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1.
Circulation ; 146(16): 1225-1242, 2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a life-threatening vascular event with environmental and genetic determinants. Recent VTE genome-wide association studies (GWAS) meta-analyses involved nearly 30 000 VTE cases and identified up to 40 genetic loci associated with VTE risk, including loci not previously suspected to play a role in hemostasis. The aim of our research was to expand discovery of new genetic loci associated with VTE by using cross-ancestry genomic resources. METHODS: We present new cross-ancestry meta-analyzed GWAS results involving up to 81 669 VTE cases from 30 studies, with replication of novel loci in independent populations and loci characterization through in silico genomic interrogations. RESULTS: In our genetic discovery effort that included 55 330 participants with VTE (47 822 European, 6320 African, and 1188 Hispanic ancestry), we identified 48 novel associations, of which 34 were replicated after correction for multiple testing. In our combined discovery-replication analysis (81 669 VTE participants) and ancestry-stratified meta-analyses (European, African, and Hispanic), we identified another 44 novel associations, which are new candidate VTE-associated loci requiring replication. In total, across all GWAS meta-analyses, we identified 135 independent genomic loci significantly associated with VTE risk. A genetic risk score of the significantly associated loci in Europeans identified a 6-fold increase in risk for those in the top 1% of scores compared with those with average scores. We also identified 31 novel transcript associations in transcriptome-wide association studies and 8 novel candidate genes with protein quantitative-trait locus Mendelian randomization analyses. In silico interrogations of hemostasis and hematology traits and a large phenome-wide association analysis of the 135 GWAS loci provided insights to biological pathways contributing to VTE, with some loci contributing to VTE through well-characterized coagulation pathways and others providing new data on the role of hematology traits, particularly platelet function. Many of the replicated loci are outside of known or currently hypothesized pathways to thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our cross-ancestry GWAS meta-analyses identified new loci associated with VTE. These findings highlight new pathways to thrombosis and provide novel molecules that may be useful in the development of improved antithrombosis treatments.


Assuntos
Trombose , Tromboembolia Venosa , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Trombose/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética
2.
Nat Med ; 28(8): 1679-1692, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915156

RESUMO

We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of coronary artery disease (CAD) incorporating nearly a quarter of a million cases, in which existing studies are integrated with data from cohorts of white, Black and Hispanic individuals from the Million Veteran Program. We document near equivalent heritability of CAD across multiple ancestral groups, identify 95 novel loci, including nine on the X chromosome, detect eight loci of genome-wide significance in Black and Hispanic individuals, and demonstrate that two common haplotypes at the 9p21 locus are responsible for risk stratification in all populations except those of African origin, in which these haplotypes are virtually absent. Moreover, in the largest GWAS for angiographically derived coronary atherosclerosis performed to date, we find 15 loci of genome-wide significance that robustly overlap with established loci for clinical CAD. Phenome-wide association analyses of novel loci and polygenic risk scores (PRSs) augment signals related to insulin resistance, extend pleiotropic associations of these loci to include smoking and family history, and precisely document the markedly reduced transferability of existing PRSs to Black individuals. Downstream integrative analyses reinforce the critical roles of vascular endothelial, fibroblast, and smooth muscle cells in CAD susceptibility, but also point to a shared biology between atherosclerosis and oncogenesis. This study highlights the value of diverse populations in further characterizing the genetic architecture of CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(8): 1366-1387, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931049

RESUMO

A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations. We first prioritize lipid-associated genes with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) colocalizations and then add chromatin interaction data to narrow the search for functional genes. Polygenic enrichment analysis across 697 annotations from a host of tissues and cell types confirms the central role of the liver in lipid levels and highlights the selective enrichment of adipose-specific chromatin marks in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Overlapping transcription factor (TF) binding sites with lipid-associated loci identifies TFs relevant in lipid biology. In addition, we present an integrative framework to prioritize causal variants at GWAS loci, producing a comprehensive list of candidate causal genes and variants with multiple layers of functional evidence. We highlight two of the prioritized genes, CREBRF and RRBP1, which show convergent evidence across functional datasets supporting their roles in lipid biology.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cromatina/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Lipídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Nat Genet ; 54(6): 761-771, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654975

