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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine associations between total serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and incident total and cause-specific hospitalizations in a community-living cohort of elders. METHODS: We included 4715 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study who had fasting total serum NEFA measured at the 1992/93 clinic visit and were followed for a median of 12 years. We identified all inpatient admissions requiring at least an overnight hospitalization and used primary diagnostic codes to categorize cause-specific hospitalizations. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to determine associations with time-to-first hospitalization and Poisson regression for the rate ratios (RR) of hospitalizations and days hospitalized. RESULTS: We identified 21339 hospitalizations during follow-up. In fully adjusted models, higher total NEFAs were significantly associated with higher risk of incident hospitalization (Hazard Ratio (HR) per SD [0.2 mEq/L]=1.07, 95%CI=1.03-1.10, P&0.001), number of hospitalizations (RR per SD=1.04, 95%CI=1.01-1.07, P=0.01), and total number of days hospitalized (RR per SD=1.06, 95%CI=1.01-1.10, P=0.01). Among hospitalization subtypes, higher NEFA was associated with higher likelihood of mental, neurologic, respiratory, and musculoskeletal causes of hospitalization. Among specific causes of hospitalization, higher NEFA was associated with diabetes, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Higher fasting total serum NEFAs are associated with a broad array of causes of hospitalization among older adults. While some of these were expected, our results illustrate a possible utility of NEFAs as biomarkers for risk of hospitalization, and total days hospitalized, in older adults. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions based on NEFAs might be feasible.

2.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) play central roles in the relationship between adiposity and glucose metabolism, and they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but few studies have assessed their effects on complex geriatric syndromes like frailty that cross multiple organ systems. We sought to determine the relationships between NEFAs and incident frailty, disability, and mobility limitation in a population-based cohort of older persons. METHODS: We analyzed 4,710 Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants who underwent measurement of circulating total fasting NEFAs in 1992-1993 and were assessed for frailty in 1996-1997 and for disability and mobility limitation annually. We used ordinal logistic regression to model incident frailty, linear regression to model components of frailty, and Cox regression to model disability and mobility limitation in relation to baseline NEFAs. To ensure proportional hazards, we truncated follow-up at 9 years for disability and 6.5 years for mobility limitation. RESULTS: A total of 42 participants became frail and 510 became pre-frail over a 4-year period, and we documented 1,720 cases of disability and 1,225 cases of mobility limitation during follow-up. NEFAs were positively associated in a dose-dependent manner with higher risks of incident frailty, disability, and mobility limitation. The adjusted odds ratios for frailty were 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.86; P = .04) across extreme tertiles and 1.17 (95% CI = 1.03-1.33; P = .01) per standard deviation increment. The corresponding hazard ratios for incident disability were 1.14 (95% CI = 1.01-1.30; P = .04) and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.06-1.17; P < .0001); those for incident mobility limitation were 1.23 (95% CI = 1.06-1.43; P = .006) and 1.15 (95% CI = 1.08-1.22; P < .0001). Results were largely consistent among both men and women. Among individual components of frailty, NEFAs were significantly associated with self-reported exhaustion (ß = .07; standard error = .03; P = .02). CONCLUSION: Circulating NEFAs are significantly associated with frailty, disability, and mobility limitation among older adults. These results highlight the broad spectrum of adverse health issues associated with NEFA in older adults.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1455-1465, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and biomarkers associate differentially with heart failure (HF) risk in men and women is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex-specific associations of CV risk factors and biomarkers with incident HF. METHODS: The analysis was performed using data from 4 community-based cohorts with 12.5 years of follow-up. Participants (recruited between 1989 and 2002) were free of HF at baseline. Biomarker measurements included natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, sST2, galectin-3, cystatin-C, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS: Among 22,756 participants (mean age 60 ± 13 years, 53% women), HF occurred in 2,095 participants (47% women). Age, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, body mass index, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left bundle branch block were strongly associated with HF in both sexes (p < 0.001), and the combined clinical model had good discrimination in men (C-statistic = 0.80) and in women (C-statistic = 0.83). The majority of biomarkers were strongly and similarly associated with HF in both sexes. The clinical model improved modestly after adding natriuretic peptides in men (ΔC-statistic = 0.006; likelihood ratio chi-square = 146; p < 0.001), and after adding cardiac troponins in women (ΔC-statistic = 0.003; likelihood ratio chi-square = 73; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CV risk factors are strongly and similarly associated with incident HF in both sexes, highlighting the similar importance of risk factor control in reducing HF risk in the community. There are subtle sex-related differences in the predictive value of individual biomarkers, but the overall improvement in HF risk estimation when included in a clinical HF risk prediction model is limited in both sexes.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946864

