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1.
JAMA ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577035

RESUMO

Importance: Norepinephrine, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock, is not always effective and has important catecholaminergic adverse effects. Selepressin, a selective vasopressin V1a receptor agonist, is a noncatecholaminergic vasopressor that may mitigate sepsis-induced vasodilatation, vascular leakage, and edema, with fewer adverse effects. Objective: To test whether selepressin improves outcome in septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: An adaptive phase 2b/3 randomized clinical trial comprising 2 parts that included adult patients (n = 868) with septic shock requiring more than 5 µg/min of norepinephrine. Part 1 used a Bayesian algorithm to adjust randomization probabilities to alternative selepressin dosing regimens and to trigger transition to part 2, which would compare the best-performing regimen with placebo. The trial was conducted between July 2015 and August 2017 in 63 hospitals in Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United States, and follow-up was completed by May 2018. Interventions: Random assignment to 1 of 3 dosing regimens of selepressin (starting infusion rates of 1.7, 2.5, and 3.5 ng/kg/min; n = 585) or to placebo (n = 283), all administered as continuous infusions titrated according to hemodynamic parameters. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was ventilator- and vasopressor-free days within 30 days (deaths assigned zero days) of commencing study drug. Key secondary end points were 90-day mortality, kidney replacement therapy-free days, and ICU-free days. Results: Among 868 randomized patients, 828 received study drug (mean age, 66.3 years; 341 [41.2%] women) and comprised the primary analysis cohort, of whom 562 received 1 of 3 selepressin regimens, 266 received placebo, and 817 (98.7%) completed the trial. The trial was stopped for futility at the end of part 1. Median study drug duration was 37.8 hours (IQR, 17.8-72.4). There were no significant differences in the primary end point (ventilator- and vasopressor-free days: 15.0 vs 14.5 in the selepressin and placebo groups; difference, 0.6 [95% CI, -1.3 to 2.4]; P = .30) or key secondary end points (90-day mortality, 40.6% vs 39.4%; difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -6.5% to 8.8%]; P = .77; kidney replacement therapy-free days: 18.5 vs 18.2; difference, 0.3 [95% CI, -2.1 to 2.6]; P = .85; ICU-free days: 12.6 vs 12.2; difference, 0.5 [95% CI, -1.2 to 2.2]; P = .41). Adverse event rates included cardiac arrhythmias (27.9% vs 25.2% of patients), cardiac ischemia (6.6% vs 5.6%), mesenteric ischemia (3.2% vs 2.6%), and peripheral ischemia (2.3% vs 2.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with septic shock receiving norepinephrine, administration of selepressin, compared with placebo, did not result in improvement in vasopressor- and ventilator-free days within 30 days. Further research would be needed to evaluate the potential role of selepressin for other patient-centered outcomes in septic shock. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02508649.

2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(2): 250-257, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388815

RESUMO

Septic shock carries substantial morbidity and mortality. The failure of many promising therapies during late-phase clinical trials prompted calls for alternative trial designs. We describe an innovative trial evaluating selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1a receptor agonist, for adults with septic shock. SEPSIS-ACT (Selepressin Evaluation Programme for Sepsis-induced Shock-Adaptive Clinical Trial) is a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-part, adaptive phase 2b/3 trial, evaluating up to four selepressin dosing strategies. The primary outcome is pressor- and ventilator-free days, with a value of zero assigned for death within 30 days. We calculate Bayesian probabilities of final trial success to guide interim decision-making. Part 1 (dose-finding) has an adaptive sample size based on response-adaptive randomization and prespecified rules to determine stopping for futility or selection of the best dosing regimen for Part 2. Part 2 (confirmation) randomizes a minimum of 1,000 patients equally to the selected dosing regimen or placebo. The final estimate of treatment effect compares all selepressin-treated patients with all placebo-treated patients. The sample size of 1,800 provides 91% power to detect an increase of 1.5 pressor- and ventilator-free days with a reduction in mortality of 1.5%. The trial received a Special Protocol Assessment agreement from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and is underway in Europe and the United States. SEPSIS-ACT is an innovative trial that addresses both optimal dose and confirmation of benefit, accelerating the evaluation of selepressin while mitigating risks to patients and sponsor through use of response-adaptive randomization, a novel registration endpoint, prespecified futility stopping rules, and a large sample size. Clinical Trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02508649).

