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1.
Health Expect ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An improvement initiative sought to improve care for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients; many felt insecure about how to cope with AF. OBJECTIVE: To reveal AF patients' and professionals' experiences of pilot-testing a Learning Café group education programme, aimed at increasing the patients' sense of security in everyday life. DESIGN: Using an organizational case study design, we combined quantitative data (patients' sense of security) and qualitative data (project documentation; focus group interviews with five patients and five professionals) analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. SETTING: AF patients and a multiprofessional team at a cardiac care unit in a Swedish district hospital. IMPROVEMENT ACTIVITIES: Two registered nurses invited AF patients and partners to four 2.5-hour Learning Café sessions. In the first session, they solicited participants' questions about life with AF. A physician, a registered nurse and a physiotherapist were invited to address these questions in the remaining sessions. RESULTS: AF patients reported gaining a greater sense of security in everyday life and anticipating a future shift from emergency care to planned care. Professionals reported enhanced professional development, learning more about person-centredness and gaining greater control of their own work situation. The organization gained knowledge about patient and family involvement. CONCLUSIONS: The Learning Café pilot test-exemplifying movement towards co-production through patient-professional collaboration-generated positive outcomes for patients (sense of security), professionals (work satisfaction; learning) and the organization (better care) in line with contemporary models for quality improvement and with Self-Determination Theory. This approach merits further testing and evaluation in other contexts.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029723, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350253

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cocreation, coproduction and codesign are advocated as effective ways of involving citizens in the design, management, provision and evaluation of health and social care services. Although numerous case studies describe the nature and level of coproduction in individual projects, there remain three significant gaps in the evidence base: (1) measures of coproduction processes and their outcomes, (2) mechanisms that enable inclusivity and reciprocity and (3) management systems and styles. By focusing on these issues, we aim to explore, enhance and measure the value of coproduction for improving the health and well-being of citizens. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Nine ongoing coproduction projects form the core of an interactive research programme ('Samskapa') during a 6-year period (2019-2024). Six of these will take place in Sweden and three will be undertaken in England to enable knowledge exchange and cross-cultural comparison. The programme has a longitudinal case study design using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Cross-case analysis and a sensemaking process will generate relevant lessons both for those participating in the projects and researchers. Based on the findings, we will develop explanatory models and other outputs to increase the sustained value (and values) of future coproduction initiatives in these sectors. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All necessary ethical approvals will be obtained from the regional Ethical Board in Sweden and from relevant authorities in England. All data and personal data will be handled in accordance with General Data Protection Regulations. Given the interactive nature of the research programme, knowledge dissemination to participants and stakeholders in the nine projects will be ongoing throughout the 6 years. External workshops-facilitated in collaboration with participating case studies and citizens-both during and at the end of the programme will provide an additional dissemination mechanism and involve health and social care practitioners, policymakers and third-sector organisations.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 319, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovation has been identified as an important engine for improving the quality, productivity and efficiency of health care. Little is known about how to stimulate innovation capacity in primary health care in general; even less is known about how specific interventions should be designed to support managements' work with practice-based innovations. Research has shown that if managers and teams are excellent at handling the challenges of production (exploitation) and development (exploration), they are better at innovation. The aim of the study is to develop a dynamic management support programme to increase innovation leadership skills in daily practice. METHODS: The study has an interactive approach that allows the need for empirical and theoretical knowledge to emerge and merge, and a quasi-experimental cross-over design. Eight primary health care centres will participate in the study. In the first phase, the management teams at four health care centres will participate in the intervention, and the other four centres will serve as a control group. Thereafter, the units will switch places and the control group will experience the intervention. All staff at the 8 units will answer questionnaires at four points in time (before, during, after, 6 months later) to evaluate the effects of the intervention. DISCUSSION: The study will contribute to knowledge on how to organize processes of innovation and support exploitation and exploration behaviours by co-producing and testing a tailor-made management support programme for innovation work in primary health care. An expected long-term effect is that the support system will be disseminated to other centres both within and beyond the participating organizations.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Liderança , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Estudos Cross-Over , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 42, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policymakers in many countries are involved in system reforms that aim to strengthen the primary care sector. Sweden is no exception. Evidence suggests that targeted financial micro-incentives can stimulate change in certain areas of care, but they do not result in more radical change, such as innovation. The study was performed in relation to the introduction of a national health care reform, and conducted in Jönköping County Council, as the region's handling of health care reforms has attracted significant national and international interest. This study employed success case method to explore what enables primary care innovations. METHODS: Five Primary Health Care Centres (PHCCs) were purposively selected to ensure inclusion of a variety of aspects, such as size, location, ownership and regional success criteria. 48 in-depth interviews with managers and staff at the recruited PHCCs were analysed using content analyses. The COREQ checklist for qualitative studies was used to assure quality standards. RESULTS: This study identified three types of innovations, which break with previous ways of organizing work at these PHCCs: (1) service innovation; (2) process innovation; and (3) organizational innovation. A learning-oriented culture and climate, comprising entrepreneurial leadership, cross-boundary collaboration, visible and understandable performance measurements and ability to adapt to external pressure were shown to be advantageous for innovativeness. CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative study highlights critical features in practice that support primary care innovation. Managers need to consistently transform and integrate a policy "push" with professionals' understanding and values to better support primary care innovation. Ultimately, the key to innovation is the professionals' engagement in the work, that is, their willingness, capability and opportunity to innovate.