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing cause of chronic liver disease. Using a proxy NAFLD definition of chronic elevation of alanine aminotransferase (cALT) levels without other liver diseases, we performed a multiancestry genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Million Veteran Program (MVP) including 90,408 cALT cases and 128,187 controls. Seventy-seven loci exceeded genome-wide significance, including 25 without prior NAFLD or alanine aminotransferase associations, with one additional locus identified in European American-only and two in African American-only analyses (P < 5 × 10-8). External replication in histology-defined NAFLD cohorts (7,397 cases and 56,785 controls) or radiologic imaging cohorts (n = 44,289) replicated 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 6.5 × 10-4), of which 9 were new (TRIB1, PPARG, MTTP, SERPINA1, FTO, IL1RN, COBLL1, APOH and IFI30). Pleiotropy analysis showed that 61 of 77 multiancestry and all 17 replicated SNPs were jointly associated with metabolic and/or inflammatory traits, revealing a complex model of genetic architecture. Our approach integrating cALT, histology and imaging reveals new insights into genetic liability to NAFLD.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Alanina Transaminase , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
Nat Genet ; 54(6): 772-782, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35637384

RESUMO

Enlargement of the aorta is an important risk factor for aortic aneurysm and dissection, a leading cause of morbidity in the developed world. Here we performed automated extraction of ascending aortic diameter from cardiac magnetic resonance images of 36,021 individuals from the UK Biobank, followed by genome-wide association. We identified lead variants across 41 loci, including genes related to cardiovascular development (HAND2, TBX20) and Mendelian forms of thoracic aortic disease (ELN, FBN1). A polygenic score significantly predicted prevalent risk of thoracic aortic aneurysm and the need for surgical intervention for patients with thoracic aneurysm across multiple ancestries within the UK Biobank, FinnGen, the Penn Medicine Biobank and the Million Veterans Program (MVP). Additionally, we highlight the primary causal role of blood pressure in reducing aortic dilation using Mendelian randomization. Overall, our findings provide a roadmap for using genetic determinants of human anatomy to understand cardiovascular development while improving prediction of diseases of the thoracic aorta.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Aneurisma Aórtico , Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Aneurisma Dissecante/patologia , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(20): 3566-3579, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234888

RESUMO

Progressive dilation of the infrarenal aortic diameter is a consequence of the ageing process and is considered the main determinant of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We aimed to investigate the genetic and clinical determinants of abdominal aortic diameter (AAD). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 10 cohorts (n = 13 542) imputed to the 1000 Genome Project reference panel including 12 815 subjects in the discovery phase and 727 subjects [Partners Biobank cohort 1 (PBIO)] as replication. Maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta was used as AAD. We also included exome array data (n = 14 480) from seven epidemiologic studies. Single-variant and gene-based associations were done using SeqMeta package. A Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the causal effect of a number of clinical risk factors on AAD. In genome-wide association study (GWAS) on AAD, rs74448815 in the intronic region of LDLRAD4 reached genome-wide significance (beta = -0.02, SE = 0.004, P-value = 2.10 × 10-8). The association replicated in the PBIO1 cohort (P-value = 8.19 × 10-4). In exome-array single-variant analysis (P-value threshold = 9 × 10-7), the lowest P-value was found for rs239259 located in SLC22A20 (beta = 0.007, P-value = 1.2 × 10-5). In the gene-based analysis (P-value threshold = 1.85 × 10-6), PCSK5 showed an association with AAD (P-value = 8.03 × 10-7). Furthermore, in Mendelian randomization analyses, we found evidence for genetic association of pulse pressure (beta = -0.003, P-value = 0.02), triglycerides (beta = -0.16, P-value = 0.008) and height (beta = 0.03, P-value < 0.0001), known risk factors for AAA, consistent with a causal association with AAD. Our findings point to new biology as well as highlighting gene regions in mechanisms that have previously been implicated in the genetics of other vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Triglicerídeos
7.
Circ Res ; 130(7): 1030-1037, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect 40 000 US births per year, half of which require surgical intervention. Individual differences in surgical outcomes including mortality and complications are not well understood but may be due to genetic variability. We hypothesized that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for blood pressure in adults are associated with treatments and postsurgical outcomes in children with CHD, as CHD survivors are at higher risk of negative cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: We used imputed genotype data from pediatric participants requiring surgery for CHD (median age at surgery, 201 days; nmax=2498). Base data for the systolic and diastolic blood pressure PRSs (nmax=760 226) came from published genome-wide association study. The blood pressure PRSs were tested for association with postsurgical outcomes. All effects presented are per SD increase in PRS and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, surgical complexity score, and first 10 principal components of ancestry. RESULTS: A higher diastolic blood pressure PRS was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality risk (odds ratio, 0.57 [0.39-0.82]; P=0.0022). Additional analyses suggest an interaction between diastolic blood pressure PRS and vasopressor dose. Those with a diastolic blood pressure PRS 1 SD above the mean, receiving a vasopressor dose in the top tertile, were estimated to have 52% (32%-66%) lower risk of in-hospital mortality compared with those with a vasopressor dose in the bottom tertile. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a genetically determined postsurgical survival advantage for CHD patients with blood pressure increasing alleles. Further study may reveal novel mechanisms contributing to postoperative morbidity and mortality, and this approach may assist in early identification of children at risk for adverse postoperative outcomes.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Adulto , Alelos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos
8.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 19(5): 291-301, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811547