3.
Crit Care ; 21(1): 213, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n = 10), 2.5 ng/kg/minute (n = 19), 3.75 ng/kg/minute (n = 2), or placebo (n = 21) until shock resolution or a maximum of 7 days. If mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥65 mmHg was not maintained, open-label norepinephrine was added. Co-primary endpoints were maintenance of MAP >60 mmHg without norepinephrine, norepinephrine dose, and proportion of patients maintaining MAP >60 mmHg with or without norepinephrine over 7 days. Secondary endpoints included cumulative fluid balance, organ dysfunction, pharmacokinetics, and safety. RESULTS: A higher proportion of the patients receiving 2.5 ng/kg/minute selepressin maintained MAP >60 mmHg without norepinephrine (about 50% and 70% at 12 and 24 h, respectively) vs. 1.25 ng/kg/minute selepressin and placebo (p < 0.01). The 7-day cumulative doses of norepinephrine were 761, 659, and 249 µg/kg (placebo 1.25 ng/kg/minute and 2.5 ng/kg/minute, respectively; 2.5 ng/kg/minute vs. placebo; p < 0.01). Norepinephrine infusion was weaned more rapidly in selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute vs. placebo (0.04 vs. 0.18 µg/kg/minute at 24 h, p < 0.001), successfully maintaining target MAP and reducing norepinephrine dose vs. placebo (first 24 h, p < 0.001). Cumulative net fluid balance was lower from day 5 onward in the selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute group vs. placebo (p < 0.05). The selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute group had a greater proportion of days alive and free of ventilation vs. placebo (p < 0.02). Selepressin (2.5 ng/kg/minute) was well tolerated, with a similar frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events for selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute and placebo. Two patients were infused at 3.75 ng/kg/minute, one of whom had the study drug infusion discontinued for possible safety reasons, with subsequent discontinuation of this dose group. CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients, selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute was able to rapidly replace norepinephrine while maintaining adequate MAP, and it may improve fluid balance and shorten the time of mechanical ventilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01000649 . Registered on September 30, 2009.


Assuntos
Receptores de Vasopressinas/agonistas , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasopressinas/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Criança , Dinamarca , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/farmacocinética , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Placebos , Choque Séptico/complicações , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos , Vasoconstritores/farmacocinética , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Vasopressinas/uso terapêutico
4.
J Intensive Care ; 4: 24, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034779