Assuntos
Inovação Organizacional , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Organizacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suécia
5.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; 36(4): 406-414, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Staff experiences of healthy work environment (HWE) indicators at primary care units can assist in understanding why some primary care units function better than others. The aim of the study was to create increased understanding of how workers experienced HWE indicators at well-functioning primary care units. DESIGN: Fifty in-depth interviews with staff at six primary care units in Sweden were analysed with deductive content analysis, revisiting a systematic review of HWE indicators. RESULTS: The study presents additional perspectives on staff experiences of HWE indicators at well-functioning primary care units. The included primary care units (PCU) shared a similar pattern of work environment indicators, with unique solutions and strategies to meet shared challenges. Staff at the included PCUs were encouraged to work to create and sustain a HWE, but each domain (indicator) also provided challenges that the staff and organisation needed to meet. The results suggest that useful approaches for a healthy work environment could be to address issues of organisational virtuousness, employee commitment and joy at work. CONCLUSIONS: Both managers and staff are encouraged to actively work not only to create and sustain an HWE but also to promote organisational virtuousness, employee commitment, joy at work and to increase the performance at work, which is of benefit to staff, patients and society. Key Points Staff at well-functioning primary care units (PCUs) experienced healthy work environments The included PCUs shared a similar pattern of work environment indicators, with unique solutions and strategies to meet shared challenges. Staff at the included PCUs were encouraged to work to create and sustain a healthy work environment, but each domain (indicator) also provided challenges that the staff and organisation needed to meet. The results suggest that useful approaches for a healthy work environment could be to address issues of organisational virtuousness, employee commitment and joy at work.

6.
Scand J Occup Ther ; : 1-16, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational therapists need to know about people's beliefs about personal responsibility for health to help them pursue everyday activities. AIM: The study aims to employ state-of-the-art quantitative approaches to understand people's views of health and responsibility at different ages. METHODS: A mixed method approach was adopted, using text mining to extract information from 233 interviews with participants aged 5 to 96 years, and then exploratory graph analysis to estimate the number of latent variables. The fit of the structure estimated via the exploratory graph analysis was verified using confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: Exploratory graph analysis estimated three dimensions of health responsibility: (1) creating good health habits and feeling good; (2) thinking about one's own health and wanting to improve it; and 3) adopting explicitly normative attitudes to take care of one's health. The comparison between the three dimensions among age groups showed, in general, that children and adolescents, as well as the old elderly (>73 years old) expressed ideas about personal responsibility for health less than young adults, adults and young elderly. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational therapists' knowledge of the concepts of health responsibility is of value when working with a patient's health, but an identified challenge is how to engage children and older persons.

7.
Physiother Theory Pract ; : 1-12, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723127

RESUMO

Physiotherapists have an important role in sexual health, but there are specific ethical considerations regarding sexuality and the practice of physiotherapy which require serious consideration. This article aims to illustrate how the professional ethical code of physiotherapy can serve as a tool for ethical clinical reasoning regarding sexual health in clinical physiotherapy practice. We analyse the ethical codes for physical therapy, in relation to a definition of sexual health and the declaration of sexual rights. The analysis outlines several ethical considerations crucial in dealing with sexual health, while also acknowledging the critical role of cultural context in any ethical analysis. We conclude that physiotherapists need to practise ethical reasoning and that the ethical code of physiotherapy can act as a point of departure for reflection on thought-provoking ethical dilemmas to improve the practice of physiotherapy and support clients' overall health.

