by estimated glomerular filtration rate, though the latter differed by sex for AVC and MAC. CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-ethnic cohort, low thoracic BMD was significantly, but modestly, associated with increased AVC and MAC progression. This suggests that altered bone mineral metabolism does not have a major impact on calcific valve disease in the general population, but the possibility of a more meaningful influence in higher-risk individuals with osteoporosis will require further investigation.

4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focused studies in younger to middle-aged populations have demonstrated a relationship between obesity and adverse cardiac mechanics. We examined whether measures of overall and central adiposity are associated with cardiac mechanics, assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography, in an older population without prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. METHODS: Body composition was measured by anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry among participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort of adults aged 65 years or older. Systolic and diastolic cardiac mechanics were measured with speckle-tracking analysis of echocardiograms. Multi-variable adjusted linear regression models were used to investigate associations of body composition measures and cardiac mechanics. RESULTS: Mean age for the 3525 included participants was 72.6 years, 39% were male, and 10% were black. Mean body-mass index (BMI) was 26.3 ± 4.4 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) was 93.2 ± 12.9 cm, and waist-to-hip ratio was 0.92 ± 0.09. In fully adjusted analyses, all adiposity measures were associated with worse LV longitudinal strain, LV early diastolic strain rate, and left atrial reservoir strain; however, associations were strongest for WC and BMI (p < 0.001). When both BMI and WC were included in the same model, only WC remained associated with each cardiac strain measure. CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional study of older adults, central obesity was most robustly associated with impaired left ventricular systolic and diastolic strain as well as left atrial strain. The adverse effects of central obesity appear to extend even into older age.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17358, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462469

RESUMO

Recent evidence indicates that our understanding of the relationship between cardiac function and ischemic stroke remains incomplete. The Cardiovascular Health Study enrolled community-dwelling adults ≥ 65 years old. We included participants with speckle-tracking data from digitized baseline study echocardiograms. Exposures were left atrial reservoir strain (primary), left ventricular longitudinal strain, left ventricular early diastolic strain rate, septal e' velocity, and lateral e' velocity. The primary outcome was incident ischemic stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for demographics, image quality, and risk factors including left ventricular ejection fraction and incident atrial fibrillation. Among 4,000 participants in our analysis, lower (worse) left atrial reservoir strain was associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR per SD absolute decrease, 1.14; 95% CI 1.04-25). All secondary exposure variables were significantly associated with the outcome. Left atrial reservoir strain was associated with cardioembolic stroke (HR per SD absolute decrease, 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.67) and cardioembolic stroke related to incident atrial fibrillation (HR per SD absolute decrease, 1.60; 1.32-1.95). Myocardial dysfunction that can ultimately lead to stroke may be identifiable at an early stage. This highlights opportunities to identify cerebrovascular risk earlier and improve stroke prevention via therapies for early myocardial dysfunction.

6.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363689

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Loss of muscle mass and strength are associated with long-term adverse health outcomes in older adults. Urine creatinine concentrations (Ucr; mg/dl) are a measure of muscle tissue mass and turnover. This study assessed the associations of a spot Ucr level with muscle mass and with risk of hospitalization, mortality, and diabetes mellitus in older adults. METHODS: We examined 3424 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study who provided spot urine samples in 1996-1997 and who were followed through June 2015. All participants underwent baseline measurement of grip strength. In a sub-cohort, 1331 participants underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans, from which lean muscle mass was derived. Participants were followed for a median of 10 years for hospitalizations and mortality, and 9 years for diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: In linear regression analysis, a one standard deviation higher Ucr concentration (64.6 mg/dl) was associated with greater grip strength (kg force) ß = 0.44 [0.16, 0.72]; p = 0.002) and higher lean muscle mass (kg) (ß = 0.43 [0.08, 0.78]; p = 0.02). In Cox regression analyses, each standard deviation greater Ucr concentration was associated with lower rates of hospitalizations (0.94 [95% confidence interval, 0.90, 0.98]; p < 0.001) and lower mortality risk (0.92 [0.88, 0.97]; p < 0.001), while a one standard deviation increase in muscle mass derived from DEXA had no such significant association. Ucr levels were not associated with incident diabetes mellitus risk (0.97 [0.85, 1.11]; p = 0.65). CONCLUSION: A higher spot Ucr concentration was favorably associated with muscle mass and strength and with health outcomes in older community-living adults. The ease of obtaining a spot Ucr makes it an attractive analyte to use for gauging the health of older adults.

