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1.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022621

RESUMO

T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a rare aggressive lymphoma characterized by a paucity of neoplastic B-cells and a majority of reactive T-cells with or without histiocytes. In the 'Positron Emission Tomography-Guided Therapy of Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas' trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00554164; EudraCT 2006-001641-33), its frequency was less than 3%. While cancer cell content by quantitative histology was 10-times lower, baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) by 18-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography was 10-times higher in THRLBCL than in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). When THRLBCL and DLBCL populations were matched for TMTV, the survival curves were superimposable. However, when the populations were matched for cancer cell volume by multiplying TMTV by cancer cell fraction, outcome in THRLBCL was worse than in DLBCL. Whether genetic differences between cancer cells, tumor-promoting properties of non-neoplastic cells, or both are responsible for inferior cancer cell volume-related outcome in THRLBCL, remains to be elucidated.

2.
Hematol Oncol ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067259

RESUMO

The prospective randomized Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-Guided Therapy of Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (PETAL) trial was designed to test the ability of interim PET (iPET) to direct therapy. As reported previously, outcome remained unaffected by iPET-based treatment changes. In this subgroup analysis, we studied the prognostic value of baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) and iPET response in 76 patients with T-cell lymphoma. TMTV was measured using the 41% maximum standardized uptake value (SUV41max ) and SUV4 thresholding methods. Interim PET was performed after two treatment cycles and evaluated using the ΔSUVmax approach and the Deauville scale. Because of significant differences in outcome, patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lymphoma were analyzed separately from patients with ALK-negative lymphoma. In the latter, TMTV was statistically significantly correlated with progression-free survival, with thresholds best dichotomizing the population, of 232 cm3 using SUV41max and 460 cm3 using SUV4 . For iPET response, the respective thresholds were 46.9% SUVmax reduction and Deauville score 1-4 vs 5. The proportion of poor prognosis patients was 46% and 29% for TMTV by SUV41max and SUV4 , and 29% and 25% for iPET response by ΔSUVmax and Deauville, respectively. At diagnosis, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for poor prognosis vs good prognosis patients according to TMTV was 2.291 (1.135-4.624) for SUV41max and 3.206 (1.524-6.743) for SUV4 . At iPET, it was 3.910 (1.891-8.087) for ΔSUVmax and 4.371 (2.079-9.187) for Deauville. On multivariable analysis, only TMTV and iPET response independently predicted survival. Patients with high baseline TMTV and poor iPET response (22% of the population) invariably progressed or died within the first year (hazard ratio, 9.031 [3.651-22.336]). Due to small numbers and events, PET did not predict survival in ALK-positive lymphoma. Baseline TMTV and iPET response are promising tools to select patients with ALK-negative T-cell lymphoma for early allogeneic transplantation or innovative therapies.

3.
Virchows Arch ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975037

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) shows a clinical aggressiveness that varies from patient to patient. Despite major advances in outcomes with current immunochemotherapy, the future development of therapies requires risk stratification to tailor therapy intensity. Within the group of reference pathologists for the ongoing trials of the European MCL Network, we performed a round robin test on a tissue microarray to evaluate the reproducibility in assessing the biomarkers of outcome in MCL. Cytological subtype, Ki67-index and expression of p53 and SOX11 were evaluated on 20 diagnostic tumour samples by eight participating labs independently. We demonstrate that the assessment of the proliferation index by counting the Ki67 positive cells as well as assessment of SOX11 and p53 expression status is reproducible between labs. For the most established prognostic biomarker, Ki67, the intra-class correlation coefficient was very good when assessed as a continuous parameter (0.87). The agreement was lower when the values were analysed in a dichotomized way applying the commonly used cutoff of 30% (kappa = 0.65, complete concordance of all labs in 13/20 (65%)). Cases with discrepant results between labs in the dichotomized analysis showed mean values close to the cutoff of 30%. Centralised scoring and digital image analysis revealed results in line with the scores from individual labs. All cases in our cohort were additionally assessed for gene expression signatures and of TP53 gene alterations. Given the good reproducibility when guidelines of assessment are applied, the biomarker studied in this inter-laboratory test presents potential candidates to be enhanced for risk-stratification in the future clinical trials.