RESUMO

Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in the discovery of alleles contributing to the risk of coronary artery disease. In addition to providing causal insights into disease, these endeavours have yielded and enabled the refinement of polygenic risk scores. These scores can be used to predict incident coronary artery disease in multiple cohorts and indicate the clinical response to some preventive therapies in post hoc analyses of clinical trials. These observations and the widespread ability to calculate polygenic risk scores from direct-to-consumer and health-care-associated biobanks have raised many questions about responsible clinical adoption. In this Review, we describe technical and downstream considerations for the derivation and validation of polygenic risk scores and current evidence for their efficacy and safety. We discuss the implementation of these scores in clinical medicine for uses including risk prediction and screening algorithms for coronary artery disease, prioritization of patient subgroups that are likely to derive benefit from treatment, and efficient prospective clinical trial designs.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nature ; 600(7890): 675-679, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887591

RESUMO

Increased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use1. Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2, heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide3. Genome-wideassociation studies (GWAS) of blood lipid levels have led to important biological and clinical insights, as well as new drug targets, for cardiovascular disease. However, most previous GWAS4-23 have been conducted in European ancestry populations and may have missed genetic variants that contribute to lipid-level variation in other ancestry groups. These include differences in allele frequencies, effect sizes and linkage-disequilibrium patterns24. Here we conduct a multi-ancestry, genome-wide genetic discovery meta-analysis of lipid levels in approximately 1.65 million individuals, including 350,000 of non-European ancestries. We quantify the gain in studying non-European ancestries and provide evidence to support the expansion of recruitment of additional ancestries, even with relatively small sample sizes. We find that increasing diversity rather than studying additional individuals of European ancestry results in substantial improvements in fine-mapping functional variants and portability of polygenic prediction (evaluated in approximately 295,000 individuals from 7 ancestry groupings). Modest gains in the number of discovered loci and ancestry-specific variants were also achieved. As GWAS expand emphasis beyond the identification of genes and fundamental biology towards the use of genetic variants for preventive and precision medicine25, we anticipate that increased diversity of participants will lead to more accurate and equitable26 application of polygenic scores in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Grupos Populacionais
10.
PLoS Genet ; 17(9): e1009802, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543263

RESUMO

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are circulating reservoirs of fatty acids used as vital energy sources for peripheral tissues. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a predominant enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) lipolysis and TRL clearance to provide fatty acids to tissues in animals. Physiological and human genetic evidence support a primary role for LPL in hydrolyzing TRL TGs. We hypothesized that endothelial lipase (EL), another extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes lipoprotein phospholipids may also contribute to TRL metabolism. To explore this, we studied the impact of genetic EL loss-of-function on TRL metabolism in humans and mice. Humans carrying a loss-of-function missense variant in LIPG, p.Asn396Ser (rs77960347), demonstrated elevated plasma TGs and elevated phospholipids in TRLs, among other lipoprotein classes. Mice with germline EL deficiency challenged with excess dietary TG through refeeding or a high-fat diet exhibited elevated TGs, delayed dietary TRL clearance, and impaired TRL TG lipolysis in vivo that was rescued by EL reconstitution in the liver. Lipidomic analyses of postprandial plasma from high-fat fed Lipg-/- mice demonstrated accumulation of phospholipids and TGs harboring long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), known substrates for EL lipolysis. In vitro and in vivo, EL and LPL together promoted greater TG lipolysis than either extracellular lipase alone. Our data positions EL as a key collaborator of LPL to mediate efficient lipolysis of TRLs in humans and mice.


