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1.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 3(1): 11-17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235966

RESUMO

Background and aims: In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases are still the leading causes of mortality; however, this may soon be surpassed by non-communicable illnesses, namely hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study determined the prevalence and patterns of metabolic syndrome and cardio-risk factors in men and women in rural Uganda. Methods: A household-based, cross-sectional survey was carried out following the WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance. It included demographic and lifestyle questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. Of the 200 randomly recruited participants, 183 successfully completed two steps of the study and 161 provided blood samples. Results: Data were collected from 183 adults, aged 18-69 years; 62% were female. Based on the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.1% (95% CI 14.0 to 22.5). Elevated fasting plasma glucose was observed in 14.2% (95% CI 9.1 to 19.3) of participants, hypertriglyceridaemia in 16.9% (95% CI 12.1 to 23.1); hypertension in 36.1% (95% CI 29.0 to 43.0) and 52.5% (95% CI 45.2 to 59.6) had low HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. Abdominal obesity was found in 24.6% (95% CI 18.8 to 31.4) of participants. Sex disparities were significant for several risk factors. Females had significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity (38.6% vs 1.5% in males, p=0.001) and twice the rates of low HDL (65.8% vs 30.4%, p=0.001). Men tended to have higher but not significant rates of hypertension (42.0% vs 32.5%) and smoked significantly more than women (49.3% vs 21.1%, p<0.001). Alcohol consumption was also higher in men (55.1% vs 18.4%, p<0.001) and quantities consumed were approximately three times greater than in females (p<0.001). Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome exists at worrying rates in the rural Ugandan population. Sex disparities are evident in risk factor prevalence, reflecting physiological variables and deeply entrenched cultural and lifestyle norms.

2.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 182, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality among children under 5 years of age admitted to malnutrition units in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. The burden of HIV infection, a major risk factor for mortality among patients with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), has reduced due to concerted prevention and treatment strategies. None the less, anecdotal reports from the malnutrition unit at Uganda's National Referral Hospital (NRH) indicate that there is high mortality among patients with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in routine care. Uganda has recently adopted the revised World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines for SAM to improve outcomes. The mortality among children with SAM in routine care has not been recently elucidated. We report the magnitude and factors associated with mortality among children under 5 years of age admitted to the NRH for routine care of SAM. METHODS: This was a cohort study of all severely malnourished children admitted to the NRH between June and October 2017. The primary outcome was two-week mortality. Mortality was calculated using simple proportions and Cox regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with time to mortality. Data was entered into Epidata and analysed using Stata v14. RESULTS: Two-hundred-sixty (98.5%) children: 59.6% male; mean age 14.4 (SD 9.4) months, completed two weeks of follow-up. Of these, 25.2% (95% CI 19.9-30.4%) died. In-hospital mortality was 20.7% (95% CI15.9-25.6%). The prevalence of HIV infection was 12.2%. Factors associated with mortality included: positive HIV status (AHR 2.2, (95% CI; 1.2-4.2), p = 0.014), bacteraemia (AHR 9 (95% CI 3.4-23.0), p < 0.001, and low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), AHR 3.2; (95% CI 1.7-6.3), p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A 25% mortality among children with severe malnutrition remains unacceptably high despite significant reduction in HIV prevalence. Children with SAM who are HIV infected, have eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or have bacteraemia, are more likely to die. Further studies to explore the relationship between eGFR and mortality among children with SAM are needed. Studies to establish efficacious antibiotics are urgently required to inform treatment guidelines for children with SAM.