7.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 116, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantification of non-ischemic myocardial scar remains a challenge due to the patchy diffuse nature of fibrosis. Extracellular volume (ECV) to guide late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) analysis may achieve a robust scar assessment. METHODS: Three cohorts of 80 non-ischemic-training, 20 non-ischemic-validation, and 10 ischemic-validation were prospectively enrolled and underwent 3.0 Tesla cardiac MRI. An ECV cutoff to differentiate LGE scar from non-scar was identified in the training cohort from the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, by comparing the ECV value against the visually-determined presence/absence of the LGE scar at the highest signal intensity (SI) area of the mid-left ventricle (LV) LGE. Based on the ECV cutoff, an LGE semi-automatic threshold of n-times of standard-deviation (n-SD) above the remote-myocardium SI was optimized in the individual cases ensuring correspondence between LGE and ECV images. The inter-method agreement of scar amount in comparison with manual (for non-ischemic) or full-width half-maximum (FWHM, for ischemic) was assessed. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were investigated in a randomly chosen subset of 40 non-ischemic and 10 ischemic cases. RESULTS: The non-ischemic groups were all female with the HIV positive rate of 73.8% (training) and 80% (validation). The ischemic group was all male with reduced LV function. An ECV cutoff of 31.5% achieved optimum performance (sensitivity: 90%, specificity: 86.7% in training; sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 81.8% in validation dataset). The identified n-SD threshold varied widely (range 3 SD-18 SD), and was independent of scar amount (ß = -0.01, p = 0.92). In the non-ischemic cohorts, results suggested that the manual LGE assessment overestimated scar (%) in comparison to ECV-guided analysis [training: 4.5 (3.2-6.4) vs. 0.92 (0.1-2.1); validation: 2.5 (1.2-3.7) vs. 0.2 (0-1.6); P < 0.01 for both]. Intra- and inter-observer analyses of global scar (%) showed higher reproducibility in ECV-guided than manual analysis with CCC = 0.94 and 0.78 versus CCC = 0.86 and 0.73, respectively (P < 0.01 for all). In ischemic validation, the ECV-guided LGE analysis showed a comparable scar amount and reproducibility with the FWHM. CONCLUSIONS: ECV-guided LGE analysis is a robust scar quantification method for a non-ischemic cohort. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00000797, retrospectively-registered 2 November 1999; NCT02501811, registered 15 July 2015.

8.
Heart ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Speckle-tracking echocardiography enables detection of abnormalities in cardiac mechanics with higher sensitivity than conventional measures of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and may provide insight into the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the relationship of LV longitudinal strain, LV early diastolic strain rate (SR) and left atrial (LA) reservoir strain with long-term CHD incidence in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The association of all three strain measures with incidence of non-fatal and fatal CHD (primary outcome of revascularisation, non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction) was examined in the population-based Cardiovascular Health Study using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Follow-up was truncated at 10 years. RESULTS: We included 3313 participants (mean (SD) age 72.6 (5.5) years). During a median follow-up of 10.0 (25th-75th percentile 7.7-10.0) years, 439 CHD events occurred. LV longitudinal strain (HR=1.25 per SD decrement, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.43) and LV early diastolic SR (HR=1.31 per SD decrement, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.50) were associated with a significantly greater risk of incident CHD after adjustment for potential confounders. By contrast, LA reservoir strain was not associated with incident CHD (HR=1.06 per SD decrement, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.19). Additional adjustment for biochemical and echocardiographic measures of myocardial stress, dysfunction and remodelling did not meaningfully alter these associations. CONCLUSION: We found an association between echocardiographic measures of subclinically altered LV mechanics and incident CHD. These findings inform the underlying biology of subclinical LV dysfunction and CHD. Early detection of asymptomatic myocardial dysfunction may offer an opportunity for prevention and early intervention.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 153: 71-78, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175107

