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1.
Blood ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697802

RESUMO

The genetic background of follicular lymphomas (FL) diagnosed in advanced clinical stages III/IV, frequently characterized by the t(14;18), has been substantially unraveled. Molecular features as exemplified in the m7FLIPI are important tools in risk stratification. In contrast, little information is available concerning localized-stage FL (clinical stages I/II), comprising approximately 20% of newly diagnosed FL in which the t(14;18) detection rate is only ~50%. To investigate the genetic background of localized-stage FL, patient cohorts of both advanced-stage and localized-stage FL, uniformly treated within phase III trials of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (GLSG), were comparatively analyzed. Targeted gene expression (GE) profiling of 184 genes using the nCounter technology was performed in 110 localized-stage and 556 advanced-stage FL. By penalized Cox regression, a prognostic GE signature could not be identified in patients with advanced-stage FL, consistent with results from global tests and univariate regression. In contrast, it was possible to define robust GE signatures discriminating localized-stage and advanced-stage FL (AUC: 0.98) by penalized logistic regression. Of note, 3% of samples harboring an 'advanced-stage signature' in the localized-stage cohort demonstrated inferior failure-free survival (hazard ratio, HR, 7.1, p=0.0003). Likewise, in the advanced-stage cohort, 7% of samples with a 'localized-stage signature' had prolonged failure-free (HR 2.3, p=0.017) and overall survival (HR 3.4, p=0.072). These data support the concept of a biological difference between localized-stage and advanced-stage FL that might contribute to the superior outcome of localized FL.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28074, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737984

RESUMO

Pediatric histiocytic sarcoma (HS) clonally related to anteceding leukemia is a rare malignancy with poor outcome. We performed a molecular characterization of HS and the corresponding leukemia by methylation arrays and whole-exome sequencing and found a variety of aberrations in both entities with deletions of CDKN2A/B as a recurrent finding. Furthermore, data from genome-wide mutation analysis from one patient allowed the reconstruction of a sequence of tumorigenesis of leukemia and HS lesions including the acquisition of a putatively activating KRAS frameshift deletion (p.A66fs). Our results provide an insight into the genetic landscape of pediatric HS clonally related to anteceding leukemia.

3.
Leukemia ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690822

RESUMO

The proximal DNA damage response kinase ATM is frequently inactivated in human malignancies. Germline mutations in the ATM gene cause Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), characterized by cerebellar ataxia and cancer predisposition. Whether ATM deficiency impacts on tumor initiation or also on the maintenance of the malignant state is unclear. Here, we show that Atm reactivation in initially Atm-deficient B- and T cell lymphomas induces tumor regression. We further find a reduced T cell abundance in B cell lymphomas from Atm-defective mice and A-T patients. Using T cell-specific Atm-knockout models, as well as allogeneic transplantation experiments, we pinpoint impaired immune surveillance as a contributor to cancer predisposition and development. Moreover, we demonstrate that Atm-deficient T cells display impaired proliferation capacity upon stimulation, due to replication stress. Altogether, our data indicate that T cell-specific restoration of ATM activity or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may prevent lymphomagenesis in A-T patients.

5.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649129

RESUMO

Detection of minimal disseminated disease is a validated prognostic factor in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We previously reported that quantification of minimal disease by quantitative real-time PCR in bone marrow applying a cut-off of 10 copies NPM-ALK/104 copies of the reference transcript ABL1 identifies a very high-risk group of patients. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the prognostic value of quantitative minimal disseminated disease evaluation by real-time PCR and to validate digital PCR as alternative method. Among 91 patients analyzed by real-time PCR in bone marrow, the cumulative incidence of relapses of 18 patients with more than 10 normalized copy-numbers of NPM-ALK was 61+/-12% compared to 21+/-5% for the remaining 76 patients (p=.0002). Results in blood correlated with bone marrow (r=0.74) in 70 patients with both materials. Copy numbers tended to be higher in blood compared to bone marrow. Transcripts were quantified in addition by digital PCR in 75 bone marrow and 57 blood samples. Copy number estimation by using digital PCR and real-time PCR correlated in 132 samples (r=.85). Applying a cut-off of 30 copies NPM-ALK/104 copies ABL1 for quantification by digital PCR, almost identical patient groups were separated compared to real-time PCR. In summary, the prognostic impact of quantification of minimal disseminated disease in bone marrow could be confirmed for patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Quantification of minimal disease by digital PCR provides a promising tool to facilitate harmonization of minimal disease measurement between laboratories and for clinical studies.