3.
Environ Int ; 136: 105471, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most household air pollution (HAP) interventions in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa have focused on a single source, such as replacing polluting cooking sources with cleaner burning cooking stoves. Such interventions, however, have resulted in insufficient reductions in HAP levels and respiratory health risks in children. In this study we determined how multiple HAP combustion sources and exposure-mitigation factors in the home environment influence child respiratory health alone and in combination. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study to determine associations between multiple indicators of HAP and persistent cough among children (<15 years of age) seeking care at three primary-care clinics in Kampala, Uganda. HAP indicators included self-report of combustion sources inside the home (e.g., stove type, fuel type, and smoking); housing characteristics and cooking practices that mitigate HAP exposure (e.g., use of windows, location of cooking, location of children during cooking) and perceptions of neighborhood air quality. To explore joint associations between indicators of HAP, we applied a Bayesian clustering technique (Bayesian profile regression) to identify HAP indicator profiles most strongly associated with persistent cough in children. RESULTS: Most HAP indicators demonstrated significant positive bivariate associations with persistent cough among children, including fuel-type (kerosene), the number of hours burning solid fuels, use of polluting fuels (kerosene or candles) for lighting the home, tobacco smoking indoors, cooking indoors, cooking with children indoors, lack of windows in the cooking area, and not opening windows while cooking. Bayesian cluster analysis revealed 11 clusters of HAP indicator profiles. Compared to a reference cluster that was representative of the underlying study population cough prevalence, three clusters with profiles characterized by highly adverse HAP indicators resulted in ORs of 1.72 (95% credible interval: 1.15, 2.60), 4.74 (2.88, 8.0), and 8.6 (3.9, 23.9). Conversely, at least two clusters of HAP indicator-profiles were protective compared to the reference cluster, despite the fact that these protective HAP indicator profiles used solid fuels for cooking in combination with an unimproved stove (cooking was performed predominantly outdoors in these protective clusters). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to cooking fuel and type of cook stove, multiple HAP indicators were strongly associated with persistent cough in children. Bayesian profile regression revealed that the combination of HAP sources and HAP exposure-mitigating factors was driving risk of adverse cough associations in children, rather than any single HAP source at the home.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Tosse , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Culinária , Tosse/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , População Rural , Uganda
4.
AAS Open Res ; 2: 2, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517248

RESUMO

Background: Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T cells play a central role in regulation of adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses. Low CD4 T cell counts are not routinely reported as a marker of immune deficiency among HIV-negative individuals, as is the norm among their HIV positive counterparts. Despite evidence of mortality rates as high as 40% among Ugandan critically ill HIV-negative patients, the use of CD4 T cell counts as a measure of the immune status has never been explored among this population. This study assessed the immune status of adult critically ill HIV-negative patients admitted to Ugandan intensive care units (ICUs) using CD4 T cell count as a surrogate marker. Methods: A multicentre prospective cohort was conducted between 1st August 2017 and 1st March 2018 at four Ugandan ICUs. A total of 130 critically ill HIV negative patients were consecutively enrolled into the study. Data on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, critical illness scores, CD4 