8.
J Health Organ Manag ; 31(4): 487-502, 2017 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877624

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore work motivation among professionals at well-functioning primary healthcare centers subject to a national healthcare reform which include financial incentives. Design/methodology/approach Five primary healthcare centers in Sweden were purposively selected for being well-operated and representing public/private and small/large units. In total, 43 interviews were completed with different medical professions and qualitative deductive content analysis was conducted. Findings Work motivation exists for professionals when their individual goals are aligned with the organizational goals and the design of the reform. The centers' positive management was due to a unique combination of factors, such as clear direction of goals, a culture of non-hierarchical collaboration, and systematic quality improvement work. The financial incentives need to be translated in terms of quality patient care to provide clear direction for the professionals. Social processes where professionals work together as cohesive groups, and provided space for quality improvement work is pivotal in addressing how alignment is created. Practical implications Leaders need to consistently translate and integrate reforms with the professionals' drives and values. This is done by encouraging participation through teamwork, time for structured reflection, and quality improvement work. Social implications The design of the reforms and leadership are essential preconditions for work motivation. Originality/value The study offers a more complete picture of how reforms are managed at primary healthcare centers, as different medical professionals are included. The value also consists of showing how a range of aspects combine for primary healthcare professionals to successfully manage external reforms.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Motivação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Suécia
9.
Int J Health Care Qual Assur ; 30(7): 617-627, 2017 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809588

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address how adult development (AD) theories can contribute to quality improvement (QI). Design/methodology/approach A theoretical analysis and discussion on how personal development empirical findings can relate to QI and Deming's four improvement knowledge domains. Findings AD research shows that professionals have qualitatively diverse ways of meaning-making and ways to approach possibilities in improvement efforts. Therefore, professionals with more complex meaning-making capacities are needed to create successful transformational changes and learning, with the recognition that system knowledge is a developmental capacity. Practical implications In QI and improvement science there is an assumption that professionals have the skills and competence needed for improvement efforts, but AD theories show that this is not always the case, which suggests a need for facilitating improvement initiatives, so that everyone can contribute based on their capacity. Originality/value This study illustrates that some competences in QI efforts are a developmental challenge to professionals, and should be considered in practice and research.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Inovação Organizacional , Teoria Psicológica , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Liderança
10.
Nurs Ethics ; : 969733017718394, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When healthcare personnel take part in military operations in combat zones, they experience ethical problems related to dual loyalties, that is, when they find themselves torn between expectations of doing caring and military tasks, respectively. AIM: This article aims to describe how Swedish healthcare personnel reason concerning everyday ethical problems related to dual loyalties between care and military tasks when undertaking healthcare in combat zones. DESIGN: Abductive qualitative design. Participants and research context: Individual interviews with 15 registered nurses and physicians assigned for a military operation in Mali. Ethical considerations: The participants signed up voluntarily, and requirements for informed consent and confidentiality were met. The research was approved by the Regional Ethics Review Board in Gothenburg (D no. 816-14; 24 November 2014). FINDINGS: Three main categories emerged: reasons for not undertaking combat duties, reasons for undertaking combat duties and restricted loyalty to military duties, and 14 subcategories. Reasons for not undertaking combat duties were that it was not in their role, not according to ethical codes or humanitarian law or a breach towards patients. Reasons for undertaking combat duties were that humanitarian law does not apply or has to be treated pragmatically or that it is a case of force protection. Shortage of resources and competence were reasons for both doing and not doing military tasks. Under some circumstances, they could imagine undertaking military tasks: when under threat, if unseen or if not needed for healthcare duties. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: These discrepant views suggest a lack of a common view on what is ethically acceptable or not, and therefore we suggest further normative discussion on how these everyday ethical problems should be interpreted in the light of humanitarian law and ethical codes of healthcare personnel and following this, further training in ethical reflection before going on military operations.