RESUMO

Substantial attention and resources have been directed to improving outcomes of patients with critical illnesses, in particular sepsis, but all recent clinical trials testing various interventions or strategies have failed to detect a robust benefit on mortality. Acute heart failure is also a critical illness, and although the underlying etiologies differ, acute heart failure and sepsis are critical care illnesses that have a high mortality in which clinical trials have been difficult to conduct and have not yielded effective treatments. Both conditions represent a syndrome that is often difficult to define with a wide variation in patient characteristics, presentation, and standard management across institutions. Referring to past experiences and lessons learned in acute heart failure may be informative and help frame research in the area of sepsis. Academic heart failure investigators and industry have worked closely with regulators for many years to transition acute heart failure trials away from relying on dyspnea assessments and all-cause mortality as the primary measures of efficacy, and recent trials have been designed to assess novel clinical composite endpoints assessing organ dysfunction and mortality while still assessing all-cause mortality as a separate measure of safety. Applying the lessons learned in acute heart failure trials to severe sepsis and septic shock trials might be useful to advance the field. Novel endpoints beyond all-cause mortality should be considered for future sepsis trials.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 44(1): 23-31, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26496451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Selective vasopressin V(1A) receptor agonists may have advantages over arginine vasopressin in the treatment of septic shock. We compared the effects of selepressin, a selective V(1A) receptor agonist, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine on hemodynamics, organ function, and survival in an ovine septic shock model. DESIGN: Randomized animal study. SETTING: University hospital animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Forty-six adult female sheep. INTERVENTIONS: Fecal peritonitis was induced in the anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, fluid-resuscitated sheep, and they were randomized in two successive phases. Three late-intervention groups (each n = 6) received IV selepressin (1 pmol/kg/min), arginine vasopressin (0.25 pmol [0.1 mU]/kg/min), or norepinephrine (3 nmol [0.5 µg]/kg/min) when mean arterial pressure remained less than 70 mm Hg despite fluid challenge; study drugs were thereafter titrated to keep mean arterial pressure at 70-80 mm Hg. Three early-intervention groups (each n = 7) received selepressin, arginine vasopressin, or norepinephrine at the same initial infusion rates as for the late intervention, but already when mean arterial pressure had decreased by 10% from baseline; doses were then titrated as for the late intervention. A control group (n = 7) received saline. All animals were observed until death or for a maximum of 30 hours. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In addition to hemodynamic and organ function assessment, plasma interleukin-6 and nitrite/nitrate levels were measured. In the late-intervention groups, selepressin delayed the decrease in mean arterial pressure and was associated with lower lung wet/dry weight ratios than in the other two groups. In the early-intervention groups, selepressin maintained mean arterial pressure and cardiac index better than arginine vasopressin or norepinephrine, slowed the increase in blood lactate levels, and was associated with less lung edema, lower cumulative fluid balance, and lower interleukin-6 and nitrite/nitrate levels. Selepressin-treated animals survived longer than the other animals. CONCLUSIONS: In this clinically relevant model, selepressin, a selective V(1A) receptor agonist, was superior to arginine vasopressin and to norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock, especially when administered early.


Assuntos
Arginina Vasopressina/uso terapêutico , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Vasopressinas/agonistas , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/veterinária , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Vasopressinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 298(6): R1560-70, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20357025

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60 kcal/100 kcal fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water. After 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 wk of feeding, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, glucose, and lipid levels were measured. Cardiac function was examined by in vivo pressure volume measurements, and intramyocardial lipid accumulation was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Cardiac AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) levels were measured by Western blotting. Finally, an ischemia-reperfusion study was performed after 56 wk of feeding. FFFRs developed severe obesity, decreased glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin and triglyceride levels, and an initial increased fasting glucose, which returned to control levels after 24 wk of feeding. The diet had no effect on blood pressure but decreased hepatic PEPCK levels. FFFRs showed significant intramyocardial lipid accumulation, and cardiac hypertrophy became pronounced between 24 and 36 wk of feeding. FFFRs showed no signs of cardiac dysfunction during unstressed conditions, but their hearts were much more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion and had a decreased level of phosphorylated AMPK at 6 wk of feeding. This study characterizes a new animal model of the metabolic syndrome that could be beneficial in future studies of metabolic syndrome and cardiac complications.


Assuntos
Gorduras/farmacologia , Frutose/farmacologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 61(3): 292-6, 2010 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20172035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a HCF diet for 16 to 17weeks. Body weight was measured weekly and mean arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, and blood lipid levels were measured following 15weeks of feeding. One to 2weeks later, while still on the HCF diet, cardiac function was examined by in vivo pressure-volume measurements in the left ventricle. Finally, protein and glucose content in the urine was measured and all organs were weighed at the end of the study. RESULTS: Rats fed a HCF diet showed increased cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in serum compared to control fed rats and they had more than a twofold increase in liver weight. However, in contrast to what has previously been reported, HCF diet had no effect on body weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, or cardiac function during unstressed conditions. DISCUSSION: We were unable to reproduce previous findings that a HCF diet causes changes in glucose tolerance and cardiac contractile performance. Therefore, further studies are warranted to evaluate specific interactions between genetic, environmental, and dietary factors on metabolic and cardiovascular disease progression associated with intake of a westernized diet.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Colesterol/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Frutose/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 294(1): H41-9, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17982010