RESUMO

High sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT), soluble ST2 (sST2), N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and galectin-3 are biomarkers of cardiac injury, stress, myocardial stretch, and fibrosis. Elevated levels are associated with poor outcomes. However, their association with cardiac mechanics in older persons is unknown. Associations between these biomarkers and cardiac mechanics derived from speckle tracking echocardiography, including left ventricular longitudinal strain (LVLS), early diastolic strain, and left atrial reservoir strain (LARS) were evaluated using standardized beta coefficients () in a cross sectional analysis with cardiac biomarkers in older patients without cardiovascular disease, low ejection fraction, or wall motion abnormalities. Biomarker associations with strain were attenuated by demographics and risk factors. In adjusted models, LVLS was associated with continuous measures of hscTnT (ß∧-0.06, p = 0.020), sST2 (ß∧ -0.05, p = 0.024) and NT-proBNP (ß∧ -0.06, p = 0.007). "High" levels (i.e., greater than prognostic cutpoint) of hscTnT (>13 ng/ml), sST2 (>35 ng/ml), and NT-proBNP (>190 pg/ml) were also associated with worse LVLS. In risk factor adjusted models, LARS was associated with hscTnT (ß∧ -0.08, p = 0.003) and NT-proBNP (ß∧-0.18, p <0.0001). High hscTnT (>13 ng/ml) and high NT-proBNP (>190 pg/ml) were also both associated with worse LARS. Gal-3 was not associated with any strain measure. In conclusion, in persons ≥ 65 years of age, without cardiovascular disease, low ejection fraction, or wall motion abnormalities, hscTnT, sST2, and NT-proBNP are associated with worse LVLS. HscTnT and NT-proBNP are associated with worse LARS. In conclusion, these subclinical increases in blood biomarkers, and their associations with subtle diastolic and systolic dysfunction, may represent pre-clinical heart failure.

5.
JCI Insight ; 5(19)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) remodeling are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). The prospective associations of impairment in cardiac mechanical function, as assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography, with incident AF are less clear. METHODS: In the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based cohort of older adults, participants free of AF with echocardiograms of adequate quality for speckle tracking were included. We evaluated the associations of indices of cardiac mechanics (LA reservoir strain, LV longitudinal strain, and LV early diastolic strain rate) with incident AF. RESULTS: Of 4341 participants with strain imaging, participants with lower LA reservoir strain were older, had more cardiometabolic risk factors, and had lower renal function at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 10 years, 497 (11.4%) participants developed AF. Compared with the highest quartile of LA reservoir strain, the lowest quartile of LA reservoir strain was associated with higher risk of AF after covariate adjustment, including LA volume and LV longitudinal strain (heart rate [HR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45; P < 0.001). The association of LA reservoir strain and AF was stronger in subgroups with higher blood pressure, NT-proBNP, and LA volumes. There were no associations of LV longitudinal strain and LV early diastolic strain rate with incident AF after adjustment for LA reservoir strain. CONCLUSION: Lower LA reservoir strain was associated with incident AF, independent of LV mechanics, and with stronger associations in high-risk subgroups. These findings suggest that LA mechanical dysfunction precedes the development of AF. Therapies targeting LA mechanical dysfunction may prevent progression to AF. FUNDING: This research was supported by contracts HHSN268201200036C, HHSN268200800007C, HHSN268201800001C, N01HC55222, N01HC85079, N01HC85080, N01HC85081, N01HC85082, N01HC85083, and N01HC85086 and grants KL2TR001424, R01HL107577, U01HL080295, and U01HL130114 from the NIH's National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), with additional contribution from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Additional support was provided by R01AG023629 from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). A full list of principal CHS investigators and institutions can be found at CHS-NHLBI.org.