11.
Scand J Psychol ; 58(2): 150-157, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28252192

RESUMO

Children's value systems develop through youth and influence attitudes and actions. But there is a lack of appropriate measures for children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to construct and validate a questionnaire that reveals distinct value systems among adolescents, and to evaluate the identified value systems' relationship to degree of ego-development and moral development. A quantitative study in a Swedish School with ages 12 through 16 (grades 6 to 9) was performed (N = 204). A set of pattern recognition statistical analyses has been used to identify different profiles of values systems and demonstrate that these systems can be arranged in a hierarchical order similar to other development. Results revealed three value systems in this sample. The identified value systems reflect different degrees of moral and ego-development among children in the study. Three distinct value systems were identified: the first (n = 9) and the second value systems (n = 35) correspond to pre-conventional stages, and the third value system (n = 155) corresponds to early conventional stages of ego development. Ego development scoring of test statements to assess stages. The value system was significantly related to moral development in the personal interest and the maintaining norms schemas of the Defining Issues Test (DIT). However, many students did not complete the entire DIT, so those results should be looked at with caution. It appears that this new test (Test for Adolescent Value Systems - TAVS) does relate to an established ego development rating scale.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Ego , Princípios Morais , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes
12.
Mil Med ; 179(8): 821-6, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25102524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the Swedish military personnel's experience of what it means to perform a caring role in a combat zone. This study assesses the challenges faced by military medical personnel in the context of a combat zone. METHODS: The design was descriptive with a qualitative inductive approach. Twenty military medical personnel (physicians, nurses, and combat lifesavers) were interviewed individually. They had been involved in international military operations between 2009 and 2012. This study was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The analysis produced four categories: being in a primarily noncaring organization, caring in emotionally charged relationships, lacking an open dialog about expectations of killing and having to prioritize scarce resources. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that medical personnel easily adapt to a military setting. They care but also perform other tasks when they are in a combat zone. The medical personnel want to give care to host nation but use drugs they can spare.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Medicina Militar , Militares/psicologia , Adulto , Conflito (Psicologia) , Feminino , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Guerra , Adulto Jovem
13.
Dementia (London) ; 12(1): 63-79, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24336663

RESUMO

The study describes how relationships are created with persons with moderate to severe dementia. The material comprises 24 video sequences of Relational Time (RT) sessions, 24 interviews with persons with dementia and eight interviews with professional caregivers. The study method was Constructivist Grounded Theory. The categories of 'Assigning time', 'Establishing security and trust' and 'Communicating equality' were strategies for arriving at the core category, 'Opening up', which was the process that led to creating relationships. Both parties had to contribute to create a relationship; the professional caregiver controlled the process, but the person with dementia permitted the caregiver's overtures and opened up, thus making the relationship possible. Interpersonal relationships are significant to enhancing the well-being of persons with dementia. Small measures like RT that do not require major resources can open paths to creating relationships.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Suécia , Confiança
14.
Genes Nutr ; 8(4): 365-72, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23504640

RESUMO

Personalized nutrition has the potential to enhance individual health control. It could be seen as a means to strengthen people's autonomy as they learn more about their personal health risks, and receive dietary advice accordingly. We examine in what sense personalized nutrition strengthens or weakens individual autonomy. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy is analyzed in relation to responsibility and trustworthiness. On a societal level, individualization of health promotion may be accompanied by the attribution of extended individual responsibility for one's health. This constitutes a dilemma of individualization, caused by a conflict between the right to individual freedom and societal interests. The extent to which personalized nutrition strengthens autonomy is consequently influenced by how responsibility for health is allocated to individuals. Ethically adequate allocation of responsibility should focus on prospective responsibility and be differentiated with regard to individual differences concerning the capacity of adults to take responsibility. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy also depends on its methodological design. Owing to the complexity of information received, personalized nutrition through genetic testing (PNTGT) is open to misinterpretation and may not facilitate informed choices and autonomy. As new technologies, personalized nutrition and PNTGT are subject to issues of trust. To strengthen autonomy, trust should be approached in terms of trustworthiness. Trustworthiness implies that an organization that develops or introduces personalized nutrition can show that it is competent to deal with both the technical and moral dimensions at stake and that its decisions are motivated by the interests and expectations of the truster.

