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1.
J Comput Chem ; 41(19): 1781-1789, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394459

RESUMO

Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra and their pump-probe extension (PP-NEXAFS) offer insights into valence- and core-excited states. We present PSIXAS, a recent implementation for simulating NEXAFS and PP-NEXAFS spectra by means of the transition-potential and the Δ-Kohn-Sham method. The approach is implemented in form of a software plugin for the Psi4 code, which provides access to a wide selection of basis sets as well as density functionals. We briefly outline the theoretical foundation and the key aspects of the plugin. Then, we use the plugin to simulate PP-NEXAFS spectra of thymine, a system already investigated by others and us. It is found that larger, extended basis sets are needed to obtain more accurate absolute resonance positions. We further demonstrate that, in contrast to ordinary NEXAFS simulations, where the choice of the density functional plays a minor role for the shape of the spectrum, for PP-NEXAFS simulations the choice of the density functional is important. Especially hybrid functionals (which could not be used straightforwardly before to simulate PP-NEXAFS spectra) and their amount of "Hartree-Fock like" exact exchange affects relative resonance positions in the spectrum.

2.
J Chem Phys ; 150(23): 234114, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228917

RESUMO

High Harmonic Generation (HHG) is a nonlinear optical process that provides a tunable source for high-energy photons and ultrashort laser pulses. Recent experiments demonstrated that HHG spectroscopy may also be used as an analytical tool to discriminate between randomly oriented configurational isomers of polyatomic organic molecules, namely, between the cis- and trans-forms of 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) [M. C. H. Wong et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 051403 (2011)]. Here, we suggest as an economic and at the same time a reasonably accurate method to compute HHG spectra for polyatomic species, Time-Dependent Configuration Interaction Singles (TD-CIS) theory in combination with extended atomic orbital bases and different models to account for ionization losses. The HHG spectra are computed for aligned and unaligned cis- and trans-DCE. For the unaligned case, a coherent averaging over possible rotational orientations is introduced. Furthermore, using TD-CIS, possible differences between the HHG spectra of cis- and trans-DCE are studied. For aligned molecules, spectral differences between cis and trans emerge, which can be related to their different point group symmetries. For unaligned, randomly oriented molecules, we also find distinct HHG spectra in partial agreement with experiment. In addition to HHG response in the frequency space, we compute time-frequency HHG spectra to gain insight into which harmonics are emitted at which time. Further differences between the two isomers emerge, suggesting time-frequency HHG as another tool to discriminate configurational isomers.

3.
J Comput Chem ; 39(30): 2517-2525, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365166

RESUMO

We use clusters for the modeling of local ion resonances caused by low energy charge carriers in STM-induced desorption of benzene derivates from Si(111)-7 × 7. We perform Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for the charged systems assuming vertical transitions to the charged states at zero temperature, to rationalize the low temperature activation energies, which are found in experiment for chlorobenzene. Our calculations suggest very similar low temperature activation energies for toluene and benzene. For the cationic resonance transitions to physisorption are found even at 0 K, while the anion remains chemisorbed during the propagations. Further, we also extend our previous static quantum chemical investigations to toluene and benzene. In addition, an in depth analysis of the ionization potentials and electron affinities, which are used to estimate resonance energies, is given. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4.
J Comput Chem ; 38(2): 116-126, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862049

RESUMO

Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) simulations based on the conventional configuration interaction singles (CIS) lead to excitation energies, which are systematically blue shifted. Using a (restricted) open shell core hole reference instead of the Hartree Fock (HF) ground state orbitals improves (Decleva et al., Chem. Phys., 1992, 168, 51) excitation energies and the shape of the spectra significantly. In this work, we systematically vary the underlying SCF approaches, that is, based on HF or density functional theory, to identify best suited reference orbitals using a series of small test molecules. We compare the energies of the K edges and NEXAFS spectra to experimental data. The main improvement compared to conventional CIS, that is, using HF ground state orbitals, is due to the electrostatic influence of the core hole. Different SCF approaches, density functionals, or the use of fractional occupations lead only to comparably small changes. Furthermore, to account for bigger systems, we adapt the core-valence separation for our approach. We demonstrate that the good quality of the spectrum is not influenced by this approximation when used together with the non-separated ground state wave function. Simultaneously, the computational demands are reduced remarkably. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 144(4): 044301, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26827211

RESUMO

We combine the stochastic pulse optimization (SPO) scheme with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles method in order to control the high frequency response of a simple molecular model system to a tailored femtosecond laser pulse. For this purpose, we use H2 treated in the fixed nuclei approximation. The SPO scheme, as similar genetic algorithms, is especially suited to control highly non-linear processes, which we consider here in the context of high harmonic generation. Here, we will demonstrate that SPO can be used to realize a "non-harmonic" response of H2 to a laser pulse. Specifically, we will show how adding low intensity side frequencies to the dominant carrier frequency of the laser pulse and stochastically optimizing their contribution can create a high-frequency spectral signal of significant intensity, not harmonic to the carrier frequency. At the same time, it is possible to suppress the harmonic signals in the same spectral region, although the carrier frequency is kept dominant during the optimization.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(33): 6699-704, 2014 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24914960