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and myocardial infarction are serious complications of major noncardiac surgery in older adults. Many factors can contribute to the development of HF during the postoperative period. The incidence of, and risk factors for, procedure-associated heart failure (PHF) occurring at the time of, or shortly after, medical procedures in a population-based sample ≥ 65 years of age have not been fully characterized, particularly in comparison with HF not proximate to medical procedures. This analysis comprises 5,121 men and women free of HF at baseline from the Cardiovascular Health Study who were followed up for 12.0 years (median). HF events were documented by self-report at semi-annual contacts and confirmed by a formal adjudication committee using a review of the participants' medical records and standardized criteria for HF. Incident HF events were additionally adjudicated as either being related or unrelated to a medical procedure (PHF and non-PHF, respectively). We estimated cause-specific hazards ratios for the association of covariates with PHF and non-PHF. There were 1,728 incident HF events in the primary analysis: 168 (10%) classified as PHF, 1,526 (88%) as non-PHF, and 34 unclassified (2%). For those 1,045 participants in whom LV ejection fraction was known at the time of the HF event, it was ≥45% in 89 of 118 participants (75%) with PHF, compared to 517 of 927 participants (55%) with non-PHF (p < 0.001). Increased age, male gender, diabetes, and angina at baseline were associated with both PHF and non-PHF (range of hazard ratios (HR): 1.04-2.05]. Being Black was inversely associated with PHF [HR: 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.86]. Participants with increased age, without baseline angina, and with baseline LVEF<55% were at a significantly lower risk for PHF compared to non-PHF. Among those with PHF, surgical procedures-including cardiac, orthopedic, gastrointestinal, vascular, and urologic-comprised 83.3%, while percutaneous procedures comprised 8.9% (including 6.5% represented by cardiac catheterizations and pacemaker placements). Another group composed of a variety of procedures commonly requiring large fluid volume administration comprised 7.7%. There was a lower all-cause 30-day mortality in the PHF versus the non-PHF group (2.2% vs 5.7%), with a nonsignificant odds ratio of 0.39 in a minimally adjusted model. When individuals with prior myocardial infarction (MI) were excluded in a sensitivity analysis, the proportion of incident HF with concurrent MI was greater for PHF (32.9%) than for non-PHF (19.8%). In conclusion, PHF in older adults is a common entity with relatively low 30-day mortality. Baseline angina, lower age, and LVEF ≥ 55% were associated with a higher risk of PHF compared to non-PHF. Being Black was associated with a lower risk of PHF and PHF as a proportion of HF was lower in Black than in non-Black participants. Compared to non-PHF, PHF more frequently presented with concurrent MI and with preserved LV ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etnologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Volume Sistólico
10.
Heart ; 107(18): 1493-1502, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current estimates of aortic stenosis (AS) frequency have mostly relied on cross-sectional echocardiographic or longitudinal administrative data, making understanding of AS burden incomplete. We performed case adjudications to evaluate the frequency of AS and assess differences by age, sex and race in an older cohort with long-term follow-up. METHODS: We developed case-capture methods using study echocardiograms, procedure and diagnosis codes, heart failure events and deaths for targeted review of medical records in the Cardiovascular Health Study to identify moderate or severe AS and related procedures or hospitalisations. The primary outcome was clinically significant AS (severe AS or procedure). Assessment of incident AS burden was based on subdistribution survival methods, while associations with age, sex and race relied on cause-specific survival methods. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 5795 participants (age 73±6, 42.2% male, 14.3% Black). Cumulative frequency of clinically significant AS at maximal 25-year follow-up was 3.69% (probable/definite) to 4.67% (possible/probable/definite), while the corresponding 20-year cumulative incidence was 2.88% to 3.71%. Of incident cases, about 85% had a hospitalisation for severe AS, but roughly half did not undergo valve intervention. The adjusted incidence of clinically significant AS was higher in men (HR 1.62 [95% CI 1.21 to 2.17]) and increased with age (HR 1.08 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.11]), but was lower in Blacks (HR 0.43 [95% CI 0.23 to 0.81]). CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based study, we identified a higher burden of clinically significant AS than reported previously, with differences by age, sex and race. These findings have important implications for public health resource planning, although the lower burden in Blacks merits further study.