T cell counts were obtained at baseline and mortality at day 28. Results: The mean age of patients was 45± 18 years (mean±SD) and majority (60.8%) were male. After a 28-day follow up, 71 [54.6%, 95% CI (45.9-63.3)] were found to have CD4 counts less than 500 cells/mm³, which were not found to be significantly associated with mortality at day 28, OR (95%) 1 (0.4-2.4), p = 0.093. CD4 cell count receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) area was 0.5195, comparable to APACHE II ROC area 0.5426 for predicting 24-hour mortality. Conclusions: CD4 T cell counts were generally low among HIV-negative critically ill patients. Low CD4 T cells did not predict ICU mortality at day 28. CD4 T cell counts were not found to be inferior to APACHE II score in predicting 24 hour ICU mortality.

5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489090

RESUMO

Introduction: Animal bite injuries are a common public health concern in Uganda. We sought to characterize animal bite injuries among patients presenting to Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: This was a cross sectional study from 1st September to 30th November 2011. Participants were animal bite injury victims presenting to the accident and emergency (A&E) unit at Mulago hospital and were consecutively enrolled into the study. Socio-demographics, severity and patterns of injury, health seeking and dog handling behaviours were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize participant characteristics and the animal bite injuries. Poisson regression model's incident rate ratios (IRR) was used to explore the relationship of the number of days to accessing treatment at Mulago hospital with; a) received prior first aid, b) animal bite injury sustained during day time, c) unknown dog and d) victim resident in Kampala. Data were analyzed using STATA version 12.0 and statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Of 25,420 patients that presented to the A&E unit during the study period, 207 (0.8%) had animal bite injuries, mean age 22.7 years (SD 14.3), 64.7% male, and 40.1% were <18 years. Majority 199 (96.1%) were bitten by a lone unrestrained and un-signaled dog that had bitten someone else in 22.2% of cases, and eight victims (0.4%) were attacked in canine gangs of 2-5 dogs. Rabies vaccination was confirmed in only 23 dogs (11.1%) as 109 (52.7%) were unknown to the victims or the communities. One hundred and eighteen victims (57.0%) sustained the dog bites within Kampala district whilst the rest occurred near or far from Kampala district, and the victims especially referred to access anti-rabies vaccine. Of 207, 189 victims (91.3%) presented within 2.6 days (SD ± 4.3). Two hundred victims (96.6%) sustained extremity injuries while the rest had injuries to other body parts. All injuries were minor and managed on out-patient basis with wound dressing, analgesics, prophylactic antibiotics and anti-rabies vaccination. Victims who received prior first aid had a rate of 1.7 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1) compared to those that had no prior first aid. Participants who sustained the animal bite injuries during day time had a rate of 1.6 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1) compared to those that sustained injuries at other times. Participants bitten by unknown dog and participants residing in Kampala had IRR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9 and IRR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8 respectively of accessing treatment at Mulago hospital compared to bitten by known dog and not residing in Kampala. Conclusion: Dog bites injuries from unrestrained, un-signaled dogs are the commonest source of animal bite injuries especially among children (<18 years). Vaccination against rabies was only confirmed for a very small number of dogs, as majority were unknown and likely stray dogs. Government and public sensitization is urgently required to limit stray dogs, vaccinate dogs and restrain them to prevent a grave probability of a looming canine rabies epidemic.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1607-1616, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148990