6.
Atherosclerosis ; 311: 60-66, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV and HCV have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their impact on long-term outcomes following ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been previously studied. METHODS: We leveraged data from a STEMI registry (n = 1208) at an inner-city health system to assess the influence of HIV and HCV on post-STEMI outcomes. Cox regression was used to compare HIV-monoinfected (n = 22), HCV-monoinfected (n = 26) and HIV-HCV-coinfected patients (n = 8) with the neither-infected group (n = 1152) with regard to death, death or any readmission, and death or CVD readmission. RESULTS: The cohort was majority black or Hispanic. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Compared to the neither-infected group, the HIV-monoinfected group showed near-significantly higher risks of death or any readmission (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.96, 2.74) and death or CVD readmission (HR = 1.82, 95% CI = 0.98, 3.39) after full adjustment. On similar comparison, the HCV-monoinfected group exhibited significantly higher risks of death (HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.05, 4.15) and death or any readmission (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.65), whereas the HIV-HCV-coinfected group showed higher risk of death (HR = 6.51, 95% CI = 2.28, 18.61). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort composed mostly of race-ethnic minorities, HIV monoinfection tended to be associated with 1.6-to-1.8-fold higher risk of death or readmission for any cause or CVD over long-term follow-up compared to neither infection, whereas HCV monoinfection was associated with 1.7-to-2.1-fold higher risk of death and death or any readmission, and HIV-HCV coinfection with 6.5-fold higher risk of death. These associations require further study in larger populations, but highlight the importance of identifying and treating HIV and HCV in patients presenting with STEMI.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(16): e015451, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752978

RESUMO

Background Underuse of cardiovascular medications for secondary prevention among individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been reported. Little is known about PAD treatment status in the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States, who may have limited access to health care and who have worse clinical outcomes than non-Hispanic individuals. Methods and Results We studied the use of cardiovascular therapies in 1244 Hispanic/Latino individuals recruited from 4 sites in the United States, including 826 individuals who reported diagnosis of PAD by physician and 418 individuals with coronary artery disease alone, in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We compared the prevalence of using antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy by PAD and coronary artery disease status. Among those with PAD, we studied factors associated with taking cardiovascular medications, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, acculturation, access to health care and comorbidities, using multivariable regression models. The overall prevalence for individuals with PAD taking antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy and, among hypertensive individuals, antihypertensive therapy was 31%, 26% and 57%, respectively. Individuals of Mexican background had the lowest use for all classes of cardiovascular medications. Older age, number of doctor visits and existing hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with taking cardiovascular therapies in adjusted models. Compared with those with PAD alone, individuals with PAD and concurrent coronary artery disease were 1.52 (95% CI, 1.20-1.93) and 1.74 (1.30-2.32) times more likely to use antiplatelet agents and statins according to multivariable analysis. No significant difference of antihypertensive medication use was found among PAD patients with or without coronary artery disease. Conclusions Hispanic/Latino individuals with known PAD underuse cardiovascular medications recommended in clinical guidelines. More efforts should be directed to improve treatment in this important group.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(6): e006292, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many large-scale cardiovascular clinical trials are plagued with escalating costs and low enrollment. Implementing a computable phenotype, which is a set of executable algorithms, to identify a group of clinical characteristics derivable from electronic health records or administrative claims records, is essential to successful recruitment in large-scale pragmatic clinical trials. This methods paper provides an overview of the development and implementation of a computable phenotype in ADAPTABLE (Aspirin Dosing: a Patient-Centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long-Term Effectiveness)-a pragmatic, randomized, open-label clinical trial testing the optimal dose of aspirin for secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. METHODS AND RESULTS: A multidisciplinary team developed and tested the computable phenotype to identify adults ≥18 years of age with a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease without safety concerns around using aspirin and meeting trial eligibility criteria. Using the computable phenotype, investigators identified over 650 000 potentially eligible patients from the 40 participating sites from Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network-a network of Clinical Data Research Networks, Patient-Powered Research Networks, and Health Plan Research Networks. Leveraging diverse recruitment methods, sites enrolled 15 076 participants from April 2016 to June 2019. During the process of developing and implementing the ADAPTABLE computable phenotype, several key lessons were learned. The accuracy and utility of a computable phenotype are dependent on the quality of the source data, which can be variable even with a common data model. Local validation and modification were required based on site factors, such as recruitment strategies, data quality, and local coding patterns. Sustained collaboration among a diverse team of researchers is needed during computable phenotype development and implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The ADAPTABLE computable phenotype served as an efficient method to recruit patients in a multisite pragmatic clinical trial. This process of development and implementation will be informative for future large-scale, pragmatic clinical trials. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02697916.