11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(2): 186-191, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation in HIV infection is associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, even with viral suppression. Identification of novel surrogate biomarkers can enhance CVD risk stratification and suggest novel therapies. We investigated the potential of interleukin 32 (IL-32), a proinflammatory multi-isoform cytokine, as a biomarker for subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis in virologically suppressed women living with HIV (WLWH). METHODS AND RESULTS: Nested within the Women's Interagency HIV Study, we conducted a cross-sectional comparison of IL-32 between 399 WLWH and 100 women without HIV, followed by a case-control study of 72 WLWH (36 carotid artery plaque cases vs. 36 age-matched controls without plaque). Plasma IL-32 protein was measured by ELISA, and mRNA of IL-32 isoforms (IL-32α, ß, γ, D, ε, and θ) was quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plasma IL-32 protein levels were higher in WLWH compared with women without HIV (P = 0.02). Among WLWH, although plasma IL-32 levels did not differ significantly between plaque cases and controls, expression of IL-32 isoforms α, ß, and ε mRNA was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cases (P = 0.01, P = 0.005, and P = 0.018, respectively). Upregulation of IL-32ß and IL-32ε among WLWH with carotid artery plaque persisted after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and history of hepatitis C virus (P = 0.04 and P = 0.045); the adjusted association for IL-32α was marginally significant (P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: IL-32 isoforms should be studied further as potential CVD biomarkers. This is of particular interest in WLWH by virtue of altered IL-32 levels in this population.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 664371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936102

RESUMO

Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) are still at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) that are mediated by chronic inflammation. Identification of novel inflammatory mediators with the inherent potential to be used as CVD biomarkers and also as therapeutic targets is critically needed for better risk stratification and disease management in PLWH. Here, we investigated the expression and potential role of the multi-isoform proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 in subclinical atherosclerosis in PLWH (n=49 with subclinical atherosclerosis and n=30 without) and HIV- controls (n=25 with subclinical atherosclerosis and n=24 without). While expression of all tested IL-32 isoforms (α, ß, γ, D, ϵ, and θ) was significantly higher in peripheral blood from PLWH compared to HIV- controls, IL-32D and IL-32θ isoforms were further upregulated in HIV+ individuals with coronary artery atherosclerosis compared to their counterparts without. Upregulation of these two isoforms was associated with increased plasma levels of IL-18 and IL-1ß and downregulation of the atheroprotective protein TRAIL, which together composed a unique atherosclerotic inflammatory signature specific for PLWH compared to HIV- controls. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that modulation of these inflammatory variables was independent of age, smoking, and statin treatment. Furthermore, our in vitro functional data linked IL-32 to macrophage activation and production of IL-18 and downregulation of TRAIL, a mechanism previously shown to be associated with impaired cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. Finally, increased expression of IL-32 isoforms in PLWH with subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with altered gut microbiome (increased pathogenic bacteria; Rothia and Eggerthella species) and lower abundance of the gut metabolite short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) caproic acid, measured in fecal samples from the study participants. Importantly, caproic acid diminished the production of IL-32, IL-18, and IL-1ß in human PBMCs in response to bacterial LPS stimulation. In conclusion, our studies identified an HIV-specific atherosclerotic inflammatory signature including specific IL-32 isoforms, which is regulated by the SCFA caproic acid and that may lead to new potential therapies to prevent CVD in ART-treated PLWH.