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with microalbuminuria among newly diagnosed diabetic patients in Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted between June 2014 and January 2015, we collected information on patients' socio-demographics, biophysical profile, blood pressure, biochemical testing and echocardiographic findings using a pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association of several factors with microalbuminuria. Results: Of the 175 patients recruited, males were 90(51.4%) and the mean age was 46±15 years. Majority of patients had type 2 DM 140 (80.0%) and the rest had type 1 DM 35 (20.0%). Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) was 13.9±5.3%. Mean duration of diabetes was 2 months. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was 47.4 % (95% CI: 40.0%-54.9%) overall. Pregnancy was associated with microalbuminuria (OR7.74[95%CI.1.01-76.47] P=0.050) while mild and moderate physical activity at work were inversely associated with microalbuminuria respectively (OR0.08[95%CI0.01-0.95] P=0.046) and (OR0.07[95%CI0.01-0.77] P=0.030). Conclusion: Prevalence of microalbuminuria was high in this group. Physical activity at work may be protective against microalbuminuria and this calls for longitudinal studies. Early detection and management of microalbuminuria in diabetics may slow progression to overt diabetic nephropathy (DN).


Assuntos
Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Creatinina/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Albuminúria/etiologia , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100814

RESUMO

Knowledge of key decision makers and actors in newborn care is necessary to ensure that health interventions are targeted at the right people. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with mothers being the key decision maker regarding where to give birth from and when to initiate breastfeeding. Fathers were the key decision makers on the place of birth (54.3%, n = 505) and on whether to seek care for a sick newborn child (47.7%, n = 92). Grandmothers most commonly bathed the baby immediately after birth (55.5%, n = 516), whereas mothers and health workers were common decision makers regarding breastfeeding initiation. Predictors for a mother being the key decision maker on the place of birth included: Mother having a secondary education (AOR 1.9: 95% C.I (1.0-3.6)) and mother being formally employed (AOR 2.0: 95% (1.5-2.9)). Mothers, fathers, grandmothers, health-workers, and traditional birth attendants were the most influential in the selected newborn care practices. Programs that aim to promote newborn care need to involve husbands, grandmothers, and health workers in addition to mothers.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Cuidado do Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tocologia , Mães , Parto , Gravidez , Uganda
8.
Anesth Analg ; 127(6): 1427-1433, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pilot study on the World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) showed a reduction in both major complications and mortality of surgical patients. Compliance with this checklist varies around the world. We aimed to determine the extent of compliance with the WHO SSC and its association with surgical outcomes in 5 of Uganda's referral hospitals. METHODS: A multicentre prospective cohort study was conducted in 5 referral hospitals in Uganda. Using a questionnaire based on the WHO SSC, patients undergoing surgical operations were systematically recruited into the study from April 2016 to July 2016. The patients were followed up daily for 30 days or until discharge for the purpose of documentation of complications. Logistic regression and linear regression were used to assess for association between compliance and perioperative surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We recruited 859 patients into the study. Overall compliance with the WHO SSC was 41.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.7-43.8) ranging from 11.9% to 89.8% across the different hospitals. Overall compliance with "sign in" was 44.7% (95% CI, 43-45.6), with "time out" was 42.0% (95% CI, 39.4-44.6), and with "sign out" was 33.3% (95% CI, 30.7-35.9). There was no association between compliance and perioperative surgical outcomes: length of hospital stay, adverse events, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed low levels of compliance with the WHO SSC. There was a statistically significant association between this level of compliance and the incidence of pain and loss of consciousness postoperatively.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 29(4): 218-224, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension in patients with diabetes is approximately two-fold higher than in age-matched subjects without the disease and, conversely, individuals with hypertension are at increased risk of developing diabetes compared with normotensive persons. Up to 75% of cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes are attributed to hypertension. Diabetics who have hypertension are more likely to develop complications and die, and appropriate blood pressure control in these individuals reduces the risk. This study sought to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among newly diagnosed adult diabetic patients in a national referral hospital in Uganda. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conducted between June 2014 and January 2015, we recruited 201 newly diagnosed adult diabetic patients. Information on patients' socio-demographics was obtained using a pre-tested questionnaire, while biophysical profile, blood pressure measurement, biochemical testing and echocardiographic findings were obtained by the research team for all the participants. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association of several factors with hypertension. RESULTS: Of the 201 patients recruited, 102 were male (50.8%) and the mean age was 46 ± 15 years. The majority of patients (159) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (79.1%) with a mean HbA1c level of 13.9 ± 5.3%. The prevalence of hypertension was 61.9% (95% CI: 54.8-68.6%). Knowledge of hypertension status was at 56 (27.7%) patients, 24 (44.4%) hypertensives were on treatment, and 19 (33.9%) were using ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers. The independent factors associated with hypertension were being employed (OR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.90, p = 0.029) and being overweight or obese (OR 11.6, 95% CI: 4.29-31.2, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension was high in this population of newly diagnosed diabetics, few patients had knowledge of their hypertension status and few were on appropriate treatment. Both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were associated with hypertension in this group. Therefore routine assessment, treatment and control of hypertension among diabetics is necessary to prevent cardiovascular complications and death. There is also a need to address the modifiable risk factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Emprego , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494501