9.
Neurology ; 94(20): 876-885, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2016 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice advisory for patients with stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). METHODS: The guideline panel followed the AAN 2017 guideline development process to systematically review studies published through December 2017 and formulate recommendations. MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS: In patients being considered for PFO closure, clinicians should ensure that an appropriately thorough evaluation has been performed to rule out alternative mechanisms of stroke (level B). In patients with a higher risk alternative mechanism of stroke identified, clinicians should not routinely recommend PFO closure (level B). Clinicians should counsel patients that having a PFO is common; that it occurs in about 1 in 4 adults in the general population; that it is difficult to determine with certainty whether their PFO caused their stroke; and that PFO closure probably reduces recurrent stroke risk in select patients (level B). In patients younger than 60 years with a PFO and embolic-appearing infarct and no other mechanism of stroke identified, clinicians may recommend closure following a discussion of potential benefits (absolute recurrent stroke risk reduction of 3.4% at 5 years) and risks (periprocedural complication rate of 3.9% and increased absolute rate of non-periprocedural atrial fibrillation of 0.33% per year) (level C). In patients who opt to receive medical therapy alone without PFO closure, clinicians may recommend an antiplatelet medication such as aspirin or anticoagulation (level C).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Forame Oval Patente/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Forame Oval Patente/complicações , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014070, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248728

RESUMO

Background FABP-4 (fatty acid binding protein-4) is a lipid chaperone in adipocytes and has been associated with prognosis in selected clinical populations. We investigated the associations between circulating FABP-4, risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk of CVD mortality among older adults with and without established CVD. Methods and Results In the Cardiovascular Health Study, we measured FABP4 levels in stored specimens from the 1992-993 visit and followed participants for incident CVD if they were free of prevalent CVD at baseline and for CVD mortality through June 2015. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for incident CVD and CVD mortality per doubling in serum FABP-4 adjusted for age, sex, race, field center, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, and C-reactive protein. Among 4026 participants free of CVD and 681 with prevalent CVD, we documented 1878 cases of incident CVD and 331 CVD deaths, respectively. In adjusted analyses, FABP-4 was modestly associated with risk of incident CVD (mean, 34.24; SD, 18.90; HR, 1.10 per doubling in FABP-4, 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). In contrast, FABP-4 was more clearly associated with risk of CVD mortality among participants without (HR hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI, 1.10-1.40) or with prevalent CVD (HR hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI, 1.24-1.98). These associations were not significantly modified by sex, age, and waist circumference. Conclusions Serum FABP-4 is modestly associated with risk of incident CVD even after adjustment for standard risk factors, but more strongly associated with CVD mortality among older adults with and without established CVD.

