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1.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1574-1579, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676865

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a significant cause of mortality1, yet its genetic determinants are incompletely defined. We performed a discovery genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program and UK Biobank, with testing of approximately 13 million DNA sequence variants for association with venous thromboembolism (26,066 cases and 624,053 controls) and meta-analyzed both studies, followed by independent replication with up to 17,672 venous thromboembolism cases and 167,295 controls. We identified 22 previously unknown loci, bringing the total number of venous thromboembolism-associated loci to 33, and subsequently fine-mapped these associations. We developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score for venous thromboembolism that identifies 5% of the population at an equivalent incident venous thromboembolism risk to carriers of the established factor V Leiden p.R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the genetic epidemiology of venous thromboembolism and suggest a greater overlap among venous and arterial cardiovascular disease than previously thought.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: History of a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) among women may be useful to refine atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessments. However, future risk of diverse cardiovascular conditions in asymptomatic middle-aged women with prior HDP remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term incidence of diverse cardiovascular conditions among middle-aged women with and without prior HDP. METHODS: Women in the prospective, observational UK Biobank age 40 to 69 years who reported ≥1 live birth were included. Noninvasive arterial stiffness measurement was performed in a subset of women. Cox models were fitted to associate HDP with incident cardiovascular diseases. Causal mediation analyses estimated the contribution of conventional risk factors to observed associations. RESULTS: Of 220,024 women included, 2,808 (1.3%) had prior HDP. The mean age at baseline was 57.4 ± 7.8 years, and women were followed for median 7 years (interquartile range: 6.3 to 7.7 years). Women with HDP had elevated arterial stiffness indexes and greater prevalence of chronic hypertension compared with women without HDP. Overall, 7.0 versus 5.3 age-adjusted incident cardiovascular conditions occurred per 1,000 women-years for women with versus without prior HDP, respectively (p = 0.001). In analysis of time-to-first incident cardiovascular diagnosis, prior HDP was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.3 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.60; p = 0.02). HDP was associated with greater incidence of CAD (HR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.6; p < 0.001), heart failure (HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.60; p = 0.03), aortic stenosis (HR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.5 to 5.4; p < 0.001), and mitral regurgitation (HR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.5 to 17.1; p = 0.01). In causal mediation analyses, chronic hypertension explained 64% of HDP's association with CAD and 49% of HDP's association with heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with accelerated cardiovascular aging and more diverse cardiovascular conditions than previously appreciated, including valvular heart disease. Cardiovascular risk after HDP is largely but incompletely mediated by development of chronic hypertension.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3842, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451708

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), contributes to global morbidity and mortality. Here we conduct a transethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of eGFR in 280,722 participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP), with replication in 765,289 participants from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics (CKDGen) Consortium. We identify 82 previously unreported variants, confirm 54 loci, and report interesting findings including association of the sickle cell allele of betaglobin among non-Hispanic blacks. Our transcriptome-wide association study of kidney function in healthy kidney tissue identifies 36 previously unreported and nine known genes, and maps gene expression to renal cell types. In a Phenome-Wide Association Study in 192,868 MVP participants using a weighted genetic score we detect associations with CKD stages and complications and kidney stones. This investigation reinterprets the genetic architecture of kidney function to identify the gene, tissue, and anatomical context of renal homeostasis and the clinical consequences of dysregulation.

5.
Blood ; 134(19): 1645-1657, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.

6.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1274-1279, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285632