13.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher residual anatomic disease was associated with increased mortality in a recent randomized controlled trial of revascularization after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Less is known about the impact of residual disease post-STEMI in race-ethnic minorities. METHODS: Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX)- II (SS-II) score is an established scoring method for anatomic disease and prevalent co-morbidities to describe patient complexity. We evaluated residual (r) SS-II in 165 patients from a single center urban US registry (n = 1208) presenting for primary percutaneous coronary intervention of STEMI and treated for 3-vessel or left main and any combination of 0, 1, 2 or 3-vessel disease. RESULTS: The median age was 62 years (IQR 52-70), 29.1% women, 44.9% Hispanic/Latino and 19.4% non-Hispanic Black. Over median of 4.9 years (IQR 2.9-6.3), higher rSS-II was associated with increased death [hazard ratio 2.46 per SD increment in log rSS-II (~1.five-fold increment on the original scale) 95% CI 1.51, 3.99], death or all-cause readmission (hazard ratio 1.37 per SD increment in log rSS-II 95% CI, 1.11-1.70) and death or cardiovascular disease readmission (hazard rati 1.46 per SD increment in log rSS-II 95% CI, 1.14-1.88). rSS-II was higher in older women with more co-morbidities, but not different by race-ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, higher rSS-II was associated with long-term outcomes post-STEMI in a prospective urban, minority cohort, suggesting a potential role for risk stratification with this measure in a non-trial setting.

14.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985646

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), coronary artery calcium (CAC) density, and cardiovascular events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS: We analyzed 1041 participants with non-zero CAC scores who had polysomnography and CAC density data from the fifth examination of MESA. OSA was defined as apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15 events/hour. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the independent association between OSA and CAC density. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of OSA on associations of CAC measures with incident CVD events by testing for interaction in Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Our analytical sample was 45% female with a mean age of 70.6 +/- 9 years. Of this sample, 36.7% (n=383/1041) had OSA (AHI≥15). OSA was inversely and weakly associated with CAC density (ß= -0.09, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.02, p=0.014) and remained significantly associated after controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (ß= -0.08, 95% CI -0.16 to 0, p=0.043). However, this inverse association was attenuated after controlling for BMI (ß=-0.05, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.02, p=0.174). The mean follow-up period for CVD events was 13.3 +/- 2.8 years. Additionally, exploratory analysis demonstrated that CAC density was independently and inversely associated with CVD events only in the non-OSA subgroup (AHI≤15) (HR 0.509 [CI 0.323 - 0.801], p=0.0035). CONCLUSIONS: OSA was associated with lower CAC density, but this association was attenuated by BMI. Further, increased CAC density was associated with a reduced risk of CVD events only in individuals within the non-OSA group in exploratory analysis.

15.
AIDS ; 35(10): 1647-1655, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV and HCV have each been linked with cardiac dysfunction. Studies of HIV have often lacked appropriate controls and primarily involved men, whereas data for HCV are sparse. METHODS: We performed repeat echocardiography over a median interval of 12 years in participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study in order to evaluate the relationships of HIV and HCV with incident left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (systolic or diastolic). RESULTS: Of the 311 women included (age 39 ±â€Š9), 70% were HIV-positive and 20% HCV-positive. Forty three participants (13.8%) developed LV dysfunction, of which 79.1% was diastolic. Compared with participants with neither infection, the group with HIV--HCV coinfection showed a significantly increased risk of incident LV dysfunction after adjustment for risk factors [RR = 2.96 (95% CI = 1.05-8.31)], but associations for the HCV monoinfected and HIV monoinfected groups were not statistically significant [RR = 2.54 (0.83-7.73) and RR = 1.66 (0.65-4.25), respectively]. Comparison of HCV-positive and HCV-negative women showed a significantly increased risk independent of covariates [RR = 1.96 (1.02-3.77)] but this was not the case for HIV-positive vs. HIV-negative women [RR = 1.43 (0.76-2.69)]. There was no evidence of HCV-by-HIV interaction. A more restrictive definition of LV diastolic dysfunction led to fewer incident cases, but a similar, though nonsignificant, risk estimate for HCV. CONCLUSION: Among mostly middle-aged women, HCV but not HIV infection was associated with a pronounced risk of incident LV dysfunction. Although the influence of residual confounding cannot be excluded, these findings bolster the potential benefits that could be realized by adopting recent recommendations for expanding HCV screening and treatment.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(6): e019135, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682438