RESUMO

Motivated by recent atomic manipulation experiments, we report quantum chemical calculations for chemi- and physisorption minima of chlorobenzene on the Si(111)-7×7 surface. A density functional theory cluster approach is applied, using the B3LYP hybrid functional alongside Grimme's empirical dispersion corrections (D3). We were able to identify chemisorption sites of binding energies of 1.6 eV and physisorption energies of 0.6 eV, both in encouraging agreement with the trend of experimental data. The cluster approach opens up the possibility of a first-principles based dynamical description of STM manipulation experiments on this system, the interpretation of which involves both the chemi- and physisorbed states. However, we found that special care has to be taken regarding the choice of clusters, basis sets, and the evaluation of the dispersion corrections.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 140(2): 024701, 2014 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24437896

RESUMO

High conductivity and a tunability of the band gap make quasi-one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) highly interesting materials for the use in field effect transistors. Especially bottom-up fabricated GNRs possess well-defined edges which is important for the electronic structure and accordingly the band gap. In this study we investigate the formation of a sub-nanometer wide armchair GNR generated on a Au(111) surface. The on-surface synthesis is thermally activated and involves an intermediate non-aromatic polymer in which the molecular precursor forms polyanthrylene chains. Employing angle-resolved two-photon photoemission in combination with density functional theory calculations we find that the polymer exhibits two dispersing states which we attribute to the valence and the conduction band, respectively. While the band gap of the non-aromatic polymer obtained in this way is relatively large, namely 5.25 ± 0.06 eV, the gap of the corresponding aromatic GNR is strongly reduced which we attribute to the different degree of electron delocalization in the two systems.

8.
Chemphyschem ; 14(7): 1471-8, 2013 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23426934

RESUMO

We investigate the recombinative desorption of hydrogen and deuterium from a Ru(0001) surface initiated by femtosecond laser pulses. We adopt a quantum mechanical two-state model including three molecular degrees of freedom to describe the dynamics within the desorption induced by electronic transition (DIET) limit. The energy distributions as well as the state-resolved and ensemble properties of the desorbed molecules are analyzed in detail by using the time-energy method. Our results shed light on the experimentally observed 1) large isotopic effects regarding desorption yields and translational energies and 2) the nonequal energy partitioning into internal and translational modes. In particular, it is shown that a single temperature is sufficient to characterize the energy distributions for all degrees of freedom. Further, we confirm that quantization effects play an important role in the determination of the energy partitioning.


Assuntos
Deutério/química , Hidrogênio/química , Lasers , Teoria Quântica , Rutênio/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Chemistry ; 18(34): 10506-10, 2012 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22807148

RESUMO

Copper chemodosimeters: The copper(II)-promoted air oxidation of 1-3 to form 4-6 permits the highly selective colorimetric detection of Cu(2+) ions. The formation of copper(II) complexes of 4-6 proceeds rapidly, and the chemodosimeters 1-3 are viable at physiological pH.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Nitrilos/síntese química , Piridinas/síntese química , Colorimetria , Cobre/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrilos/química , Oxirredução , Piridinas/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos
10.
J Chem Phys ; 136(9): 094705, 2012 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22401466

RESUMO

The switching of single cyclooctadiene molecules chemisorbed on a Si(100) surface between two stable conformations, can be achieved with a scanning tunneling microscope [Nacci et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 121405(R) (2008)]. Recently, it was shown by quantum chemical and quantum dynamical simulations that major experimental facts can be explained by a single-mode model with switching enforced by inelastic electron tunneling (IET) excitations and perturbed by vibrational relaxation [Nacci et al., Nano Lett. 9, 2997 (2009)]. In the present paper, we extend the previous theoretical work in several respects: (1) The model is generalized to a two-mode description in which two C(2)H(4) units of COD can move independently; (2) contributions of dipole and, in addition, (cation and anion) resonance-IET rates are considered; (3) the harmonic-linear vibrational relaxation model used previously is generalized to anharmonic vibrations. While the present models highlight generic aspects of IET-switching between two potential minima, they also rationalize specific experimental findings for COD/Si(100): (1) A single-electron excitation mechanism with a linear dependence of the switching rate on tunneling current I, (2) the capability to switch both at negative and positive sample biases, and (3) a crossover temperature around ~60 K from an IET-driven, T-independent atom tunneling regime, to classical over-the-barrier isomerization with exponential T-dependence at higher temperatures for a bias voltage of +1.5 V and an average tunneling current of 0.73 nA.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(48): 21608-14, 2011 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22071571