RESUMO

An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts from ambient air pollution in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of human disease attributable to ambient air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa is growing, yet estimates of its impact on the region are possibly underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, a paucity of air pollution epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of ambient air pollution epidemiologic data in sub-Saharan Africa is also an important global health disparity. Thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, rather than in urban areas that have some of the highest measured air pollution levels in world, including urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we provide a systematic and narrative review of the literature on ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in the region to date. Our review of the literature focuses on epidemiologic studies that measure air pollutants and relate air pollution measurements with various health outcomes. We highlight the gaps in ambient air pollution epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing ambient air pollution in the region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , África ao Sul do Saara , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 726, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda is beset by a shortage of health workers and the few available are mal-distributed. Providing rural exposure through community-based education could positively influence students' perspectives towards work in rural areas. We aimed to assess the impact of Community-Based Education and Research (COBERS) on health professions students' attitudes towards working in rural areas. This was a before-and-after study among 525 students of 4 medical universities in Uganda. Data was collected using self-administered paper-based questionnaires. Logistic regression and Poisson regression respectively were used to assess intention and intended number of years of work in rural areas. RESULTS: Before COBERS, 228/518 (44.0%) students indicated that they intended to work in rural areas as compared to 245/506 (48.4%) after the COBERS placement. Before the COBERS placement, the factors that were associated with students considering to work in a rural area were: extra allowance (OR = 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.6), and availability of social amenities (OR = 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.7). After their COBERS placement, the factors were: access to long distance courses (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.0-3.7) and being posted to a facility in a rural area (OR = 15.0; 95% CI 6.5-35.5). Before the COBERS placement the factors that influenced how long students thought they would be willing to work in a rural environment were: reliable electricity (IRR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-1.0) and Internet (IRR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.3), high salary (IRR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.7), and having skills to practice in rural settings (IRR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.3-3.1). Reliable electricity (IRR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.8) and long distance courses (IRR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.4-3.1) were significant motivators after having undergone the COBERS placement. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of health professions students do not intend to work in rural areas after they graduate. Improving the welfare of health professionals working in rural areas could attract more health professionals to rural areas thus addressing the maldistribution of health workers in Uganda.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uganda , Recursos Humanos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Glob Health Action ; 10(1): 1410975, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiation of breastfeeding later than 1 hour after birth is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 2016 of 930 children under the age of 2 years in Lira district, northern Uganda. Mothers of the children were interviewed and data was collected on mobile phones using Open Data Kit software ( https://opendatakit.org ). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. RESULTS: Almost half [48.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (44.3-52.1)] of the mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Factors significantly associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding in multivariable analysis included caesarean delivery [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 11.10 95% CI (3.73-33.04)], discarding initial breast milk [AOR 2.02 95% CI (1.41-2.88)], home delivery [AOR 1.43 95% CI (1.04-1.97)] and mother being responsible for initiating breastfeeding as compared to a health worker or relative [AOR 1.73 95% CI (1.33-2.26)]. Mothers having a secondary education were less likely [AOR 0.54 95% CI (0.30-0.96)] to delay initiation of breastfeeding as compared to those with no education. CONCLUSION: About half the mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding until after 1 hour after birth. Programs to promote, protect and support breastfeeding in this post conflict region are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
13.
Afr Health Sci ; 17(3): 877-885, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood visual impairment (CVI) has not been given due attention. Knowledge of CVI is important in planning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with childhood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago National Referral Hospital. METHODS: This was a cross sectional hospital based study among 318 children attending the Mulago Hospital eye clinic between January 2015 to March 2015. Ocular and general history was taken and patient examination done. The data generated was entered by Epidata and analyzed by STATA 12. RESULTS: The prevalence of CVI was 42.14%, 134 patients with 49 patients (15.41%) having moderate visual impairment, 45 patients (14.15%) having severe visual impairment and 40 patients (12.58%) presenting with blindness. Significant predictors included; increasing age, delayed developmental milestones and having abnormal corneal, refractive and fundus findings. CONCLUSION: There is a high burden of visual impairment among children in Uganda. It is vital to screen all the children presenting to hospital for visual impairment. Majority of the causes of the visual impairment are preventable.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Baixa Visão/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual
14.