RESUMO

Discordant action potential alternans creates large gradients of refractoriness, which are thought to be the mechanisms linking T-wave alternans to cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Since intercellular coupling acts to maintain synchronization of repolarization between cells, we hypothesized that intercellular uncoupling, such as during ischemia, would initiate discordant alternans and that restoration of intercellular coupling by the gap junction opener rotigaptide may provide a novel approach for suppressing arrhythmogenic discordant alternans. Optical mapping was used to record action potentials from ventricular epicardium of Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts. Threshold for spatially synchronized (i.e., concordant) alternans and discordant alternans was determined by increasing heart rate step-wise during 1) baseline, 2) treatment with rotigaptide or vehicle, and 3) global low-flow ischemia + rotigaptide or vehicle. Ischemia reduced the threshold for concordant alternans in both groups from 362 +/- 8 to 305 +/- 9 beats/min (P < 0.01) and for discordant alternans from 423 +/- 6 to 381 +/- 7 beats/min (P < 0.01). Interestingly, rotigaptide also increased the threshold for discordant alternans relative to vehicle both before (438 +/- 7 vs. 407 +/- 8 beats/min, P < 0.05) and during (394 +/- 7 vs. 364 +/- 9 beats/min, P < 0.05) ischemia. Rotigaptide increased conduction velocity and prevented conduction slowing and dispersion of repolarization during ischemia. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed that total connexin43 quantity and cellular distribution were unchanged before or after low-flow ischemia, with and without rotigaptide. However, connexin43 dephosphorylation in response to low-flow ischemia was significantly prevented by rotigaptide (15.9 +/- 7.0 vs. 0.3 +/- 6.4%, P < 0.001). These data suggest that intercellular uncoupling plays an important role in the transition from concordant to discordant alternans. By suppressing discordant alternans, repolarization gradients, and connexinx43 dephosphorylation, rotigaptide may protect against ischemia-induced arrhythmias. Drugs that selectively open gap junctions offer a novel strategy for antiarrhythmic therapy.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Cobaias , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Fosforilação , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 101(4): 215-30, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17845503

RESUMO

Existing anti-arrhythmic therapy is hampered by lack of efficacy and unacceptable side effects. Thus, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation remains the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with myocardial infarction. In atrial fibrillation, rhythm control with conventional ion channel blockers provide no therapeutic benefit relative to rate control. Several lines of research indicate that impaired gap junctional cell-to-cell coupling between neighbouring cardiomyocytes is critical for the development of cardiac re-entry arrhythmias. Rotigaptide is the first drug that has been developed to prevent arrhythmias by re-establishing gap junctional intercellular communication. During conditions with acute cardiac ischaemia, rotigaptide effectively prevents induction of both ventricular and atrial tachyarrhythmia. Moreover, rotigaptide effectively prevents ischaemia reperfusion arrhythmias. At the cellular level, rotigaptide inhibits ischaemia-induced dephosphorylation of Ser297 and Ser368, which is considered important for the gating of connexin43 gap junction channels. No drug-related toxicity has been demonstrated at plasma concentrations 77,000 times above therapeutic concentrations. In rats and dogs, rotigaptide reduces infarct size following myocardial infarction. A series of phase I trials has been completed in which rotigaptide has been administered intravenously to ~200 healthy persons. No drug-related side effects have been demonstrated in healthy human beings. Clinical safety, tolerability and efficacy in patients with heart disease are being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials. Rotigaptide represents a pioneering pharmacological principle with a highly favourable preclinical and clinical safety profile, which makes this molecule a promising drug candidate for the prevention of cardiac arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Humanos , Oligopeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/prevenção & controle
10.
J Membr Biol ; 216(1): 23-35, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17568971

RESUMO

Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes. In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs and by interfering with the gating of gap junctional channels.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Oligopeptídeos/fisiologia , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Conexina 43/fisiologia , Feminino , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 100(5): 289-95, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17448113