RESUMO

Based on the analysis of optical absorption spectra, it has recently been speculated that the excitonic coupling between individual azobenzene-functionalized alkanethiols arranged in a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold surface could be strong enough to hinder collective trans-cis isomerization-on top of steric hindrance [Gahl et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 1831]. Using models of SAMs of increasing complexity (dimer, linear N-mers, and two-dimensionally arranged N-mers) and density functional theory on the (TD-) B3LYP/6-31G* level, we determine optical absorption spectra, the nature and magnitude of excitonic couplings, and the corresponding spectral shifts. It is found that at inter-monomer distances of about 20 Å and above, TD-B3LYP excitation frequencies (and signal intensities) can be well described by the frequently used point-dipole approximation. Further, calculated blue shifts in optical absorption spectra account for the experimental observations made for azobenzene/gold SAMs, and hint to the fact that they can indeed be responsible for reduced switching probability in densely packed self-assembled structures.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(30): 13537-43, 2011 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21617795

RESUMO

The formation of CuCl nanoplatelets from the ionic liquid precursor (ILP) butylpyridinium tetrachlorocuprate [C(4)Py](2)[CuCl(4)] using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent was investigated. In particular, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the interaction between ascorbic acid and the Cu(II) ion before reduction to Cu(I). EPR spectroscopy suggests that the [CuCl(4)](2-) ion in the neat IL is a distorted tetrahedron, consistent with DFT calculations. Addition of ascorbic acid leads to the removal of one chloride from the [CuCl(4)](2-) anion, as shown by DFT and the loss of symmetry by EPR. DFT furthermore suggests that the most stable adduct is formed when only one hydroxyl group of the ascorbic acid coordinates to the Cu(II) ion.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(19): 8659-70, 2011 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21369575

RESUMO

An electronic friction approach based on Langevin dynamics is used to describe the multidimensional (six-dimensional) dynamics of femtosecond laser induced desorption of H(2) and D(2) from a H(D)-covered Ru(0001) surface. The paper extends previous reduced-dimensional models, using a similar approach. In the present treatment forces and frictional coefficients are calculated from periodic density functional theory (DFT) and essentially parameter-free, while the action of femtosecond laser pulses on the metal surface is treated by using the two-temperature model. Our calculations shed light on the performance and validity of various adiabatic, non-adiabatic, and Arrhenius/Kramers type kinetic models to describe hot-electron mediated photoreactions at metal surfaces. The multidimensional frictional dynamics are able to reproduce and explain known experimental facts, such as strong isotope effects, scaling of properties with laser fluence, and non-equipartitioning of vibrational, rotational, and translational energies of desorbing species. Further, detailed predictions regarding translations are made, and the question for the controllability of photoreactions at surfaces with the help of vibrational preexcitation is addressed.


Assuntos
Deutério/química , Elétrons , Hidrogênio/química , Lasers , Teoria Quântica , Rutênio/química , Adsorção , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(16): 4685-7, 2011 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21412564

RESUMO

The new π-conjugated 1,2,3-triazol-1,4-diyl fluoroionophore 1 generated via Cu(I) catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition shows high fluorescence enhancement factors (FEF) in the presence of Na(+) (FEF=58) and K(+) (FEF=27) in MeCN and high selectivity towards K(+) under simulated physiological conditions (160 mM K(+) or Na(+), respectively) with a FEF of 2.5 for K(+).


Assuntos
Compostos Aza/química , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Fluorescência , Potássio/química , Sódio/química , Triazóis/química , Cobre/química , Cumarínicos/química , Ciclização , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Estereoisomerismo
15.
J Chem Phys ; 134(4): 044311, 2011 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21280729

RESUMO

In this paper, we perform many-electron dynamics using the time-dependent configuration-interaction method in its reduced density matrix formulation (ρ-TDCI). Dissipation is treated implicitly using the Lindblad formalism. To include the effect of ionization on the state-resolved dynamics, we extend a recently introduced heuristic model for ionizing states to the ρ-TDCI method, which leads to a reduced density matrix evolution that is not norm-preserving. We apply the new method to the laser-driven excitation of H(2) in a strongly dissipative environment, for which the state-resolve lifetimes are tuned to a few femtoseconds, typical for dynamics of adsorbate at metallic surfaces. Further testing is made on the laser-induced intramolecular charge transfer in a quinone derivative as a model for a molecular switch. A modified scheme to treat ionizing states is proposed to reduce the computational burden associated with the density matrix propagation, and it is thoroughly tested and compared to the results obtained with the former model. The new approach scales favorably (∼N(2)) with the number of configurations N used to represent the reduced density matrix in the ρ-TDCI method, as compared to a N(3) scaling for the model in its original form.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 134(5): 054113, 2011 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21303098