4.
Blood ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961927

RESUMO

Children with refractory or relapsed Burkitt lymphoma have a poor chance to survive. We describe characteristics, outcome, re-induction and transplantation-approaches and evaluate risk factors among children with progression of a Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia included in NHL-BFM studies between 1986 and 2016. Treatment recommendation was re-induction including rituximab from the early 2000s followed by blood stem cell transplantation. The 3-year survival of the 157 children was 18.5{plus minus}3%. Survival significantly improved from 11{plus minus}3% before to 27{plus minus}5% after 2000 (p<.001) allowing for risk factor analyses among the latter 75 patients, of whom 28 had disease progressive during initial therapy. Survival of 14 patients with relapse after initial therapy for low risk disease (R1/R2) was 50{plus minus}13% compared to 21{plus minus}5% for 61 patients progressing after R3/R4-therapy (p<.02). 25 of 28 patients with progression during first-line therapy, 31 of 32 with progression during re-induction, 15 of 16 not reaching a complete remission before transplantation, 9 of 10 treated with rituximab front-line and all 13 patients not receiving rituximab during re-induction died. 46 patients received stem cell transplantation (20 autologous, 26 allogeneic). Survival after a regimen combining Rituximab with continuous-infusion chemotherapy followed by allogeneic transplantation was 67{plus minus}12% compared to 18{plus minus}5% for all other regimen and transplantations (p=.003). Patients with relapsed Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia have a poor chance to survive after current effective front-line therapies. Progression during initial or re-induction chemotherapy and initial high-risk disease are risk-factors in relapse. Time-condensed continuous-infusion re-induction followed by stem cell transplantation forms the basis for testing new drugs.

5.
Blood ; 135(3): 181-190, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697802

RESUMO

The genetic background of follicular lymphomas (FLs) diagnosed in advanced clinical stages III/IV, and which are frequently characterized by t(14;18), has been substantially unraveled. Molecular features, as exemplified in the clinicogenetic risk model m7FLIPI, are important tools in risk stratification. In contrast, little information is available concerning localized-stage FL (clinical stages I/II), which accounts for ∼20% of newly diagnosed FL in which the detection rate of t(14;18) is only ∼50%. To investigate the genetic background of localized-stage FL, patient cohorts with advanced-stage FL or localized-stage FL, uniformly treated within phase 3 trials of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group, were comparatively analyzed. Targeted gene expression (GE) profiling of 184 genes using nCounter technology was performed in 110 localized-stage and 556 advanced-stage FL patients. By penalized Cox regression, a prognostic GE signature could not be identified in patients with advanced-stage FL, consistent with results from global tests and univariate regression. In contrast, it was possible to define robust GE signatures discriminating localized-stage and advanced-stage FL (area under the curve, 0.98) by penalized logistic regression. Of note, 3% of samples harboring an "advanced-stage signature" in the localized-stage cohort exhibited inferior failure-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 7.1; P = .0003). Likewise, in the advanced-stage cohort, 7% of samples with a "localized-stage signature" had prolonged failure-free survival (HR, 2.3; P = .017) and overall survival (HR, 3.4; P = .072). These data support the concept of a biological difference between localized-stage and advanced-stage FL that might contribute to the superior outcome of localized FL.

6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(2): e28074, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737984

RESUMO

Pediatric histiocytic sarcoma (HS) clonally related to anteceding leukemia is a rare malignancy with poor outcome. We performed a molecular characterization of HS and the corresponding leukemia by methylation arrays and whole-exome sequencing and found a variety of aberrations in both entities with deletions of CDKN2A/B as a recurrent finding. Furthermore, data from genome-wide mutation analysis from one patient allowed the reconstruction of a sequence of tumorigenesis of leukemia and HS lesions including the acquisition of a putatively activating KRAS frameshift deletion (p.A66fs). Our results provide an insight into the genetic landscape of pediatric HS clonally related to anteceding leukemia.