Assuntos
Lipase/metabolismo , Lipólise , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Período Pós-Prandial , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1578-1589, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265237

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by dilation of the aortic root or ascending/descending aorta. TAA is a heritable disease that can be potentially life threatening. While 10%-20% of TAA cases are caused by rare, pathogenic variants in single genes, the origin of the majority of TAA cases remains unknown. A previous study implicated common variants in FBN1 with TAA disease risk. Here, we report a genome-wide scan of 1,351 TAA-affected individuals and 18,295 control individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Project and Michigan Genomics Initiative at the University of Michigan. We identified a genome-wide significant association with TAA for variants within the third intron of TCF7L2 following replication with meta-analysis of four additional independent cohorts. Common variants in this locus are the strongest known genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although evidence indicates the presence of different causal variants for TAA and type 2 diabetes at this locus, we observed an opposite direction of effect. The genetic association for TAA colocalizes with an aortic eQTL of TCF7L2, suggesting a functional relationship. These analyses predict an association of higher expression of TCF7L2 with TAA disease risk. In vitro, we show that upregulation of TCF7L2 is associated with BCL2 repression promoting vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, a key driver of TAA disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Michigan , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
Circ Res ; 128(12): 1988-2002, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110897

RESUMO

Venous disease is a term that broadly covers both venous thromboembolic disease and chronic venous disease. The basic pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism and chronic venous disease differ as venous thromboembolism results from an imbalance of hemostasis and thrombosis while chronic venous disease occurs in the setting of tissue damage because of prolonged venous hypertension. Both diseases are common and account for significant mortality and morbidity, respectively, and collectively make up a large health care burden. Despite both diseases having well-characterized environmental components, it has been known for decades that family history is an important risk factor, implicating a genetic element to a patient's risk. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases has greatly benefited from an expansion of population genetic studies from pioneering familial studies to large genome-wide association studies; we now have multiple risk loci for each venous disease. In this review, we will highlight the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology and genetics of venous thromboembolism and chronic venous disease and directions for future research.


Assuntos
Varizes/genética , Insuficiência Venosa/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Trombose Venosa/genética , Doença Crônica , Família , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varizes/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
14.
Circ Res ; 128(12): 1805-1817, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110906