15.
Nurs Ethics ; 19(4): 501-12, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22619235

RESUMO

Few qualitative studies explore the phenomenon of positive ethical climate and what actions are perceived as promoting it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and describe actions that acute care ward nurses perceive as promoting a positive ethical climate. The critical incident technique was used. Interviews were conducted with 20 nurses at wards where the ethical climate was considered positive, according to a previous study. Meeting the needs of patients and next of kin in a considerate way, as well as receiving and giving support and information within the work group, promoted a positive ethical climate. Likewise, working as a team with a standard for behaviour within the work group promoted a positive ethical climate. Future research should investigate other conditions that might also promote a positive ethical climate.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Unidades Hospitalares/ética , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/ética , Cultura Organizacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
16.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 73(2): 99-124, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22010360

RESUMO

With many Western societies structured for adults to live longer and take responsibility for their health, it is valuable to investigate how older persons reason about this demand. Using mixed methods, this pilot studied how older persons reason about responsibility for health and their responsibility as a patient. Interviews with a small Swedish sample of 65-84 year olds were analyzed for qualitative characteristics and quantitative complexity in reasoning. Using adult development theory, we predicted at least three different stages of performance in reasoning. Results indicated four different stages: two where there is no actual reasoning about health and responsibility, and two where reasoning does occur, each qualitatively different. Results suggest a long-standing blind spot in health studies, that older people do not comprehend responsibility issues in the same way. There are significant implications for closing this gap between demand to take responsibility and capabilities to do so.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Humano , Vida Independente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Papel do Doente/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Teoria da Construção Pessoal , Projetos Piloto , Resolução de Problemas/ética , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Suécia
17.
J Clin Nurs ; 20(23-24): 3483-93, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21884556

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was fivefold: to describe Swedish nurses' perceptions of moral distress and determine whether there were differences in perceptions depending on demographic characteristics and to describe the usability of the Moral Distress Scale in a Swedish context. Further, the aim was to describe Swedish nurses' perceptions of ethical climate and the relationship between moral distress and ethical climate. BACKGROUND: Moral distress has been studied for more than two decades and the Moral Distress Scale is the most widely used instrument for measuring it. Moral distress has mainly been studied in relation to nurses' characteristics, but increasing attention has been paid to contextual aspects, such as ethical climate, that could be associated with moral distress. DESIGN: Descriptive, with a quantitative approach. METHODS: The study used two questionnaires: the Moral Distress Scale and the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey. The study was carried out at two hospitals in Sweden and included 249 nurses. RESULTS: Both level and frequency of moral distress were low, however level of moral distress was high in situations when the patient was not given safe and proper care. Generally, the frequency of moral distress was lower than the level. Of the situations on the Moral Distress Scale, 13 of the 32 were considered irrelevant by 10-50% of the participants. The more positive the ethical climate was perceived to be, the less frequently morally distressing situations were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Since a positive ethical climate was associated with less frequent occurrences of moral distress, it should be investigated what contributes to a positive ethical climate. To be used in a Swedish context, the Moral Distress Scale needs further revision. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Open dialogues at wards are encouraged regarding what practices contribute to a positive ethical climate.


Assuntos
Moral , Enfermagem , Estresse Psicológico , Suécia
18.
Nurs Ethics ; 17(3): 383-92, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20444779

RESUMO

Research ethics is increasingly formally regulated, but little is known about how ethical considerations are reported in dissertations. The aim of this literature study was to describe the status and trends of ethical considerations in Swedish doctoral dissertations written by registered nurses. A total of 77 dissertations from 1987, 1997, and 2007 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Ethical considerations were mostly overlooked in 1987, but almost ubiquitous by 2007. All dissertations in 2007, except one, had a section on ethical considerations; however, these were short, lacking in references, and short on content. The most common topic was informed consent and approval from research ethics review boards, followed by confidentiality and ethical aspects of methodological issues. Our results imply that the quantity and quality of ethical considerations must be improved in order to assure ethical soundness for participants, patients, researchers, and society.


Assuntos
Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Ética em Pesquisa , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Autoria , Confidencialidade/ética , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Masculino , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/ética , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suécia
19.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 25(6): 528-40, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18728972

RESUMO

Although many pediatric B-cell lymphoma patients are being cured today, much is still unknown about the pathogenesis of this disease. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in the control of survival, growth, and differentiation of cells. The authors have analyzed 26 pediatric B-cell lymphoma cases for the expression of a panel of phosphatases and report a statistically significant lower expression intensity of PTEN and HePTP and higher nuclear SHP2 expression in B-cell lymphoma cases compared to lymphoid tissue. Knowledge about the expression of key regulatory proteins in pediatric B-cell lymphomas is necessary for revealing the complex molecular background of this disease.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Células B/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/biossíntese , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Masculino
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