7.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 543-552, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530861

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a disease with heterogeneous outcome. Stromal signatures have been correlated to survival in DLBCL. Their use, however, is hampered by the lack of assays for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material (FFPE). We constructed a lymphoma-associated macrophage interaction signature (LAMIS) interrogating features of the microenvironment using a NanoString assay applicable to FFPE. The clinical impact of the signature could be validated in a cohort of 466 patients enrolled in prospective clinical trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Patients with high expression of the signature (LAMIShigh) had shorter EFS, PFS, and OS. Multivariate analyses revealed independence from IPI factors in EFS (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4, p-value = 0.001), PFS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.5, p-value = 0.001) and OS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.7, p-value = 0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusted for the IPI factors showed the signature to be independent from COO, MYC rearrangements and double expresser status (DE). LAMIShigh and simultaneous DE status characterized a patient subgroup with dismal prognosis and early relapse. Our data underline the importance of the microenvironment in prognosis. Combined analysis of stromal features, the IPI and DE may provide a new rationale for targeted therapy.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(3): 248-256, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In an update of the randomized, open-label, phase III European Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) Elderly trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00209209), published in 2012, we aimed to confirm results on long-term outcome focusing on efficacy and safety of long-term use of rituximab maintenance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred sixty patients with newly diagnosed MCL underwent a first random assignment between rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) induction, followed by a second random assignment in 316 responders between rituximab and interferon alfa maintenance, to be continued until progression. We compared progression-free survival from the second randomization and overall survival (OS) from the first or second randomizations. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 7.6 years, the previously described difference in OS between the induction arms persisted (median, 6.4 years after R-CHOP [n = 280] v 3.9 years after R-FC [n = 280]; P = .0054). Patients responding to R-CHOP had median progression-free survival and OS times of 5.4 and 9.8 years, respectively, when randomly assigned to rituximab (n = 87), compared with 1.9 years (P < .001) and 7.1 years (P = .0026), respectively, when randomly assigned to interferon alfa (n = 97). In 58% and 32% of patients treated with R-CHOP, rituximab maintenance was still ongoing 2 and 5 years from start of maintenance, respectively. After R-FC, rituximab maintenance was associated with an unexpectedly high cumulative incidence of death in remission (22% at 5 years). Toxicity of rituximab maintenance was low after R-CHOP (grade 3-4 leukopenia or infection < 5%) but more prominent in patients on rituximab maintenance after R-FC, in whom grade 3-4 leukopenia (up to 40%) and infections were frequent (up to 15%). CONCLUSION: The excellent results of R-CHOP followed by rituximab maintenance until progression for older patients with MCL persisted in a mature follow-up. Prolongation of rituximab maintenance beyond 2 years is effective and safe.

9.
Mol Oncol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825135

RESUMO

Macrophages (Mφ) are abundantly present in the tumor microenvironment and may predict outcome in solid tumors and defined lymphoma subtypes. Mφ heterogeneity, the mechanisms of their recruitment, and their differentiation into lymphoma-promoting, alternatively activated M2-like phenotypes are still not fully understood. Therefore, further functional studies are required to understand biological mechanisms associated with human tumor-associated Mφ (TAM). Here, we show that the global mRNA expression and protein abundance of human Mφ differentiated in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)-conditioned medium (CM) differ from those of Mφ educated by conditioned media from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells or, classically, by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Conditioned media from HL cells support TAM differentiation through upregulation of surface antigens such as CD40, CD163, CD206, and PD-L1. In particular, RNA and cell surface protein expression of mannose receptor 1 (MRC1)/CD206 significantly exceed the levels induced by classical M-CSF stimulation in M2-like Mφ; this is regulated by interleukin 13 to a large extent. Functionally, high CD206 enhances mannose-dependent endocytosis and uptake of type I collagen. Together with high matrix metalloprotease9 secretion, HL-TAMs appear to be active modulators of the tumor matrix. Preclinical in ovo models show that co-cultures of HL cells with monocytes or Mφ support dissemination of lymphoma cells via lymphatic vessels, while tumor size and vessel destruction are decreased in comparison with lymphoma-only tumors. Immunohistology of human HL tissues reveals a fraction of cases feature large numbers of CD206-positive cells, with high MRC1 expression being characteristic of HL-stage IV. In summary, the lymphoma-TAM interaction contributes to matrix-remodeling and lymphoma cell dissemination.

10.
Leukemia ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690822

RESUMO

The proximal DNA damage response kinase ATM is frequently inactivated in human malignancies. Germline mutations in the ATM gene cause Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), characterized by cerebellar ataxia and cancer predisposition. Whether ATM deficiency impacts on tumor initiation or also on the maintenance of the malignant state is unclear. Here, we show that Atm reactivation in initially Atm-deficient B- and T cell lymphomas induces tumor regression. We further find a reduced T cell abundance in B cell lymphomas from Atm-defective mice and A-T patients. Using T cell-specific Atm-knockout models, as well as allogeneic transplantation experiments, we pinpoint impaired immune surveillance as a contributor to cancer predisposition and development. Moreover, we demonstrate that Atm-deficient T cells display impaired proliferation capacity upon stimulation, due to replication stress. Altogether, our data indicate that T cell-specific restoration of ATM activity or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may prevent lymphomagenesis in A-T patients.