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, the extent to which genetic factors increase risk for PAD is largely unknown. Using electronic health record data, we performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ~32 million DNA sequence variants with PAD (31,307 cases and 211,753 controls) across veterans of European, African and Hispanic ancestry. The results were replicated in an independent sample of 5,117 PAD cases and 389,291 controls from the UK Biobank. We identified 19 PAD loci, 18 of which have not been previously reported. Eleven of the 19 loci were associated with disease in three vascular beds (coronary, cerebral, peripheral), including LDLR, LPL and LPA, suggesting that therapeutic modulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the lipoprotein lipase pathway or circulating lipoprotein(a) may be efficacious for multiple atherosclerotic disease phenotypes. Conversely, four of the variants appeared to be specific for PAD, including F5 p.R506Q, highlighting the pathogenic role of thrombosis in the peripheral vascular bed and providing genetic support for Factor Xa inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for PAD. Our results highlight mechanistic similarities and differences among coronary, cerebral and peripheral atherosclerosis and provide therapeutic insights.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Fator V/genética , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de LDL/genética , Veteranos
7.
Circulation ; 140(12): 1031-1040, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 13% of black individuals carry 2 copies of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles G1 or G2, which are associated with 1.5- to 2.5-fold increased risk of chronic kidney disease. There have been conflicting reports as to whether an association exists between APOL1 risk alleles and cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is independent of the effects of APOL1 on kidney disease. We sought to test the association of APOL1 G1/G2 alleles with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke among black individuals in the Million Veteran Program. METHODS: We performed a time-to-event analysis of retrospective electronic health record data using Cox proportional hazard and competing-risks Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard models. The primary exposure was APOL1 risk allele status. The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease among individuals without chronic kidney disease during the 12.5-year follow-up period. We separately analyzed the cross-sectional association of APOL1 risk allele status with lipid traits and 115 cardiovascular diseases using phenome-wide association. RESULTS: Among 30 903 black Million Veteran Program participants, 3941 (13%) carried the 2 APOL1 risk allele high-risk genotype. Individuals with normal kidney function at baseline with 2 risk alleles had slightly higher risk of developing coronary artery disease compared with those with no risk alleles (hazard ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.21]; P=0.039). Similarly, modest associations were identified with incident stroke (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36; P=0.007) and peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01-1.29l; P=0.031). When both cardiovascular and renal outcomes were modeled, APOL1 was strongly associated with incident renal disease, whereas no significant association with the CVD end points could be detected. Cardiovascular phenome-wide association analyses did not identify additional significant associations with CVD subsets. CONCLUSIONS: APOL1 risk variants display a modest association with CVD, and this association is likely mediated by the known APOL1 association with chronic kidney disease.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2275, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101824

RESUMO

The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements: 'Supported by the Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center of the Veterans Integrated Service Network 4 of the Department of Veterans Affairs.' This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(6): 1253-1261, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070453

RESUMO

Objective- Arterial stiffness index (ASI) is independently associated with blood pressure (BP) and coronary artery disease (CAD) epidemiologically. However, it is unknown whether these associations represent causal relationships. Here, we assess whether genetic predisposition to increased ASI is associated with elevated BP and CAD risk. Approach and Results- We first performed a large-scale epidemiological association of finger photoplethysmography-derived ASI in the UK Biobank, finding significant associations with systolic BP (ß=0.55 mm Hg; [95% CI, 0.45-0.65]; P=5.77×10-24; N=137 858), diastolic BP (ß=1.05 mm Hg; [95% CI, 0.99-1.11]; P=7.27×10-272; N=137 862), and incident CAD (hazard ratio, 1.08; [95% CI, 1.04-1.11]; P=1.5×10-6; N=3692 cases, 126 615 controls) in multivariable models. We then performed an ASI genome-wide association study analysis in 131 686 participants from the UK Biobank. Across participants not in the ASI genome-wide association study, a 6-variant ASI polygenic risk score was calculated. Each SD increase in genetic ASI was associated with systolic BP (ß=4.63 mm Hg; [95% CI, 2.1-7.2]; P=3.37×10-4; N=208 897), and diastolic BP (ß=2.61 mm Hg; [95% CI, 1.2-4.0]; P=2.85×10-4; N=208 897); however, no association was observed with incident CAD (hazard ratio, 1.12; [95% CI, 0.55-2.3]; P=0.75; N=223 061; 7534 cases). The lack of CAD association observed was replicated among 184 305 participants (60 810 cases) from the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D (Coronary Artery Disease Genetics Consortium; odds ratio, 0.56; [95% CI, 0.26-1.24]; P=0.15). Conclusions- Our data support the conclusion that finger photoplethysmography-derived ASI is an independent, genetically causal risk factor for BP, but do not support the notion that ASI is a suitable surrogate for CAD risk.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1499, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940813