Anesth Analg ; 125(2): 533-539, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crystalloids are used routinely for perioperative fluid management in cesarean delivery. Few studies have determined the crystalloid of choice in obstetric anesthesia. We compared the effects of Ringer's lactate (RL) versus 0.9% normal saline (NS) on maternal and neonatal blood pH and 24-hour postoperative morbidity in urgent cesarean delivery in a low-resource setting. Our hypothesis was that RL would result in 30% less acidosis than NS. METHODS: This was a pragmatic prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial in the Mulago National Referral Hospital Labor Ward Theater from September 2011 to May 2012. Five hundred parturients were studied; 252 were randomly assigned to NS and 248 to RL groups. Preoperative and postoperative maternal venous blood gases and placental umbilical arterial cord blood gases were analyzed. The primary outcome was incidence of maternal acidosis, as defined by a postoperative drop in venous pH below 7.32 or reduction in base excess below -3 in a previously normal parturient. Maternal 24-hour postoperative morbidity, neonatal pH, and neonatal base excess were the main secondary outcomes. The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01585740. RESULTS: The overall incidence of maternal acidosis was 38% in NS and 29% in RL (relative risk, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.66; P = .04). Thirty-two percent of parturients in NS experienced a drop in venous pH below 7.32 postoperatively, compared with 19% in RL (relative risk, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.31; P = .003). The comparative drop in base excess postoperatively below -3 between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the incidence of maternal 24-hour postoperative morbidity events and neonatal outcomes between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: NS may be a safe choice for intraoperative fluid therapy in urgent cesarean delivery as RL, albeit with an increased incidence of metabolic acidosis.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Cesárea , Soluções Isotônicas/uso terapêutico , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Acidose/epidemiologia , Acidose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Gasometria , Soluções Cristaloides , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletrólitos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Incidência , Trabalho de Parto , Período Perioperatório , Período Pós-Operatório , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Lactato de Ringer , Tamanho da Amostra , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180572, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay has constituted a major breakthrough for tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics. Several patient factors may influence diagnostic performance of Xpert including sputum quality. OBJECTIVE: We carried out a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study to determine the effect of sputum quality on diagnostic performance of Xpert among presumed TB patients in Uganda. METHODS: We collected clinical and demographic information and two sputum samples from participants. Staff recorded sputum quality and performed LED fluorescence microscopy and mycobacterial culture on each sample. If both smear examinations were negative, Xpert testing was performed. We calculated diagnostic yield, sensitivity, specificity, and other indicators for Xpert for each stratum of sputum quality in reference to a standard of mycobacterial culture. RESULTS: Patients with salivary sputum showed a trend towards a substantially higher proportion of samples that were Xpert-positive (54/286, 19%, 95% CI 15-24) compared with those with all other sputum sample types (221/1496, 15%, 95% CI 13-17). Blood-stained sputum produced the lowest sensitivity (28%; 95% CI 12-49) and salivary sputum the highest (66%; 95% CI 53-77). Specificity didn't vary meaningfully by sample types. Salivary sputum was significantly more sensitive than mucoid sputum (+13%, 95% CI +1 to +26), while blood-stained sputum was significantly less sensitive (-24%, 95% CI -42 to -5). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the need to exercise caution in collecting sputum for Xpert and in interpreting results because sputum quality may impact test yield and sensitivity. In particular, it may be wise to pursue additional testing should blood-stained sputum test negative while salivary sputum should be readily accepted for Xpert testing given its higher sensitivity and potentially higher yield than other sample types. These findings challenge conventional recommendations against collecting salivary sputum for TB diagnosis and could inform new standards for sputum quality.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 451, 2017 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is self-limiting, but can cause death in most at risk groups like pregnant women and those with preexisting acute liver disease. In developing countries it presents as epidemic, in 2014 Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) outbreak was reported in Napak district Uganda. The role of factors in this setting that might have propagated this HEV epidemic, including host, agent, and environmental characteristics, were still not clear. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the risk factors, person, place and time characteristics, associated with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) epidemic in Napak district. METHODS: Review of line lists data for epidemiological description and matched case control study on neighborhood and age in the ratio of 1:2 were used to assess risk factors for HEV outbreak in Napak. Cluster and random sampling were used to obtain a sample size of 332, (111 cases, 221 controls). Possible interaction and confounding was assessed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Over 1359 cases and 30 deaths were reported during 2013/2014 HEV outbreak. The mean age of patients was 29 ± years, 57.9% of cases were females. Overall case Fatality Ratio was 2.2% in general population but 65.2% in pregnant women. More than 94% of the cases were reported in the sub counties of Napak, 5.7% of cases were reported in the outside neighboring districts. The epidemic peaked in January 2014 and gradually subsided by December 2014. Risk factors found to be associated with HEV included drinking untreated water (OR 6.69, 95% CI 3.15-14.16), eating roadside food (OR 6.11, 95% CI 2.85-13.09), reported not cleaning utensils (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.55-1.76), and being a hunter (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-12.66). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the virus is transmitted by the feco-oral route through contaminated water. They also suggest that active surveillance and appropriate measures targeting community and routine individual health actions are important to prevent transmission and decrease the deaths.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2016: 2610873, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800179