11.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649129

RESUMO

Detection of minimal disseminated disease is a validated prognostic factor in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We previously reported that quantification of minimal disease by quantitative real-time PCR in bone marrow applying a cut-off of 10 copies NPM-ALK/104 copies of the reference transcript ABL1 identifies a very high-risk group of patients. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the prognostic value of quantitative minimal disseminated disease evaluation by real-time PCR and to validate digital PCR as alternative method. Among 91 patients analyzed by real-time PCR in bone marrow, the cumulative incidence of relapses of 18 patients with more than 10 normalized copy-numbers of NPM-ALK was 61+/-12% compared to 21+/-5% for the remaining 76 patients (p=.0002). Results in blood correlated with bone marrow (r=0.74) in 70 patients with both materials. Copy numbers tended to be higher in blood compared to bone marrow. Transcripts were quantified in addition by digital PCR in 75 bone marrow and 57 blood samples. Copy number estimation by using digital PCR and real-time PCR correlated in 132 samples (r=.85). Applying a cut-off of 30 copies NPM-ALK/104 copies ABL1 for quantification by digital PCR, almost identical patient groups were separated compared to real-time PCR. In summary, the prognostic impact of quantification of minimal disseminated disease in bone marrow could be confirmed for patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Quantification of minimal disease by digital PCR provides a promising tool to facilitate harmonization of minimal disease measurement between laboratories and for clinical studies.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(35): 3359-3368, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MYC rearrangement (MYC-R) occurs in approximately 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and has been associated with poor prognosis in many studies. The impact of MYC-R on prognosis may be influenced by the MYC partner gene (immunoglobulin [IG] or a non-IG gene). We evaluated a large cohort of patients through the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium to validate the prognostic significance of MYC-R (single-, double-, and triple-hit status) in DLBCL within the context of the MYC partner gene. METHODS: The study cohort included patients with histologically confirmed DLBCL morphology derived from large prospective trials and patient registries in Europe and North America who were uniformly treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy or the like. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and IG heavy and light chain loci was used, and results were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 5,117 patients were identified of whom 2,383 (47%) had biopsy material available to assess for MYC-R. MYC-R was present in 264 (11%) of 2,383 patients and was associated with a significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival, with a strong time-dependent effect within the first 24 months after diagnosis. The adverse prognostic impact of MYC-R was only evident in patients with a concurrent rearrangement of BCL2 and/or BCL6 and an IG partner (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.6; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The negative prognostic impact of MYC-R in DLBCL is largely observed in patients with MYC double hit/triple-hit disease in which MYC is translocated to an IG partner, and this effect is restricted to the first 2 years after diagnosis. Our results suggest that diagnostic strategies should be adopted to identify this high-risk cohort, and risk-adjusted therapeutic approaches should be refined further.

14.
Trials ; 20(1): 544, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large field irradiation had been standard for early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) for a long time. Although involved field radiotherapy (IF-RT) was recently favored because of the toxicity of large field irradiation, smaller irradiation fields have been accompanied with an increased risk of out-of-field recurrence. The MIR (MabThera® and Involved field Radiation) trial has shown that the combination of IF-RT at a dose of 30-40 Gy with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has led to similar efficacy compared with large field irradiation but with markedly reduced side effects. Immune modulating radiation therapy alone using low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) of 2 × 2 Gy has been shown to be effective in FL. The GAZAI (GAZyvaro and response Adapted Involved-site Radiotherapy) trial aims to prove the efficacy of LDRT in combination with a novel anti-CD20 therapy. METHODS/DESIGN: The GAZAI trial is a non-randomized, open, non-controlled, German, multi-center phase II trial that includes patients with early-stage (I and II) nodular FL (grades 1 and 2) confirmed by central histological review. A maximum of 93 patients will be included in the trial. Patients will receive a combined approach of immunotherapy with the fully humanized anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (Gazyvaro®) and involved site radiotherapy (IS-RT) with 2 × 2 Gy. The primary endpoint of the trial is the rate of metabolic complete response (CR), based on fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, after obinutuzumab and 2 × 2 Gy IS-RT in week 18. Secondary endpoints are morphologic CR rate in weeks 7 and 18 and month 6, progression-free survival, toxicity, recurrence patterns, overall survival, and quality of life. Additionally, minimal residual disease response is assessed. The risk for a potentially higher recurrence rate after LDRT will be minimized by additional salvage radiation up to the "full dose" of 40 Gy for patients who have less than a metabolic CR and morphologic partial response/CR, which will be evaluated in week 18, offering a response-adapted approach. DISCUSSION: The goal of this trial is a further reduction of the radiation dose in patients with nodal early-stage FL showing a good response to a combination of LDRT and anti-CD20 immunotherapy and a comparison with the currently published MIR trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2016-002059-89. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03341520 .