11.
J Card Fail ; 26(5): 410-419, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD14 is a membrane glycoprotein primarily expressed by myeloid cells that plays a key role in inflammation. Soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels carry a poor prognosis in chronic heart failure (HF), but whether elevations in sCD14 precede HF is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sCD14 is associated with HF incidence and its subtypes independent of major inflammatory biomarkers among older adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study without preexisting HF and available baseline sCD14. We evaluated the associations of sCD14, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and white blood cell count (WBC) with incident HF and subtypes using Cox regression. Among 5217 participants, 1878 had incident HF over 13.6 years (609 classifiable as HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF] and 419 as HF with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]). After adjusting for clinical and laboratory covariates, sCD14 was significantly associated with incident HF (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.56 per doubling, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-1.89), an association that was numerically stronger than for hsCRP (HR per doubling: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06-1.15), IL-6 (HR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10-1.25), and WBC (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42), and that remained significant after adjustment for the other markers of inflammation. This association for sCD14 was observed with HFpEF (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.07-2.10) but not HFrEF (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.67-1.49). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD14 was associated with incident HF independently and numerically more strongly than other major inflammatory markers. This association was only observed with HFpEF in the subset with classifiable HF subtypes. Pending replication, these findings have potentially important therapeutic implications.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e013522, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063116

RESUMO

Background People living with HIV have an increased risk of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and heart failure. HIV-associated LVDD may reflect both cardiomyocyte and systemic metabolic derangements, but the underlying pathways remain unclear. Methods and Results To explore such pathways, we conducted a pilot study in the Bronx and Brooklyn sites of the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study) who participated in concurrent, but separate, metabolomics and echocardiographic ancillary studies. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma samples from 125 HIV-infected (43 with LVDD) and 35 HIV-uninfected women (9 with LVDD). Partial least squares discriminant analysis identified polar metabolites and lipids in the glycerophospholipid-metabolism and fatty-acid-oxidation pathways associated with LVDD. After multivariable adjustment, LVDD was significantly associated with higher concentrations of diacylglycerol 30:0 (odds ratio [OR], 1.60, 95% CI [1.01-2.55]); triacylglycerols 46:0 (OR 1.60 [1.04-2.48]), 48:0 (OR 1.63 [1.04-2.54]), 48:1 (OR 1.62 [1.01-2.60]), and 50:0 (OR 1.61 [1.02-2.53]); acylcarnitine C7 (OR 1.88 [1.21-2.92]), C9 (OR 1.99 [1.27-3.13]), and C16 (OR 1.80 [1.13-2.87]); as well as lower concentrations of phosphocholine (OR 0.59 [0.38-0.91]). There was no evidence of effect modification of these relationships by HIV status. Conclusions In this pilot study, women with or at risk of HIV with LVDD showed alterations in plasma metabolites in the glycerophospholipid-metabolism and fatty-acid-oxidation pathways. Although these findings require replication, they suggest that improved understanding of metabolic perturbations and their potential modification could offer new approaches to prevent cardiac dysfunction in this high-risk group.

13.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 16(6): 855-862, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029066

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the independent association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using overnight polysomnography and left ventricular (LV) scar using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with late-gadolinium enhancement in a community-based cohort of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS: Our analytical sample includes 934 participants from the fifth examination of the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who underwent both polysomnography and CMR. SDB was categorized as follows: no-SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] < 5 events/h), mild SDB (5 events/h ≤ AHI < 15 events/h), and moderate-severe SDB (AHI ≥ 15 events/h). LV scar was considered present if there was presence of scar on CMR (late-gadolinium enhancement > 0%). Logistic regression with multivariable adjustment for confounders (age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and cardiometabolic risk factors) was used to examine the independent association of SDB with LV scar. Confounders were identified using directed acyclic graphs. RESULTS: The mean age of our sample was 67.0 ± 8.5 years (SD), with 49% (n = 461) females and a prevalence of SDB (AHI ≥ 5 events/h) of 63% (n = 590). LV scar was more prevalent in individuals with SDB (9.5%) versus those without SDB (3.8%; P < .01), and 88% of all LV scars were clinically unrecognized. After multivariable adjustment, both mild SDB and moderate-severe SDB were independently associated with LV scar (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-5.64 and odds ratio, 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-5.24, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a community-based cohort, SDB (including mild) is independently associated with a more than 2-fold increase in the odds of LV scar presence measured using CMR with late-gadolinium enhancement. Most LV scars were clinically unrecognized. The impact of SDB treatment on subclinical myocardial infarction needs to be investigated in future studies.