RESUMO

We report explicitly time-dependent coupled cluster singles doubles (TD-CCSD) calculations, which simulate the laser-driven correlated many-electron dynamics in molecular systems. Small molecules, i.e., HF, H(2)O, NH(3), and CH(4), are treated mostly with polarized valence double zeta basis sets. We determine the coupled cluster ground states by imaginary time propagation for these molecules. Excited state energies are obtained from the Fourier transform of the time-dependent dipole moment after an ultrashort, broadband laser excitation. The time-dependent expectation values are calculated from the complex cluster amplitudes using the corresponding configuration interaction singles doubles wave functions. Also resonant laser excitations of these excited states are simulated, in order to explore the limits for the numerical stability of our current TD-CCSD implementation, which uses time-independent molecular orbitals to form excited configurations.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(42): 14082-94, 2010 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20856974

RESUMO

The desorption of molecular hydrogen and deuterium induced by femtosecond-laser pulses is studied theoretically for the so-called DIMET (Desorption Induced by Multiple Electronic Transitions) process. These investigations are based on nonadiabatic classical Monte Carlo trajectory (CMCT) simulations on a ground and an excited state potential energy surface, including up to all six adsorbate degrees of freedom. The focus is on the hot-electron mediated energy transfer from the surface to the molecule and back, and the energy partitioning between the different degrees of freedom of the desorbing molecules. We first validate for a two-mode model comprising the desorption mode and the internal vibrational coordinate, the classical Monte Carlo trajectory method by comparing with Monte Carlo wavepacket (MCWP) calculations arising from a fully quantum mechanical open-system density matrix treatment. We then proceed by extending the CMCT calculations to include all six nuclear degrees of freedom of the desorbing molecule. This allows for a detailed comparison between theory and experiment concerning isotope effects, energy partitioning (translational, vibrational, and rotational energies and their distributions), and the dependence of these properties on the laser fluence. The most important findings are as follows. (i) CMCT agrees qualitative with the MCWP scheme. (ii) The basic experimental features such as the large isotope effect, the non-linear increase of yield with laser fluence, translationally hot products (in the order of several 1000 K) and non-equipartitioning of translational and internal energies (E(trans) > E(vib) > E(rot)) are well reproduced. (iii) Predictions concerning a strong angular dependence of translational energies at large observation angles are also made.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 46(12): 2034-6, 2010 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20221483

RESUMO

The [6.6](9,10)anthracenophane 1 (Scheme 1) is a selective fluoroionophore for the detection of PdCl(2) with a large fluorescence enhancement factor (I/I(0) > 250).

19.
Chemistry ; 16(6): 1819-25, 2010 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20024987

RESUMO

Fluoroionophores of fluorophore-spacer-receptor format were prepared for detection of PdCl(2) by fluorescence enhancement. The fluorescent probes 1-13 consist of a fluorophore group, an alkyl spacer and a dithiomaleonitrile PdCl(2) receptor. First, varying the length of the alkylene spacer (compounds 1-3) revealed a dominant through-space pathway for oxidative photoinduced electron transfer (PET) in CH(2)-bridged dithiomaleonitrile fluoroionophores. Second, fluorescent probes 4-9 containing two anthracene or pyrene fragments connected through CH(2) bridges to the dithiomaleonitrile unit were synthesized. Modulation of the oxidation potential (E(Ox)) through electron-withdrawing or -donating groups on the anthracene moiety regulates the thermodynamic driving force for oxidative PET (DeltaG(PET)) in bis(anthrylmethylthio)maleonitriles and therefore the fluorescence quantum yields (Phi(f)), too. The new concept was confirmed and transferred to pyrenyl ligands, and fluorescence enhancements (FE) greater than 3.2 in the presence of PdCl(2) were achieved by 7 and 8 (FE=5.4 and 5.2). Finally, for comparison, monofluorophore ligands 10-13 were synthesized.


Assuntos
Eletroquímica/métodos , Transporte de Elétrons , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Paládio/química , Elétrons/efeitos adversos , Estrutura Molecular , Fotoquímica/métodos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Eletricidade Estática/efeitos adversos , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
20.
J Chem Phys ; 131(11): 114304, 2009 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19778110

RESUMO

We report simulations of laser-pulse driven many-electron dynamics by means of a simple, heuristic extension of the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TD-CIS) approach. The extension allows for the treatment of ionizing states as nonstationary states with a finite, energy-dependent lifetime to account for above-threshold ionization losses in laser-driven many-electron dynamics. The extended TD-CIS method is applied to the following specific examples: (i) state-to-state transitions in the LiCN molecule which correspond to intramolecular charge transfer, (ii) creation of electronic wave packets in LiCN including wave packet analysis by pump-probe spectroscopy, and, finally, (iii) the effect of ionization on the dynamic polarizability of H(2) when calculated nonperturbatively by TD-CIS.

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