RESUMO

The angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) through G proteins or G protein-independently through beta-arrestin2 in cellular expression systems. As activation mechanisms may greatly influence the biological effects of ERK1/2 activity, differential activation of the AT(1)R in its native cellular context could have important biological and pharmacological implications. To examine if AT(1)R activates ERK1/2 by G protein-independent mechanisms in the heart, we used the [Sar(1), Ile(4), Ile(8)]-AngII ([SII] AngII) analogue in native preparations of cardiac myocytes and beating hearts. We found that [SII] AngII does not activate G(q)-coupling, yet stimulates the beta-arrestin2-dependent ERK1/2. The G(q)-activated pool of ERK1/2 rapidly translocates to the nucleus, while the beta-arrestin2-scaffolded pool remains in the cytosol. Similar biased agonism was achieved in Langendorff-perfused hearts, where both agonists elicit ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but [SII] AngII induces neither inotropic nor chronotropic effects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/biossíntese , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/biossíntese , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , 1-Sarcosina-8-Isoleucina Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Arrestinas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Células Cultivadas , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Citosol/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfusão , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , beta-Arrestinas
12.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 100(5): 296-301, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17448114

RESUMO

The angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a seven-transmembrane receptor well established to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by discrete G protein-dependent and beta-arrestin2-dependent pathways. The biological importance of this, however, remains obscure. Application of the modified analogue [Sar(1), Ile(4), Ile(8)]-AngII ([SII] AngII) allowed us to dissect the two pathways of ERK1/2 activation in native cardiac myocytes. Although cytosol-retained, the beta-arrestin2-bound pool of ERK1/2 represents an active signalling component that phosphorylates p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase, a ubiquitous and versatile mediator of ERK1/2 signal transduction. Moreover, the beta-arrestin2-dependent ERK1/2 signal supports intact proliferation of cardiac myocytes. In contrast to G(q)-activated ERK1/2, and in keeping with its failure to translocate to the nucleus, the beta-arrestin2-scaffolded pool of ERK1/2 does not phosphorylate the transcription factor Elk-1, induces no increased transcription of the immediate-early gene c-Fos, and does not entail myocyte hypertrophy. These results clearly demonstrate the biological significance of differential signalling by the AT(1)R. The opportunity to separate desirable cardiac myocyte division from detrimental hypertrophy holds promise that novel pharmacological approaches will allow targeting of pathway-specific actions.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/biossíntese , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/biossíntese , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/fisiologia , 1-Sarcosina-8-Isoleucina Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
13.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 40(6): 790-8, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16678851

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest that dephosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) is related to uncoupling of gap junction communication, which plays an important role in the genesis of ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia. We studied changes in Cx43 phosphorylation during global ischemia in the absence and presence of the antiarrhythmic peptide analogue rotigaptide (formerly known as ZP123). Phosphorylation analysis was performed on Cx43 purified from isolated perfused rat hearts using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Thirteen different serine phosphorylation sites were identified in Cx43 during non-ischemic conditions, three of which had not previously been described. Within the first 7 min of ischemia, Ser306 became fully dephosphorylated whereas Ser330 became phosphorylated. Between 15 and 30 min of ischemia, the critical time interval where gap junction uncoupling occurs, Ser297 and Ser368 also became fully dephosphorylated. During the same time period, all untreated hearts developed asystole. Treatment with rotigaptide significantly increased the time to ischemia-induced asystole and suppressed dephosphorylation of Ser297 and Ser368 at 30 min of ischemia. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of Ser297 and Ser368 may be involved in functional gating of Cx43 during ischemia and may be possible downstream targets for rotigaptide signaling.


Assuntos
Conexina 43/química , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Parada Cardíaca , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oligopeptídeos/química , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina/metabolismo
14.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 47(2): 236-42, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16495761

RESUMO

Treatment with non-selective drugs (eg, long-chain alcohols, halothane) that reduce gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with reduced infarct size after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, it has been suggested that gap junction intercellular communication stimulating compounds may increase infarct size. The antiarrhythmic peptide analogue rotigaptide (ZP123) increases cardiac gap junction intercellular communication and the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of rotigaptide treatment on infarct size. Myocardial infarction was induced in male rats by ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Rats (n = 156) were treated with rotigaptide at three dose levels or vehicle from the onset of ischemia and for 3 weeks following LAD occlusion. Infarct size was determined using histomorphometry after 3 weeks treatment. Rotigaptide treatment producing steady state plasma levels of 0.8 +/- 0.1, 5.5 +/- 0.5, and 86 +/- 8 nmol/L had no effect on mortality, but reduced infarct size to 90 +/- 10% (P = 0.41), 67 +/- 7% (P = 0.005), and 82 +/- 7% (P = 0.13), respectively relative to vehicle-treated myocardial infarction rats (100 +/- 12%). In contrast to what was predicted, our data demonstrates that rotigaptide treatment was associated with a significant infarct size reduction. We conclude that whereas treatment with non-selective inhibitors of gap junction intercellular communication cause a reduction in infarct size, this information cannot be extrapolated to the effects of compounds that selectively increase gap junction intercellular communication.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Antiarrítmicos/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Crônica , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 288(2): H511-6, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15650154