RESUMO

Background Significant associations have been reported between serum total nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in some prospective cohort studies. Little is known about whether individual or subclasses (saturated, polyunsaturated [n-6 and n-3], and trans fatty acids) of serum NEFAs relate to CHD mortality and nonfatal MI. Methods and Results CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study) participants (N=1681) who had no history of MI, angina, or revascularization or were free of MI at baseline (1996-1997) were included. NEFAs were quantified using gas chromatography. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate associations of 5 subclasses and individual NEFAs with CHD composite (CHD mortality and nonfatal MI), CHD mortality, and incident nonfatal MI. During a median follow-up of 11.7 years, 266 cases of CHD death and 271 cases of nonfatal MI occurred. In the fully adjusted model, no significant associations were identified between individual NEFA and CHD composite. Exploratory analyses indicated that lauric acid (12:0) was negatively associated (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.98; P=0.0328) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) was positively associated with CHD mortality (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76; P=0.0351). Elaidic acid (18:1n-7t) was positively associated with incident nonfatal MI (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.01-2.12; P=0.0445). No significant associations were observed for NEFA subclass and any outcomes. Conclusions In CHS participants, 2 NEFAs, dihomo-γ-linolenic and elaidic acids, were positively associated with CHD mortality and nonfatal MI, respectively, suggesting potential susceptibility biomarkers for risks of CHD mortality and nonfatal MI.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Previsões , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 95-102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737810

RESUMO

Background: Endothelial dysfunction is associated with common risk factors for AF and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) through a variety of mechanisms. We determined the prospective association of brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) with incident AF among older adults. Methods: We included 2027 Cardiovascular Health Study participants (mean age=78.3 years, male=39%, Black=17%) who underwent brachial FMD measurement at the 1997 to 1998 clinic visit. Incident AF was ascertained by study electrocardiograms, hospital discharge diagnosis coding and Medicare claims data. Cox regression models were used to examine the association between FMD and incident AF. Results: We identified 754 incident of AF cases (37%) over a median follow-up of 11.0 years. After adjusting for age, sex, race, height, weight, cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, kidney function, c-reactive protein, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and statins, the risk of AF did not differ according to brachial FMD response (4th vs 1st quartile hazard ratio (HR)=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.26; per FMD unit increment HR=1.01, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.05). Conclusion: We found no relationship between brachial FMD and the risk of developing AF in this elderly cohort. Our findings suggest that the utility of brachial FMD as a risk marker for AF in older individuals is minimal.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Vasodilatação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 78(2): 259-267, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548344