6.
Trials ; 20(1): 544, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large field irradiation had been standard for early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) for a long time. Although involved field radiotherapy (IF-RT) was recently favored because of the toxicity of large field irradiation, smaller irradiation fields have been accompanied with an increased risk of out-of-field recurrence. The MIR (MabThera® and Involved field Radiation) trial has shown that the combination of IF-RT at a dose of 30-40 Gy with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has led to similar efficacy compared with large field irradiation but with markedly reduced side effects. Immune modulating radiation therapy alone using low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) of 2 × 2 Gy has been shown to be effective in FL. The GAZAI (GAZyvaro and response Adapted Involved-site Radiotherapy) trial aims to prove the efficacy of LDRT in combination with a novel anti-CD20 therapy. METHODS/DESIGN: The GAZAI trial is a non-randomized, open, non-controlled, German, multi-center phase II trial that includes patients with early-stage (I and II) nodular FL (grades 1 and 2) confirmed by central histological review. A maximum of 93 patients will be included in the trial. Patients will receive a combined approach of immunotherapy with the fully humanized anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (Gazyvaro®) and involved site radiotherapy (IS-RT) with 2 × 2 Gy. The primary endpoint of the trial is the rate of metabolic complete response (CR), based on fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, after obinutuzumab and 2 × 2 Gy IS-RT in week 18. Secondary endpoints are morphologic CR rate in weeks 7 and 18 and month 6, progression-free survival, toxicity, recurrence patterns, overall survival, and quality of life. Additionally, minimal residual disease response is assessed. The risk for a potentially higher recurrence rate after LDRT will be minimized by additional salvage radiation up to the "full dose" of 40 Gy for patients who have less than a metabolic CR and morphologic partial response/CR, which will be evaluated in week 18, offering a response-adapted approach. DISCUSSION: The goal of this trial is a further reduction of the radiation dose in patients with nodal early-stage FL showing a good response to a combination of LDRT and anti-CD20 immunotherapy and a comparison with the currently published MIR trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2016-002059-89. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03341520 .

7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900743, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MYC rearrangement (MYC-R) occurs in approximately 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and has been associated with poor prognosis in many studies. The impact of MYC-R on prognosis may be influenced by the MYC partner gene (immunoglobulin [IG] or a non-IG gene). We evaluated a large cohort of patients through the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium to validate the prognostic significance of MYC-R (single-, double-, and triple-hit status) in DLBCL within the context of the MYC partner gene. METHODS: The study cohort included patients with histologically confirmed DLBCL morphology derived from large prospective trials and patient registries in Europe and North America who were uniformly treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy or the like. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and IG heavy and light chain loci was used, and results were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 5,117 patients were identified of whom 2,383 (47%) had biopsy material available to assess for MYC-R. MYC-R was present in 264 (11%) of 2,383 patients and was associated with a significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival, with a strong time-dependent effect within the first 24 months after diagnosis. The adverse prognostic impact of MYC-R was only evident in patients with a concurrent rearrangement of BCL2 and/or BCL6 and an IG partner (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.6; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The negative prognostic impact of MYC-R in DLBCL is largely observed in patients with MYC double hit/triple-hit disease in which MYC is translocated to an IG partner, and this effect is restricted to the first 2 years after diagnosis. Our results suggest that diagnostic strategies should be adopted to identify this high-risk cohort, and risk-adjusted therapeutic approaches should be refined further.

8.
Leukemia ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530861

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a disease with heterogeneous outcome. Stromal signatures have been correlated to survival in DLBCL. Their use, however, is hampered by the lack of assays for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material (FFPE). We constructed a lymphoma-associated macrophage interaction signature (LAMIS) interrogating features of the microenvironment using a NanoString assay applicable to FFPE. The clinical impact of the signature could be validated in a cohort of 466 patients enrolled in prospective clinical trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Patients with high expression of the signature (LAMIShigh) had shorter EFS, PFS, and OS. Multivariate analyses revealed independence from IPI factors in EFS (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4, p-value = 0.001), PFS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.5, p-value = 0.001) and OS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.7, p-value = 0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusted for the IPI factors showed the signature to be independent from COO, MYC rearrangements and double expresser status (DE). LAMIShigh and simultaneous DE status characterized a patient subgroup with dismal prognosis and early relapse. Our data underline the importance of the microenvironment in prognosis. Combined analysis of stromal features, the IPI and DE may provide a new rationale for targeted therapy.