14.
ASAIO J ; 66(3): 277-282, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973402

RESUMO

Fibrinogen is a clotting factor and a major determinant of platelet aggregation. Albumin, on the other hand, inhibits platelet function and thrombus formation. Taken together, an elevated fibrinogen albumin ratio (FAR) has been described as a marker of disease severity during prothrombotic conditions. We evaluated the association of FAR and ischemic stroke during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) support. A single center, retrospective study was performed including all adult patients placed on VA ECMO. FAR was calculated from fibrinogen and albumin measurements in the first 24 hours of VA-ECMO initiation. Patients were categorized into high (≥125) and low (<125) FAR groups and the risk of eventual ischemic stroke was determined. There were 201 patients who underwent VA ECMO placement and 157 had a FAR. They were 56 ± 14 years old and 66 (42%) had a high FAR. Patients with a high FAR had lower survival free from an ischemic stroke during VA ECMO (log rank p < 0.001; adjusted hazard ratio 5.51; 95% CI: 1.8-16.5). In tertile analysis, the level of FAR was associated with an incrementally higher likelihood of eventual ischemic stroke (log rank p = 0.004). Those with a high FAR had greater mean platelet volume (10.8[10.4-12] vs. 10.5[10.2-11.9]fl, p = 0.004). An elevated FAR during the first 24 hours of VA ECMO placement is associated with a greater risk of a subsequent ischemic stroke. Our findings suggest that assessment of FAR soon after VA ECMO placement may assist with early stratification of patients at risk for an ischemic stroke.

15.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e028729, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hispanics/Latinos, the largest immigrant population in the USA, undergo the process of acculturation and have a large burden of heart failure risk. Few studies have examined the association of acculturation on cardiac structure and function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: The Echocardiographic Study of Latinos. PARTICIPANTS: 1818 Hispanic adult participants with baseline echocardiographic assessment and acculturation measured by the Short Acculturation Scale, nativity, age at immigration, length of US residence, generational status and language. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Echocardiographic assessment of left atrial volume index (LAVI), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), early diastolic transmitral inflow and mitral annular velocities. RESULTS: The study population was predominantly Spanish-speaking and foreign-born with mean residence in the US of 22.7 years, mean age of 56.4 years; 50% had hypertension, 28% had diabetes and 44% had a body mass index >30 kg/m2. Multivariable analyses demonstrated higher LAVI with increasing years of US residence. Foreign-born and first-generation participants had higher E/e' but lower LAVI and e' velocities compared with the second generation. Higher acculturation and income >$20K were associated with higher LVMI, LAVI and E/e' but lower e' velocities. Preferential Spanish-speakers with an income <$20K had a higher E/e'. CONCLUSIONS: Acculturation was associated with abnormal cardiac structure and function, with some effect modification by socioeconomic status.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 42(11): 2075-2082, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies have implicated soluble (s)CD14, an effector of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, in insulin resistance, but its role in human metabolic endotoxemia has not been studied. We evaluated sCD14 in relation to dysglycemia in older adults and how this compares to other markers of inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated associations of sCD14, interleukin-6 (IL-6), CRP, and white blood cell (WBC) count with insulin resistance (quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index and HOMA 2 of insulin resistance) and incident type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort of older adults. We also assessed the causal role of sCD14 in insulin resistance using an instrumental variable approach by Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional risk factors, each of the four biomarkers showed positive cross-sectional associations with both insulin resistance measures. These associations persisted after mutual adjustment for all markers except sCD14. Over a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 466 cases of diabetes occurred. All biomarkers except sCD14 were positively associated with diabetes, although only WBC count remained associated (hazard ratio 1.43 per doubling [95% CI 1.07, 1.90]) after mutual adjustment. Instrumental variable analysis did not support a causal role for sCD14 in insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults, sCD14 was associated with insulin resistance, but this disappeared after adjustment for other biomarkers, showed no evidence of a causal basis, and was not accompanied by a similar association with diabetes. IL-6, CRP, and WBC count were each associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, WBC count most robustly. These findings do not support a central role for sCD14, but they highlight the preeminence of WBC count as an inflammatory measure of diabetes risk in this population.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV may affect the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) differently in men versus women. METHODS: We examined CVD mortality rates between 2007 and 2017 among all HIV-positive New York City residents age 13+ by sex, using data from city HIV surveillance and vital statistics and the National Death Index. Residents without HIV were enumerated using modified US intercensal estimates. We determined associations of HIV status with CVD mortality by sex after accounting for age, race/ethnicity, year, and neighborhood poverty, defined as the percent living below the federal poverty level. RESULTS: There were 3,234 CVD deaths reported among 147,915 HIV-positive New Yorkers, with the proportion of deaths due to CVD increasing from 11% in 2007 to 22% in 2017. The age-standardized CVD mortality rate was 2.7/1,000 person-years among both men and women with HIV. The relative rate of CVD mortality associated with HIV status was significantly higher among women (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.6-1.8) than men (aRR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3) overall, and within strata defined by neighborhood poverty. Sex differences in CVD mortality rates were the greatest comparing HIV-positive individuals having detectable HIV RNA and CD4+ T-cell counts <500 cells/uL with HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: One in five deaths among people with HIV is now associated with CVD. HIV providers should recognize CVD risk among women with HIV, and reinforce preventive measures (e.g., smoking cessation, blood pressure control, lipid management) and viremic control among all people living with HIV to reduce CVD mortality.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402089