RESUMO

The role of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in ischemia-induced focal ventricular tachycardia (VT) is unknown. We have developed a new, stable antiarrhythmic peptide analog named ZP123 that selectively increases GJIC and prevents reentrant VT. Our aim in this study was to use ZP123 as a tool to assess the role of GJIC on occurrence of ischemia-induced focal VT and triggered activity (TA) due to delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). Focal VT was induced by programmed stimulation in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized, open-chest dogs 1-4 h after coronary artery occlusion. Three-dimensional activation mapping was done using 6 bipolar electrograms on each of 23 multipolar needles in the risk zone. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either saline or ZP123 cumulatively at three dose levels (an intravenous bolus followed by a 30-min infusion per dose). Attempts to induce VT were repeated in each dose. Mass spectrometry was used to measure plasma ZP123 concentrations. Standard microelectrode techniques were used for in vitro study of DADs and TA. Twenty-six dogs with focal VT were included. ZP123 did not affect the inducibility of focal VT at any plasma concentrations vs. saline (0.8 +/- 0.1 nM, 77 vs. 75%; 7.8 +/- 0.4 nM, 86 vs. 77%; and 78.8 +/- 5.0 nM, 77 vs. 91%). In vitro, ZP123 did not affect the induction of DADs (12/12) and TAs (10/10) in ischemic tissues or tissue removed from the origin of focal VT (DADs, 8/8; TAs, 4/4). Therefore, although indirect, the data with the doses and concentrations used suggest that GJIC may not play a major role in the genesis of focal activity in the ischemic models studied.


Assuntos
Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Cães , Feminino , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos/sangue , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia
16.
Cell Commun Adhes ; 12(5-6): 271-8, 2005 Jul-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16531322

RESUMO

Rotigaptide (ZP123) increases gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and prevents stress-induced cardiac conduction velocity (CV) slowing. However, the effect of rotigaptide on established cardiac conduction slowing and the duration of effect on rotigaptide during washout is unknown. Metabolic stress (induced by superfusion with nonoxygenated glucose-free Tyrodes buffer) was associated with a 30% decrease in atrial CV in vehicle-treated rat atria. Rotigaptide treatment initiated after a period of 30 minutes of metabolic stress produced a rapid and significant increase in CV compared to vehicle-treated time controls. During washout of rotigaptide for 30 min (while subjected to metabolic stress), there was a minor decrease in atrial CV; however, this was not significantly different from atrial CV in a rotigaptide-treated time control group. Rotigaptide treatment rapidly normalizes established conduction slowing in atria subjected to metabolic stress. However, the cessation of effect was considerably slower than the onset of action.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 14(5): 510-20, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12776869

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine if the stable antiarrhythmic peptide (AAP) analogue ZP123 increases gap junctional intercellular conductance and prevents reentrant ventricular tachycardia (VT) during coronary artery occlusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Voltage clamp experiments demonstrated that 10 nM ZP123 improved gap junctional intercellular conductance by 69% +/- 20% in pairs of guinea pig ventricular myocytes. VT was induced by programmed stimulation in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized open chest dogs 1 to 4 hours after coronary artery occlusion. Three-dimensional activation mapping was done using six bipolar electrograms on each of 23 multipolar needles in the risk zone. When VT was reproducibly induced, dogs were randomly assigned to receive either saline or ZP123 cumulatively at three dose levels (intravenous bolus followed by 30-min infusion per dose). Attempts to induce VT were repeated in each infusion period. Mass spectrometry was used to measure ZP123 plasma concentrations. Twenty-six dogs with reentrant VT were included. ZP123 significantly prevented reentrant VT at all plasma concentrations vs saline: 1.0 +/- 0.2 nM: 6/12 vs 0/12; 7.7 +/- 0.6 nM: 7/13 vs 1/12; and 69.2 +/- 5.4 nM: 9/13 vs 1/13. The preventive effect of ZP123 on reentrant VT was closely correlated to reversal of functional, unidirectional conduction block. ZP123 did not affect effective refractory period, surface ECG parameters, mean arterial pressure, or infarct size. CONCLUSION: The stable AAP analogue ZP123 increased gap junctional intercellular conductance and specifically prevented the induction of reentrant VT during ischemia in a broad dose range without proarrhythmic or hemodynamic side effects. ZP123 is a promising candidate for use in preventing ischemia-induced VT.