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption level and alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis are moderately heritable traits. We conduct genome-wide association studies of these traits using longitudinal Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores and AUD diagnoses in a multi-ancestry Million Veteran Program sample (N = 274,424). We identify 18 genome-wide significant loci: 5 associated with both traits, 8 associated with AUDIT-C only, and 5 associated with AUD diagnosis only. Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) for both traits are associated with alcohol-related disorders in two independent samples. Although a significant genetic correlation reflects the overlap between the traits, genetic correlations for 188 non-alcohol-related traits differ significantly for the two traits, as do the phenotypes associated with the traits' PRS. Cell type group partitioning heritability enrichment analyses also differentiate the two traits. We conclude that, although heavy drinking is a key risk factor for AUD, it is not a sufficient cause of the disorder.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 51-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578418

RESUMO

In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
12.
Diabetes ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389748

RESUMO

A genetic predisposition to higher waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI), a measure of body fat distribution, associates with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We conducted an exome-wide association study of coding variation in UK Biobank (405569 individuals) to identify variants that lower WHRadjBMI and protect against type 2 diabetes. We identified four variants in the gene ACVR1C, encoding the activin-receptor like kinase 7 receptor expressed on adipocytes and pancreatic beta cells, which independently associated with reduced WHRadjBMI: Asn150His (-0.09 standard deviations, p=3.4*10-17), Ile195Thr (-0.15 SD, p=1.0*10-9), Ile482Val (-0.019 SD, p=1.6*10-5) and rs72927479 (-0.035 SD, p=2.6*10-12). Carriers of these variants exhibited reduced percent abdominal fat in dual energy X-ray imaging. Pooling across all four variants, a 0.2 SD decrease in WHRadjBMI through ACVR1C was associated with a 30% lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.70, CI 0.63, 0.77; p = 5.6*10-13). In an analysis of exome sequences from 55516 individuals, carriers of predicted damaging variants in ACVR1C were at 54% lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.46 CI 0.27, 0.81; p=0.006). These findings indicate that variants predicted to lead to loss of ACVR1C gene function influence body fat distribution and protect from type 2 diabetes.

13.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1514-1523, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275531

RESUMO

The Million Veteran Program (MVP) was established in 2011 as a national research initiative to determine how genetic variation influences the health of US military veterans. Here we genotyped 312,571 MVP participants using a custom biobank array and linked the genetic data to laboratory and clinical phenotypes extracted from electronic health records covering a median of 10.0 years of follow-up. Among 297,626 veterans with at least one blood lipid measurement, including 57,332 black and 24,743 Hispanic participants, we tested up to around 32 million variants for association with lipid levels and identified 118 novel genome-wide significant loci after meta-analysis with data from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (total n > 600,000). Through a focus on mutations predicted to result in a loss of gene function and a phenome-wide association study, we propose novel indications for pharmaceutical inhibitors targeting PCSK9 (abdominal aortic aneurysm), ANGPTL4 (type 2 diabetes) and PDE3B (triglycerides and coronary disease).

14.
J Vasc Surg ; 68(5): 1390-1395, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although carotid atherosclerotic-mediated stroke remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, some have suggested intervention in carotid stenosis should be limited to symptomatic patients given the advances in medical therapy. The present study was conducted to assess the atherosclerotic risk factor profiles, anatomic features, and clinical outcomes of previously asymptomatic patients admitted with stroke of carotid etiology. METHODS: We reviewed the data from 3382 patients admitted to a tertiary referral center with an ischemic stroke during 2005 to 2015. We focused on patients admitted with a radiographically confirmed infarct ipsilateral to a documented carotid artery stenosis ≥50%, with the admitting neurology team adjudicating the stroke etiology as carotid related. Patients were excluded if they had had a previous transient ischemic attack, previous infarct ipsilateral to any carotid lesion, or previous carotid revascularization, intracranial hemorrhage, or malignancy. Patient demographic data, medical treatments before stroke, stroke admission carotid imaging, and stroke treatments and outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 219 carotid stroke patients (7% of all strokes) were identified, of whom 61% were white and 66% were men, with a mean age of 68 ± 12 years. Hypertension (79%) and smoking (33% current; 29% former) were predominant risk factors. On admission, 50% were receiving antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, n = 92 [41%]; clopidogrel, n = 9 [4%]; dual therapy, n = 11 [5%]) and 55% were receiving lipid-lowering agents (statin, n = 115 [53%]; other, n = 6 [2%]); 77 patients (35%) were receiving both antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy. Of the 219 patients, 156 (71%) presented with a moderate or severe stroke (National Institutes of Health stroke scale ≥5 at admission), 54 (25%) received lytic therapy, 96 (43%) presented with an occluded ipsilateral internal carotid artery, and 117 (53%) ultimately underwent carotid revascularization at a median of 4 days. Individuals receiving both antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy were significantly less likely to experience a moderate or severe stroke (44% vs 78%; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Internal carotid artery occlusion is the culprit lesion in 43% of carotid-related strokes in those without previous symptoms. Previously asymptomatic patients not receiving combined antiplatelet and lipid-lowering medical therapy presenting with carotid-related stroke are significantly more likely to experience a severe, debilitating stroke. However, those receiving appropriate risk-reduction medical therapy are still at risk of carotid-mediated stroke. These results suggest medical therapy alone is unlikely to be sufficient stroke prevention for patients with significant carotid stenosis.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1613, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691411