RESUMO

Purpose. In high-income countries, improved survival has been documented among intensive care unit (ICU) patients infected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV). There are no data from low-income country ICUs. We sought to identify clinical characteristics and survival outcomes among HIV patients in a low-income country ICU. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study of HIV infected patients admitted to a university teaching hospital ICU in Uganda. Medical records were reviewed. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Statistical significance was predetermined in reference to P < 0.05. Results. There were 101 HIV patients. Average length of ICU stay was 4 days and ICU mortality was 57%. Mortality in non-HIV patients was 28%. Commonest admission diagnoses were Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (58.4%), multiorgan failure (20.8%), and sepsis (20.8%). The mean Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score was 24. At multivariate analysis, APACHE II (OR 1.24 (95% CI: 1.1-1.4, P = 0.01)), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.14 (95% CI: 0.09-0.76, P = 0.01)), and ARDS (OR 4.5 (95% CI: 1.07-16.7, P = 0.04)) had a statistically significant association with mortality. Conclusion. ICU mortality of HIV patients is higher than in higher income settings and the non-HIV population. ARDS, APACHE II, and need for mechanical ventilation are significantly associated with mortality.

18.
BMC Res Notes ; 9: 110, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26887672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has become a leading global health challenge representing the largest cause of mortality in adults worldwide. Non communicable diseases are neglected in Uganda over infectious diseases. With increased urbanization, there is likely increase in burden of these NCDs yet there is paucity of reliable data regarding the NCD burden. We assessed the prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors among medical students at Makerere University, College of Health Sciences in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Makerere University comprising 180 medical students. We used a standardized questionnaire and anthropometric measurements to assess their cardiovascular disease risk factors using JNC-7. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with elevated blood pressure. RESULTS: Of the 180 students surveyed, 107 (59%) were males, mean age was 22 years (SD = 3 years), and 159 (88%) were in their preclinical years of training. Cardiovascular risk factors with the highest prevalence were alcohol consumption (31.7%); elevated systolic blood pressure (14%); and excessive salt intake (13%). Participants with elevated systolic blood pressure were more likely to be older (OR = 1.18), overweight (OR = 1.08), and with a personal history of cardiovascular disease (OR = 4.68). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hypertension and known cardiovascular disease risk factors is high among the medical students. Strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease among the young population should be put in place.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Afr Health Sci ; 16(4): 1131-1142, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common medical problem affecting the general population and thus commonly encountered in medical practice, with the global burden of UTIs at about 150 million people. Because uropathogens largely originate from colonic flora, they are easy to predict, and this is the rationale for empirical treatment in Community Acquired-UTI (CA-UTIs). With the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria among adults with CA-UTI in Uganda, it is no longer adequate to manage CA-UTIs on empiric regimen without revising the susceptibility patterns of common CA-UTI causative agents. Thus in this study we set out to identify: The factors associated with CA-UTIs, the common uropathogens and the drug sensitivity patterns of the common uropathogens cultured. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in adults who presented with symptoms of a UTI at Mulago Hospital, assessment center. There were 139 patients who consented to the study and were recruited, an interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the study participants as regards demographic, social and clinical characteristics and Mid Stream Urine (MSU) samples were collected for urinalysis, culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was applied to the isolates.Numeric data were summarized using measures of central tendency while the categorical data was summarized using proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Age, female sex and marital status were factors that were significantly associated with CA-UTIs. Fifty four (54) cultures were positive for UTI with 26 giving pure growths. The commonest uropathogen isolated was Escherichia coli at 50%, this was followed by Staphylococcus aureus at 15.4%. The sensitivity of Escherichia coli to Ampicillin and Nitrofurantoin were78.6%, 64.3% respectively, and the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin, Nitrofurantoin and gentamycin were 100%, 66.7% and 66.7% respectively. CONCLUSION: There are known factors associated with CA-UTIs such as age, female sex. There was generally high sensitivity to nitrofurantoin and gentamycin by most of the uropathogens isolated, and high resistance to the common antibiotics such as nalidixic acid and erythromycin thus a need for a bigger study that can be used to effect the change of the current recommendations in the Uganda Clinical Guidelines as regards empirical management of CA-UTIs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 15: 122, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26231749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda has severe shortage of human resources for health despite the heavy disease burden. The country has one of the highest fertility, and population growth rates in the world and is in dire need of trained health workers. The current doctor: patient ratio of 1:15000 is inadequate and this is further constrained by trained health workers leaving the country while others abandon the health sector. The aim of the study was to determine the career intentions of the final year medical students to leave the county and health field after graduating and the associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 251 final year medical students from Makerere, Mbarara, Gulu and Kampala International Universities. We enrolled all the eligible final year medical students. The study was conducted using face-to-face questionnaires in each university. We determined the demographics, reasons for leaving the country and health sector and the intended destinations of medical students who planned to leave the country. Data was entered in Epidata then exported and analyzed in stata 12. RESULTS: Of the 251 students enrolled in the study, 28(11.2 %) wanted to leave the health sector, with Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) having the highest percentage, 16.7 % and Kampala International University (KIU) the least, 7.7 %. Of the 28 who intended to leave the health sector, 82.1 % wanted to join the business sector, 10.7 % agriculture, and 7.1 % politics. Reasons given for the intent to leave were; lack of equipment and supplies in hospitals, over whelming patient numbers, very risky working environment, low payment to doctors, and political reasons. Overall, 112 (44.6 %) of the participants wanted to leave the country with 30.3 % intending to migrate to United States of America (USA), 11.9 % to United Kingdom (UK), 11.0 % to South Africa among others. Some of the reasons given were; doctors are paid a high salary abroad, safe working environment, and desire to continue academics. Age was associated with intention to leave the country (OR = 1.64; 95 % CI: 1.00 - 4.82). CONCLUSIONS: In a country in dire need of health workers, the study showed high proportion of trainee health workers planning to abandon their professions or emigrate from Uganda after training.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/provisão & distribução , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Estado Civil , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Médicos/economia , Médicos/psicologia , Política , Segurança , Salários e Benefícios , Classe Social , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Carga de Trabalho
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