10.
Am J Hematol ; 94(11): 1208-1213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396979

RESUMO

Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) can present with different histopathological growth patterns. The impact of these histopathological growth patterns on relapse characteristics is unknown. We therefore analyzed paired biopsies obtained at initial diagnosis and relapse from 33 NLPHL patients who had received first-line treatment within German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial protocols, and from a second cohort of 41 relapsed NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies. Among the 33 GHSG patients, 21 patients presented with a typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis, whereas 12 patients had a variant histology. The histopathological growth patterns at initial diagnosis and at relapse were consistent in 67% of cases. A variant histology at initial diagnosis was associated with a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence (2.8 vs 5.2 years; P = .0219). A similar tendency towards a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence was observed for patients presenting with a variant histology at relapse, irrespective of the growth pattern at initial diagnosis. Results obtained from the 41 NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies were comparable (median time to lymphoma recurrence for variant histology vs typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis: 1.5 vs 7.0 years). In conclusion, the histopathological growth pattern remains consistent at relapse in the majority of NLPHL cases, and has major impact on the time of relapse.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(34): 3300-3309, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the immunobiology of the 15% to 30% of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) who experience progression of disease within 24 months (POD24) remains a priority. Solid tumors with low levels of intratumoral immune infiltration have inferior outcomes. It is unknown whether a similar relationship exists between POD24 in FL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Digital gene expression using a custom code set-five immune effector, six immune checkpoint, one macrophage molecules-was applied to a discovery cohort of patients with early- and advanced-stage FL (n = 132). T-cell receptor repertoire analysis, flow cytometry, multispectral immunofluorescence, and next-generation sequencing were performed. The immune infiltration profile was validated in two independent cohorts of patients with advanced-stage FL requiring systemic treatment (n = 138, rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone; n = 45, rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), with the latter selected to permit comparison of patients experiencing a POD24 event with those having no progression at 5 years or more. RESULTS: Immune molecules showed distinct clustering, characterized by either high or low expression regardless of categorization as an immune effector, immune checkpoint, or macrophage molecule. Low programmed death-ligand 2 (PD-L2) was the most sensitive/specific marker to segregate patients with adverse outcomes; therefore, PD-L2 expression was chosen to distinguish immune infiltrationHI (ie, high PD-L2) FL biopsies from immune infiltrationLO (ie, low PD-L2) tumors. Immune infiltrationHI tissues were highly infiltrated with macrophages and expanded populations of T-cell clones. Of note, the immune infiltrationLO subset of patients with FL was enriched for POD24 events (odds ratio [OR], 4.32; c-statistic, 0.81; P = .001), validated in the independent cohorts (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone: OR, 2.95; c-statistic, 0.75; P = .011; and rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone: OR, 7.09; c-statistic, 0.88; P = .011). Mutations were equally proportioned across tissues, which indicated that degree of immune infiltration is capturing aspects of FL biology distinct from its mutational profile. CONCLUSION: Assessment of immune-infiltration by PD-L2 expression is a promising tool with which to help identify patients who are at risk for POD24.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 187(5): 627-637, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407320

RESUMO

Mutations in SOCS1 are frequent in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. In the latter, SOCS1 mutations affect the length of the encoded protein (major mutations) and are associated with shorter patient survival. Two independent studies examined the prognostic impact of SOCS1 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and showed differing results. This may be due to the small number of included patients, the heterogeneity of patients' demographics and the distinct treatment schemes in these studies. To overcome the size limitations of these previous studies, we assessed SOCS1 mutations in the RICOVER-60 cohort. The cohort uniformly consists of elderly patients (aged 61-80 years) treated with the CHOP-14 scheme (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone at 14-day intervals) with or without an additional rituximab treatment. Patient outcomes were analysed with regard to overall SOCS1 mutation frequency, major and minor mutations and a novel impact-based classifier - against the treatment modalities. Patients harbouring putative pathogenic SOCS1 mutations showed significant reduced overall survival within the CHOP plus rituximab group. Hence, putative pathogenic SOCS1 mutations seem to efface the beneficial effect of the therapeutic CD20 antibody. Comparing published data of whole exome and transcriptome sequencing of a large DLBCL cohort confirmed that predicted deleterious SOCS1 mutations forecast pre-eminent survival in early onset DLBCL.