RESUMO

Less than 3% of protein-coding genetic variants are predicted to result in loss of protein function through the introduction of a stop codon, frameshift, or the disruption of an essential splice site; however, such predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) variants provide insight into effector transcript and direction of biological effect. In >400,000 UK Biobank participants, we conduct association analyses of 3759 pLOF variants with six metabolic traits, six cardiometabolic diseases, and twelve additional diseases. We identified 18 new low-frequency or rare (allele frequency < 5%) pLOF variant-phenotype associations. pLOF variants in the gene GPR151 protect against obesity and type 2 diabetes, in the gene IL33 against asthma and allergic disease, and in the gene IFIH1 against hypothyroidism. In the gene PDE3B, pLOF variants associate with elevated height, improved body fat distribution and protection from coronary artery disease. Our findings prioritize genes for which pharmacologic mimics of pLOF variants may lower risk for disease.

16.
Circulation ; 137(3): 222-232, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide signaling plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and platelet activation. Here, we seek to understand the impact of a genetic predisposition to enhanced nitric oxide signaling on risk for cardiovascular diseases, thus informing the potential utility of pharmacological stimulation of the nitric oxide pathway as a therapeutic strategy. METHODS: We analyzed the association of common and rare genetic variants in 2 genes that mediate nitric oxide signaling (Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 [NOS3] and Guanylate Cyclase 1, Soluble, Alpha 3 [GUCY1A3]) with a range of human phenotypes. We selected 2 common variants (rs3918226 in NOS3 and rs7692387 in GUCY1A3) known to associate with increased NOS3 and GUCY1A3 expression and reduced mean arterial pressure, combined them into a genetic score, and standardized this exposure to a 5 mm Hg reduction in mean arterial pressure. Using individual-level data from 335 464 participants in the UK Biobank and summary association results from 7 large-scale genome-wide association studies, we examined the effect of this nitric oxide signaling score on cardiometabolic and other diseases. We also examined whether rare loss-of-function mutations in NOS3 and GUCY1A3 were associated with coronary heart disease using gene sequencing data from the Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium (n=27 815). RESULTS: A genetic predisposition to enhanced nitric oxide signaling was associated with reduced risks of coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.45; P=5.5*10-26], peripheral arterial disease (odds ratio 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26-0.68; P=0.0005), and stroke (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.76; P=0.0006). In a mediation analysis, the effect of the genetic score on decreased coronary heart disease risk extended beyond its effect on blood pressure. Conversely, rare variants that inactivate the NOS3 or GUCY1A3 genes were associated with a 23 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (95% CI, 12-34; P=5.6*10-5) and a 3-fold higher risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.29-7.12; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A genetic predisposition to enhanced nitric oxide signaling is associated with reduced risks of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. Pharmacological stimulation of nitric oxide signaling may prove useful in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease.

17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(12)2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106297