Assuntos
Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Taquicardia Ventricular/prevenção & controle , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Bloqueio Cardíaco/metabolismo , Bloqueio Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatística como Assunto , Taquicardia Ventricular/metabolismo
18.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 306(3): 1191-9, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12829724

RESUMO

Antiarrhythmic peptides (AAPs) are a group of compounds with antiarrhythmic properties; however, their use has been hampered by very low plasma stability. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro and in vivo stability of our new stable AAP analog Ac-d-Tyr-d-Pro-d-Hyp-Gly-d-Ala-Gly-NH2 (ZP123) with the previously described AAP analog AAP10. Moreover, the effect of the two compounds was examined in a murine in vivo model of ouabain-induced second degree AV-block, and the effect on dispersion of action potential duration (APD dispersion) was studied during hypokalemic-ischemia in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. The in vitro t1/2 of ZP123 in rat and human plasma was about 1,700 times longer than t1/2 of AAP10. Due to rapid elimination, it was not possible to obtain an in vivo pharmacokinetic characterization of AAP10; however, calculations suggested that the clearance of ZP123 was at least 140 times slower than for AAP10. AAP10 and ZP123 produced a dose-dependent delay in onset of ouabain-induced AV-block in mice at doses of 10-11 to 10-7 mol/kg i.v. ZP123 and 10-11 to 10-6 mol/kg i.v. AAP10. Maximal efficacy of ZP123 was reached at a 10-fold lower dose (10-8 mol/kg i.v.) than with AAP10. In the isolated rabbit hearts, ZP123 and AAP10 had no effect on dispersion during control conditions. The increased APD dispersion during hypokalemic ischemia is considered a major arrhythmic substrate and only ZP123 prevented the increase in APD dispersion. In conclusion, ZP123 is a new potent AAP analog with improved stability.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacocinética , Oligopeptídeos/farmacocinética , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/sangue , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/sangue , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 40(5): 770-9, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12409986

RESUMO

During ischemia, cardiac gap junctions close and neighboring cells uncouple. This leads to slow conduction, increased dispersion of APD90 (duration from action potential beginning to 90% of repolarization), nonuniform anisotropy, and unidirectional conduction block, all of which favor the induction of reentry arrhythmias. It has been suggested that anti-arrhythmic peptides increase gap junction conductance during states of reduced coupling. The aim of this study was to test the effect of the anti-arrhythmic peptide N-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl Pro-Hyp-Gly-Ala-Gly-OH (HP-5) (10(-10) ) on dispersion of epicardial APD90 during both normokalemic and hypokalemic ischemia/reperfusion in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. HP-5 did not affect average APD90, heart rate, left ventricular contractility (LVP dP/dtmax), or mean coronary flow. HP-5 significantly reduced the epicardial APD dispersion during hypokalemic ischemia (HP-5 treated: 24.1 +/- 3.4 ms, untreated: 33.9 +/- 3.1 ms, p < 0.05 versus untreated) and during normokalemic reperfusion but not during normokalemic ischemia or control conditions. In addition, among untreated hearts subjected to hypokalemic ischemia/reperfusion, seven of 10 developed ventricular fibrillation, whereas only three of nine hearts perfused with HP-5 developed ventricular fibrillation. These results show that HP-5 is able to reduce APD90 dispersion during hypokalemic ischemia in rabbit hearts.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Coração/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , alfa-Defensinas/uso terapêutico , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Eletrofisiologia , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos
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