15.
Am J Hematol ; 94(11): 1208-1213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396979

RESUMO

Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) can present with different histopathological growth patterns. The impact of these histopathological growth patterns on relapse characteristics is unknown. We therefore analyzed paired biopsies obtained at initial diagnosis and relapse from 33 NLPHL patients who had received first-line treatment within German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial protocols, and from a second cohort of 41 relapsed NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies. Among the 33 GHSG patients, 21 patients presented with a typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis, whereas 12 patients had a variant histology. The histopathological growth patterns at initial diagnosis and at relapse were consistent in 67% of cases. A variant histology at initial diagnosis was associated with a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence (2.8 vs 5.2 years; P = .0219). A similar tendency towards a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence was observed for patients presenting with a variant histology at relapse, irrespective of the growth pattern at initial diagnosis. Results obtained from the 41 NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies were comparable (median time to lymphoma recurrence for variant histology vs typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis: 1.5 vs 7.0 years). In conclusion, the histopathological growth pattern remains consistent at relapse in the majority of NLPHL cases, and has major impact on the time of relapse.

16.
Br J Haematol ; 187(5): 627-637, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407320

RESUMO

Mutations in SOCS1 are frequent in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. In the latter, SOCS1 mutations affect the length of the encoded protein (major mutations) and are associated with shorter patient survival. Two independent studies examined the prognostic impact of SOCS1 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and showed differing results. This may be due to the small number of included patients, the heterogeneity of patients' demographics and the distinct treatment schemes in these studies. To overcome the size limitations of these previous studies, we assessed SOCS1 mutations in the RICOVER-60 cohort. The cohort uniformly consists of elderly patients (aged 61-80 years) treated with the CHOP-14 scheme (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone at 14-day intervals) with or without an additional rituximab treatment. Patient outcomes were analysed with regard to overall SOCS1 mutation frequency, major and minor mutations and a novel impact-based classifier - against the treatment modalities. Patients harbouring putative pathogenic SOCS1 mutations showed significant reduced overall survival within the CHOP plus rituximab group. Hence, putative pathogenic SOCS1 mutations seem to efface the beneficial effect of the therapeutic CD20 antibody. Comparing published data of whole exome and transcriptome sequencing of a large DLBCL cohort confirmed that predicted deleterious SOCS1 mutations forecast pre-eminent survival in early onset DLBCL.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(34): 3300-3309, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the immunobiology of the 15% to 30% of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) who experience progression of disease within 24 months (POD24) remains a priority. Solid tumors with low levels of intratumoral immune infiltration have inferior outcomes. It is unknown whether a similar relationship exists between POD24 in FL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Digital gene expression using a custom code set-five immune effector, six immune checkpoint, one macrophage molecules-was applied to a discovery cohort of patients with early- and advanced-stage FL (n = 132). T-cell receptor repertoire analysis, flow cytometry, multispectral immunofluorescence, and next-generation sequencing were performed. The immune infiltration profile was validated in two independent cohorts of patients with advanced-stage FL requiring systemic treatment (n = 138, rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone; n = 45, rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), with the latter selected to permit comparison of patients experiencing a POD24 event with those having no progression at 5 years or more. RESULTS: Immune molecules showed distinct clustering, characterized by either high or low expression regardless of categorization as an immune effector, immune checkpoint, or macrophage molecule. Low programmed death-ligand 2 (PD-L2) was the most sensitive/specific marker to segregate patients with adverse outcomes; therefore, PD-L2 expression was chosen to distinguish immune infiltrationHI (ie, high PD-L2) FL biopsies from immune infiltrationLO (ie, low PD-L2) tumors. Immune infiltrationHI tissues were highly infiltrated with macrophages and expanded populations of T-cell clones. Of note, the immune infiltrationLO subset of patients with FL was enriched for POD24 events (odds ratio [OR], 4.32; c-statistic, 0.81; P = .001), validated in the independent cohorts (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone: OR, 2.95; c-statistic, 0.75; P = .011; and rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone: OR, 7.09; c-statistic, 0.88; P = .011). Mutations were equally proportioned across tissues, which indicated that degree of immune infiltration is capturing aspects of FL biology distinct from its mutational profile. CONCLUSION: Assessment of immune-infiltration by PD-L2 expression is a promising tool with which to help identify patients who are at risk for POD24.