RESUMO

Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by inherited high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Over a thousand low-frequency variants in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 have been implicated in FH but few have been examined at the population level. We aim to estimate the phenotypic effects of a subset of FH variants on LDL-C and clinical outcomes among 331,107 multi-ethnic participants. Methods: We examined the individual and collective association between putatively pathogenic FH variants included on the MVP biobank array and the maximum LDL-C level over an interval of 15 years (maxLDL). We assessed the collective effect on clinical outcomes by leveraging data from 61.7 million clinical encounters. Results: We found 8 out of 16 putatively pathogenic FH variants with ≥30 observed carriers to be significantly associated with elevated maxLDL (9.4-80.2 mg/dL). Phenotypic effects were similar for European and African Americans despite substantial differences in carrier frequencies. Based on observed effects on maxLDL, we identified a total of 748 carriers (1:443) who had elevated maxLDL (36.5±1.4 mg/dL, p=1.2×10-152), and higher prevalence of clinical diagnoses related to hypercholesterolemia and CHD in a phenome-wide scan. Adjusted for maxLDL, FH variants collectively associated with higher prevalence of CHD (odds ratio, 1.59 [95% CI 1.36-1.86], p=1.1×10-8) but not peripheral artery disease. Conclusions: The distribution and phenotypic effects of putatively pathogenic FH variants were heterogeneous within and across variants. More robust evidence of genotype-phenotype associations of FH variants in multi-ethnic populations is needed to accurately infer at-risk individuals from genetic screening.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Variação Genética , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Estados Unidos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(6)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have implicated multiple genetic loci associated with AF, but the contributions of genome-wide variation to AF susceptibility have not been quantified. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the contribution of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism variation to AF risk (single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability, h2g ) using data from 120 286 unrelated individuals of European ancestry (2987 with AF) in the population-based UK Biobank. We ascertained AF based on self-report, medical record billing codes, procedure codes, and death records. We estimated h2g using a variance components method with variants having a minor allele frequency ≥1%. We evaluated h2g in age, sex, and genomic strata of interest. The h2g for AF was 22.1% (95% confidence interval, 15.6%-28.5%) and was similar for early- versus older-onset AF (≤65 versus >65 years of age), as well as for men and women. The proportion of AF variance explained by genetic variation was mainly accounted for by common (minor allele frequency, ≥5%) variants (20.4%; 95% confidence interval, 15.1%-25.6%). Only 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%-7.7%) of AF variance was attributed to variation within known AF susceptibility, cardiac arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy gene regions. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation contributes substantially to AF risk. The risk for AF conferred by genomic variation is similar to that observed for several other cardiovascular diseases. Established AF loci only explain a moderate proportion of disease risk, suggesting that further genetic discovery, with an emphasis on common variation, is warranted to understand the causal genetic basis of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11303, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28900195

RESUMO

It is unclear whether genetic markers interact with risk factors to influence atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. We performed genome-wide interaction analyses between genetic variants and age, sex, hypertension, and body mass index in the AFGen Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using meta-analysis (88,383 individuals of European descent, including 7,292 with AF). Variants with nominal interaction associations in the discovery analysis were tested for association in four independent studies (131,441 individuals, including 5,722 with AF). In the discovery analysis, the AF risk associated with the minor rs6817105 allele (at the PITX2 locus) was greater among subjects ≤ 65 years of age than among those > 65 years (interaction p-value = 4.0 × 10-5). The interaction p-value exceeded genome-wide significance in combined discovery and replication analyses (interaction p-value = 1.7 × 10-8). We observed one genome-wide significant interaction with body mass index and several suggestive interactions with age, sex, and body mass index in the discovery analysis. However, none was replicated in the independent sample. Our findings suggest that the pathogenesis of AF may differ according to age in individuals of European descent, but we did not observe evidence of statistically significant genetic interactions with sex, body mass index, or hypertension on AF risk.

20.
Cell ; 170(3): 522-533.e15, 2017 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753427

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) implicate the PHACTR1 locus (6p24) in risk for five vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, migraine headache, cervical artery dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, and hypertension. Through genetic fine mapping, we prioritized rs9349379, a common SNP in the third intron of the PHACTR1 gene, as the putative causal variant. Epigenomic data from human tissue revealed an enhancer signature at rs9349379 exclusively in aorta, suggesting a regulatory function for this SNP in the vasculature. CRISPR-edited stem cell-derived endothelial cells demonstrate rs9349379 regulates expression of endothelin 1 (EDN1), a gene located 600 kb upstream of PHACTR1. The known physiologic effects of EDN1 on the vasculature may explain the pattern of risk for the five associated diseases. Overall, these data illustrate the integration of genetic, phenotypic, and epigenetic analysis to identify the biologic mechanism by which a common, non-coding variant can distally regulate a gene and contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Endotelina-1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Acetilação , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Endotelina-1/sangue , Epigenômica , Edição de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia
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