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease-atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and lower extremity vascular bed-is a complex disease with both environmental and genetic determinants. Unmitigated disease is associated with major functional decline and can lead to chronic limb-threatening ischemia, amputation, and increased mortality. Over the last 10 years, major advances have been made in identifying the genetic basis of this common, complex disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the primary types of genetic analyses performed for peripheral artery disease, including heritability and linkage studies, and more recently biobank-based genome-wide association studies. Looking forward, we highlight areas of future study including efforts to identify causal peripheral artery disease genes, rare variant and structural variant analyses using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing data, and the need to include individuals of diverse genetic ancestries.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica/genética , Aorta Abdominal , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Ligação Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Circulation ; 144(5): 353-364, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-related traits have been consistently identified as risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, largely on the basis of studies of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contributions of specific lipoproteins to the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) have not been well defined. We leveraged large-scale genetic association data to investigate the effects of circulating lipoprotein-related traits on PAD risk. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary statistics for circulating lipoprotein-related traits were used in the mendelian randomization bayesian model averaging framework to prioritize the most likely causal major lipoprotein and subfraction risk factors for PAD and CAD. Mendelian randomization was used to estimate the effect of apolipoprotein B (ApoB) lowering on PAD risk using gene regions proxying lipid-lowering drug targets. Genes relevant to prioritized lipoprotein subfractions were identified with transcriptome-wide association studies. RESULTS: ApoB was identified as the most likely causal lipoprotein-related risk factor for both PAD (marginal inclusion probability, 0.86; P=0.003) and CAD (marginal inclusion probability, 0.92; P=0.005). Genetic proxies for ApoB-lowering medications were associated with reduced risk of both PAD (odds ratio,0.87 per 1-SD decrease in ApoB [95% CI, 0.84-0.91]; P=9×10-10) and CAD (odds ratio,0.66 [95% CI, 0.63-0.69]; P=4×10-73), with a stronger predicted effect of ApoB lowering on CAD (ratio of effects, 3.09 [95% CI, 2.29-4.60]; P<1×10-6). Extra-small very-low-density lipoprotein particle concentration was identified as the most likely subfraction associated with PAD risk (marginal inclusion probability, 0.91; P=2.3×10-4), whereas large low-density lipoprotein particle concentration was the most likely subfraction associated with CAD risk (marginal inclusion probability, 0.95; P=0.011). Genes associated with extra-small very-low-density lipoprotein particle and large low-density lipoprotein particle concentration included canonical ApoB pathway components, although gene-specific effects were variable. Lipoprotein(a) was associated with increased risk of PAD independently of ApoB (odds ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.03-1.04]; P=1.0×10-33). CONCLUSIONS: ApoB was prioritized as the major lipoprotein fraction causally responsible for both PAD and CAD risk. However, ApoB-lowering drug targets and ApoB-containing lipoprotein subfractions had diverse associations with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and distinct subfraction-associated genes suggest possible differences in the role of lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of PAD and CAD.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Alelos , Apolipoproteínas/sangue , Biomarcadores , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/metabolismo , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(7): 1428-1438, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but the extent to which this is mediated by blood pressure, diabetes, lipid traits, and smoking is not fully understood. METHODS: Using consortia and UK Biobank genetic association summary data from 140,595 to 898,130 participants predominantly of European ancestry, Mendelian randomization mediation analysis was performed to investigate the degree to which systolic blood pressure (SBP), diabetes, lipid traits, and smoking mediated an effect of BMI and WHR on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and stroke. RESULTS: The odds ratio of CAD per 1-standard deviation increase in genetically predicted BMI was 1.49 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.60). This attenuated to 1.34 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.45) after adjusting for genetically predicted SBP (proportion mediated 27%, 95% CI 3% to 50%), to 1.27 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.37) after adjusting for genetically predicted diabetes (41% mediated, 95% CI 18% to 63%), to 1.47 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.59) after adjusting for genetically predicted lipids (3% mediated, 95% -23% to 29%), and to 1.46 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.58) after adjusting for genetically predicted smoking (6% mediated, 95% CI -20% to 32%). Adjusting for all the mediators together, the estimate attenuated to 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.26; 66% mediated, 95% CI 42% to 91%). A similar pattern was observed when considering genetically predicted WHR as the exposure, and PAD or stroke as the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Measures to reduce obesity will lower the risk of cardiovascular disease primarily by impacting downstream metabolic risk factors, particularly diabetes and hypertension. Reduction of obesity prevalence alongside control and management of its mediators is likely to be most effective for minimizing the burden of obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética
19.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 34, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of genetic risk factors that are shared between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other traits, i.e., pleiotropy, can help improve our understanding of the etiology of AD and potentially detect new therapeutic targets. Previous epidemiological correlations observed between cardiometabolic traits and AD led us to assess the pleiotropy between these traits. METHODS: We performed a set of bivariate genome-wide association studies coupled with colocalization analysis to identify loci that are shared between AD and eleven cardiometabolic traits. For each of these loci, we performed colocalization with Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) to identify candidate causal genes. RESULTS: We identified three previously unreported pleiotropic trait associations at known AD loci as well as four novel pleiotropic loci. One associated locus was tagged by a low-frequency coding variant in the gene DOCK4 and is potentially implicated in its alternative splicing. Colocalization with GTEx eQTL data identified additional candidate genes for the loci we detected, including ACE, the target of the hypertensive drug class of ACE inhibitors. We found that the allele associated with decreased ACE expression in brain tissue was also associated with increased risk of AD, providing human genetic evidence of a potential increase in AD risk from use of an established anti-hypertensive therapeutic. CONCLUSION: Our results support a complex genetic relationship between AD and these cardiometabolic traits, and the candidate causal genes identified suggest that blood pressure and immune response play a role in the pleiotropy between these traits.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034461, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464320

RESUMO

Importance: Smoking is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the relative contribution to each subtype (coronary artery disease [CAD], peripheral artery disease [PAD], and large-artery stroke) remains less well understood. Objective: To determine the association between genetic liability to smoking and risk of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide associations of smoking (UK Biobank; up to 462 690 individuals), CAD (Coronary Artery Disease Genome Wide Replication and Meta-analysis plus the Coronary Artery Disease Genetics Consortium; up to 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls), PAD (VA Million Veteran Program; up to 24 009 cases, 150 983 controls), and large-artery stroke (MEGASTROKE; up to 4373 cases, 406 111 controls). This study was conducted using summary statistic data from large, previously described cohorts. Review of those publications does not reveal the total recruitment dates for those cohorts. Data analyses were conducted from August 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Genetic liability to smoking (as proxied by genetic variants associated with lifetime smoking index). Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk (odds ratios [ORs]) of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Results: Genetic liability to smoking was associated with increased risk of PAD (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.78-2.56; P = 3.6 × 10-16), CAD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.25-1.75; P = 4.4 × 10-6), and stroke (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92; P = .04). Genetic liability to smoking was associated with greater risk of PAD than risk of large-artery stroke (ratio of ORs, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19; P = .02) or CAD (ratio of ORs, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.84; P = .004). The association between genetic liability to smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remained independent from the effects of smoking on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this mendelian randomization analysis of data from large studies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, genetic liability to smoking was a strong risk factor for CAD, PAD, and stroke, although the estimated association was strongest between smoking and PAD. The association between smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética
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