13.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(8): 1155-1167, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183506

RESUMO

Upon ligand binding, plasma membrane-located TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-receptors 1 and 2 induce apoptosis as well as cancer-promoting signaling in cancer cells. TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4 are believed to negatively regulate TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Intracellular localization of TRAIL-receptors, as observed in many tumor cells, has been associated with oncogenic features, which are distinct from membrane-associated TRAIL-R signaling. Here, analyzing a panel of 354 breast cancer specimens, we found that an unfavorable outcome correlating with cancer-promoting properties of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-R4 was most significantly defined by their intracellular distribution and mutual co-expression. A nuclear or cytoplasmic heterogeneous expression pattern correlated with markedly decreased overall survival and discriminated high-risk breast cancer patients from low-risk patients with a homogeneous distribution of expression, i.e., nuclear and cytoplasmic expression. The homogeneous TRAIL-R expression was associated with favorable breast cancer surrogate markers corresponding with excellent survival prognoses at 5 years after diagnosis (hazard ratio, 0.043) and over the complete course of follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.098; both p < 0.001). No associations with specific intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were found. Our data suggest that the determination of intracellular co-expression patterns of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-R4 provides an innovative and robust method for risk stratification in breast cancer patients beyond conventional prognostic markers. KEY MESSAGES: A total of 70% of breast cancer specimens show comparably high levels of intracellular TRAIL-Rs. Nuclear or cytoplasmic TRAIL-R co-expression occurs in the majority of tumors. A total of 25% of tumors show a heterogeneous expression of cytoplasmic or nuclear TRAIL-Rs. Patients with a heterogeneous TRAIL-R expression present with poor prognoses. Additive TRAIL-R-based risk stratification comprises different breast cancer subtypes.

14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(8): e27777, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare and very heterogeneous neoplasms that show a high diversity in tumor biology and histology. The clinical behavior cannot be predicted based on morphology or immunohistochemistry. The aim of this study was to investigate a large number of pediatric GCT regarding chromosomal gains of 12p and 1q. METHODS: One hundred and eighty pediatric nonseminomatous GCT, that is, mature teratomas, immature teratomas, yolk sac tumors, and mixed germ cell tumors, from three age groups were evaluated for 1q and 12p gains by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tissue micro arrays. The results were correlated with tumor biology and clinical data. RESULTS: Eleven out of 143 GCT showed gains of 1q. In 29/157 GCT a gain of 12p was found. Prepubertal patients (≤6 years of age) more often displayed gains of 1q compared to pubertal/adolescent patients (11-17 years of age), whereas pubertal/adolescent patients showed gains of 12p most frequently. Twenty-one out of 155 patients suffered from relapse or metachronous disease. Patients with and without gains of 1q or 12p did not differ in frequency of these events. However, the likelihood of occurrence of these clinical events varied depending on the histological type of the tumor. CONCLUSION: The biological behavior of pediatric GCT depends more on the histological type of the tumor than on the genetic aberrations examined in this study. Gains of 1q and 12p are not suitable to predict the clinical outcome of GCT in childhood. Nevertheless, both genetic alterations might be used as biomarkers to distinguish different histological types of GCT and therefore could be of diagnostic value, especially in borderline cases.

16.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 27, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germinal center-derived B cell lymphomas are tumors of the lymphoid tissues representing one of the most heterogeneous malignancies. Here we characterize the variety of transcriptomic phenotypes of this disease based on 873 biopsy specimens collected in the German Cancer Aid MMML (Molecular Mechanisms in Malignant Lymphoma) consortium. They include diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), Burkitt's lymphoma, mixed FL/DLBCL lymphomas, primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma, IRF4-rearranged large cell lymphoma, MYC-negative Burkitt-like lymphoma with chr. 11q aberration and mantle cell lymphoma. METHODS: We apply self-organizing map (SOM) machine learning to microarray-derived expression data to generate a holistic view on the transcriptome landscape of lymphomas, to describe the multidimensional nature of gene regulation and to pursue a modular view on co-expression. Expression data were complemented by pathological, genetic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: We present a transcriptome map of B cell lymphomas that allows visual comparison between the SOM portraits of different lymphoma strata and individual cases. It decomposes into one dozen modules of co-expressed genes related to different functional categories, to genetic defects and to the pathogenesis of lymphomas. On a molecular level, this disease rather forms a continuum of expression states than clearly separated phenotypes. We introduced the concept of combinatorial pattern types (PATs) that stratifies the lymphomas into nine PAT groups and, on a coarser level, into five prominent cancer hallmark types with proliferation, inflammation and stroma signatures. Inflammation signatures in combination with healthy B cell and tonsil characteristics associate with better overall survival rates, while proliferation in combination with inflammation and plasma cell characteristics worsens it. A phenotypic similarity tree is presented that reveals possible progression paths along the transcriptional dimensions. Our analysis provided a novel look on the transition range between FL and DLBCL, on DLBCL with poor prognosis showing expression patterns resembling that of Burkitt's lymphoma and particularly on 'double-hit' MYC and BCL2 transformed lymphomas. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptome map provides a tool that aggregates, refines and visualizes the data collected in the MMML study and interprets them in the light of previous knowledge to provide orientation and support in current and future studies on lymphomas and on other cancer entities.