RESUMO

The mitral annulus is a fibrous structure that surrounds the mitral valve leaflets and is prone to calcification. Despite its common occurrence, association with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and relationship with dysfunction of the mitral valve, the pathobiology of mitral annular calcification is incompletely understood. Mitral annular calcification is no longer regarded as a local, chronic and degenerative process resulting in precipitation of calcium and phosphate, but as an active and regulated molecular process that is related to lipid metabolism, hemodynamic stress, chronic kidney disease, bone and mineral metabolism and inflammation. This review summarizes the current evidence examining the pathophysiologic determinants of mitral annular calcification.

20.
J Hypertens ; 37(12): 2398-2403, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We studied associations of circulating collagen type I carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) with long-term renal function decline. METHODS: In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we included 2492 participants initially aged 45-84 years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), excluding people with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or urine albumin/creatinine (UAC) at least 30 mg/g. The primary outcome in median 9.4-year follow-up was renal function decline (≥30% decline in eGFR between any two exams or incident UAC ≥ 30 mg/g). The associations of baseline plasma ICTP and PIIINP with renal function decline were estimated using Poisson regression, adjusting for baseline variables race/ethnicity, sex, age, and continuous eGFR and UAC, with further adjustment for CVD risk factors and medications. RESULTS: Baseline serum ICTP was 3.27 ±â€Š1.43 µg/l and PIIINP was 5.43 ±â€Š1.85 µg/l. Mean baseline eGFR was 91.5 ±â€Š18.4 ml/min per 1.73 m. Renal function decline occurred in 19.5% during 9.4-year follow-up. The renal function decline outcome was positively associated with serum ICTP and PIIINP: relative incidence density (95% confidence interval) per SD 1.22 (1.11-1.33) and 1.27 (1.16-1.40), respectively. Additional adjustment for other risk factors did not greatly alter findings. CONCLUSION: High collagen biomarker concentrations in serum were associated with future decline in renal function in people initially free of CVD and with normal eGFR, consistent with collagen production signaling renal decline. The continuous association observed for ICTP which, unlike PIIINP, is filtered by the kidney, may owe to its double status as a sensitive marker of glomerular function and collagen degradation.

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