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) make up a small portion of circulating lipids but are a metabolically important energy source. Excessive circulating NEFAs may contribute to lipotoxicity in many tissues, including the kidneys. We investigated the relationship between total circulating NEFA concentration and kidney outcomes in older, community-dwelling adults. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 4,698 participants≥65 years of age in the Cardiovascular Health Study who underwent total fasting serum NEFA concentration measurements in 1992-1993. EXPOSURE: Fasting serum NEFA concentration at one time point. OUTCOME: Three primary outcomes: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline of≥30%, the composite of eGFR decline≥30% or kidney failure with replacement therapy, and change in eGFR. These outcomes were assessed over 4- and 13-year periods. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Logistic regression for the dichotomous outcomes and mixed effects models for the continuous outcome, with sequential adjustment for baseline covariates. Inverse probability of attrition weighting was implemented to account for informative attrition during the follow-up periods. RESULTS: Serum NEFA concentrations were not independently associated with kidney outcomes. In unadjusted and partially adjusted analyses, the highest quartile of serum NEFA concentration (compared with lowest) was associated with a higher risk of≥30% eGFR decline at 4 years and faster rate of decline of eGFR. No associations were evident after adjustment for comorbidities, lipid levels, insulin sensitivity, medications, and vital signs: the odds ratio for the eGFR decline outcome was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.83-2.13), and the difference in eGFR slope in the highest versus lowest quartile of serum NEFA concentration was-0.15 (95% CI, -0.36 to 0.06) mL/min/1.73m2 per year. LIMITATIONS: Single NEFA measurements, no measurements of post-glucose load NEFA concentrations or individual NEFA species, no measurement of baseline urine albumin. CONCLUSIONS: A single fasting serum NEFA concentration was not independently associated with long-term adverse kidney outcomes in a cohort of older community-living adults.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Cistatina C/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal
19.
Cardiology ; 146(3): 351-358, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent among older adults and is associated with high costs. Although serum total nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been positively associated with HF risk, the contribution of each individual NEFA to HF risk has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association of individual fasting NEFAs with HF risk in older adults. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study of older adults, we measured 35 individual NEFAs in 2,140 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study using gas chromatography. HF was ascertained using review of medical records by an endpoint committee. RESULTS: The mean age was 77.7 ± 4.4 years, and 38.8% were male. During a median follow-up of 9.7 (maximum 19.0) years, 655 new cases of HF occurred. In a multivariable Cox regression model controlling for demographic and anthropometric variables, field center, education, serum albumin, glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, unintentional weight loss, and all other measured NEFAs, we observed inverse associations (HR [95% CI] per standard deviation) of nonesterified pentadecanoic (15:0) (0.73 [0.57-0.94]), γ-linolenic acid (GLA) (0.87 [0.75-1.00]), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0.73 [0.61-0.88]) acids with HF, and positive associations of nonesterified stearic (18:0) (1.30 [1.04-1.63]) and nervonic (24:1n-9) (1.17 [1.06-1.29]) acids with HF. CONCLUSION: Our data are consistent with a higher risk of HF with nonesterified stearic and nervonic acids and a lower risk with nonesterified 15:0, GLA, and DHA in older adults. If confirmed in other studies, specific NEFAs may provide new targets for HF prevention.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Ácidos Graxos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Heart ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and dysmetabolism are major risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). Expansion of fat depots is associated with increased circulating total non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), elevated levels of which are associated with incident AF. We undertook comprehensive serum measurement of individual NEFA to identify specific associations with new-onset AF late in life. METHODS: The present study focused on participants with available serum and free of AF selected from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based longitudinal investigation of older US adults. Thirty-five individual NEFAs were measured by gas chromatography. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association of individual NEFAs with incident AF. RESULTS: The study sample included 1872 participants (age 77.7±4.4). During median follow-up of 11.3 years, 715 cases of incident AF occurred. After concurrent adjustment of all NEFAs and full adjustment for potential confounders, higher serum concentration of nervonic acid (24:1 n-9), a long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid, was associated with higher risk of AF (HR per SD: 1.18, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.29; p<0.001). Conversely, higher serum concentration of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3 n-6), a polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acid, was associated with lower risk of AF (HR per SD: 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94; p=0.004). None of the remaining NEFAs was significantly associated with AF. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults, serum levels of non-esterified nervonic acid were positively associated, while serum levels of non-esterified GLA were inversely associated, with incident AF. If confirmed, these results could offer new strategies for AF prevention and early intervention in this segment of the population at highest risk.

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