17.
Cancer Res ; 79(12): 3125-3138, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000522

RESUMO

Oncogenic MYC activation promotes proliferation in Burkitt lymphoma, but also induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis mediated by p53, a tumor suppressor that is mutated in 40% of Burkitt lymphoma cases. To identify molecular dependencies in Burkitt lymphoma, we performed RNAi-based, loss-of-function screening in eight Burkitt lymphoma cell lines and integrated non-Burkitt lymphoma RNAi screens and genetic data. We identified 76 genes essential to Burkitt lymphoma, including genes associated with hematopoietic cell differentiation (FLI1, BCL11A) or B-cell development and activation (PAX5, CDKN1B, JAK2, CARD11) and found a number of context-specific dependencies including oncogene addiction in cell lines with TCF3/ID3 or MYD88 mutation. The strongest genotype-phenotype association was seen for TP53. MDM4, a negative regulator of TP53, was essential in TP53 wild-type (TP53wt) Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. MDM4 knockdown activated p53, induced cell-cycle arrest, and decreased tumor growth in a xenograft model in a p53-dependent manner. Small molecule inhibition of the MDM4-p53 interaction was effective only in TP53wt Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. Moreover, primary TP53wt Burkitt lymphoma samples frequently acquired gains of chromosome 1q, which includes the MDM4 locus, and showed elevated MDM4 mRNA levels. 1q gain was associated with TP53wt across 789 cancer cell lines and MDM4 was essential in the TP53wt-context in 216 cell lines representing 19 cancer entities from the Achilles Project. Our findings highlight the critical role of p53 as a tumor suppressor in Burkitt lymphoma and identify MDM4 as a functional target of 1q gain in a wide range of cancers that is therapeutically targetable. SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting MDM4 to alleviate degradation of p53 can be exploited therapeutically across Burkitt lymphoma and other cancers with wild-type p53 harboring 1q gain, the most frequent copy number alteration in cancer.

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 110: 74-85, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772656

RESUMO

Paediatric Strategy Forums have been created by the multistakeholder organisation, ACCELERATE, and the European Medicines Agency to facilitate dialogue between all relevant stakeholders and suggest strategies in critical areas of paediatric oncology drug development. As there are many medicines being developed for B-cell malignancies in adults but comparatively few in children with these malignancies, a Paediatric Strategy Forum was held to discuss the best approach to develop these products for children. It was concluded that as current frontline therapy is highly successful, despite associated acute toxicity, de-escalation of this or substitution of presently used drugs with new medicines can only be undertaken when there is an effective salvage regimen, which is currently not available. Therefore priority should be given to developing treatment for patients with relapsed and refractory mature B-cell lymphomas. The consensus of the clinicians attending the meeting was that CAR T-cells, T-cell engagers and antibody drug conjugates (excluding those with a vinca alkaloid-like drug) presently have the greatest probability of providing benefit in relapse in view of their mechanism of action. However, as producing autologous CAR T-cells currently takes at least 4 weeks, they are not products which could be quickly employed initially at relapse in rapidly progressing mature B-cell malignancies but only for the consolidation phase of the treatment. Global, industry-supported, academic-sponsored studies testing compounds from different pharmaceutical companies simultaneously should be considered in rare populations, and it was proposed that an international working group be formed to develop an overarching clinical trials strategy for these disease groups. Future Forums are planned for other relevant paediatric oncologic diseases with a high unmet medical need and relevant molecular targets.

20.
Br J Haematol ; 185(1): 79-88, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681722

RESUMO

Loss of B cell-specific transcription factors (TFs) and the resulting loss of B-cell phenotype of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells is a hallmark of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here we have analysed two members of ETS domain containing TFs, ELF1 and ELF2, regarding (epi)genomic changes as well as gene and protein expression. We observed absence or lower levels of ELF1 protein in HRS cells of 31/35 (89%) cases compared to the bystander cells and significant (P < 0·01) downregulation of the gene on mRNA as well as protein level in cHL compared to non-cHL cell lines. However, no recurrent loss of ELF2 protein was observed. Moreover, ELF1 was targeted by heterozygous deletions combined with hypermethylation of the remaining allele(s) in 4/7 (57%) cell lines. Indeed, DNA hypermethylation (range 95-99%, mean 98%) detected in the vicinity of the ELF1 transcription start site was found in all 7/7 (100%) cHL cell lines. Similarly, 5/18 (28%) analysed primary biopsies carried heterozygous deletions of the gene. We demonstrate that expression of ELF1 is impaired in cHL through genetic and epigenetic alterations, and thus, it may represent an additional member of a TF network whose downregulation contributes to the loss of B-cell phenotype of HRS cells.

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