19.
Biol Proced Online ; 21: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303867

RESUMO

Background: For analysis of the tumor microenvironment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tissue samples, it is desirable to obtain information about counts and distribution of different macrophage subtypes. Until now, macrophage counts are mostly inferred from gene expression analysis of whole tissue sections, providing only indirect information. Direct analysis of immunohistochemically (IHC) fluorescence stained tissue samples is confronted with several difficulties, e.g. high variability of shape and size of target macrophages and strongly inhomogeneous intensity of staining. Consequently, application of commercial software is largely restricted to very rough analysis modes, and most macrophage counts are still obtained by manual counting in microarrays or high power fields, thus failing to represent the heterogeneity of tumor microenvironment adequately. Methods: We describe a Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) filter based segmentation approach for whole tissue samples, combining floating intensity thresholding and rule-based feature detection. Method is validated against manual counts and compared with two commercial software kits (Tissue Studio 64, Definiens AG, and Halo, Indica Labs) and a straightforward machine-learning approach in a set of 50 test images. Further, the novel method and both commercial packages are applied to a set of 44 whole tissue sections. Outputs are compared with gene expression data available for the same tissue samples. Finally, the ROF based method is applied to 44 expert-specified tumor subregions for testing selection and subsampling strategies. Results: Among all tested methods, the novel approach is best correlated with manual count (0.9297). Automated detection of evaluation subregions proved to be fully reliable. Comparison with gene expression data obtained for the same tissue samples reveals only moderate to low correlation levels. Subsampling within tumor subregions is possible with results almost identical to full sampling. Mean macrophage size in tumor subregions is 152.5±111.3 µm2. Conclusions: ROF based approach is successfully applied to detection of IHC stained macrophages in DLBCL tissue samples. The method competes well with existing commercial software kits. In difference to them, it is fully automated, externally repeatable, independent on training data and completely documented. Comparison with gene expression data indicates that image morphometry constitutes an independent source of information about antibody-polarized macrophage occurence and distribution.

20.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(8): 1155-1167, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183506

RESUMO

Upon ligand binding, plasma membrane-located TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-receptors 1 and 2 induce apoptosis as well as cancer-promoting signaling in cancer cells. TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4 are believed to negatively regulate TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Intracellular localization of TRAIL-receptors, as observed in many tumor cells, has been associated with oncogenic features, which are distinct from membrane-associated TRAIL-R signaling. Here, analyzing a panel of 354 breast cancer specimens, we found that an unfavorable outcome correlating with cancer-promoting properties of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-R4 was most significantly defined by their intracellular distribution and mutual co-expression. A nuclear or cytoplasmic heterogeneous expression pattern correlated with markedly decreased overall survival and discriminated high-risk breast cancer patients from low-risk patients with a homogeneous distribution of expression, i.e., nuclear and cytoplasmic expression. The homogeneous TRAIL-R expression was associated with favorable breast cancer surrogate markers corresponding with excellent survival prognoses at 5 years after diagnosis (hazard ratio, 0.043) and over the complete course of follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.098; both p < 0.001). No associations with specific intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were found. Our data suggest that the determination of intracellular co-expression patterns of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-R4 provides an innovative and robust method for risk stratification in breast cancer patients beyond conventional prognostic markers. KEY MESSAGES: A total of 70% of breast cancer specimens show comparably high levels of intracellular TRAIL-Rs. Nuclear or cytoplasmic TRAIL-R co-expression occurs in the majority of tumors. A total of 25% of tumors show a heterogeneous expression of cytoplasmic or nuclear TRAIL-Rs. Patients with a heterogeneous TRAIL-R expression present with poor prognoses. Additive TRAIL-R-based risk stratification comprises different breast cancer subtypes.

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