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1.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597928

RESUMO

Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is suboptimal in the US. The association between HPV vaccination requirements for school entry and HPV vaccination coverage remains to be studied. Objective: To examine the association between HPV vaccination school-entry requirements and vaccination initiation in jurisdictions with such vaccination policies (ie, Virginia, the District of Columbia, and Rhode Island) compared with other regions of the US, as determined by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a population-based, cross-sectional study, 2017 data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen database were used to determine HPV vaccination initiation. Data from 2008 to 2017 were then examined to assess the association between HPV vaccination school-entry policies and vaccination initiation. Data were obtained for adolescents aged 13 to 17 years in the US with health care professional-reported HPV vaccination histories (cross-sectional study, n = 4784; pre-post policy comparisons, n = 42 431). This study was conducted from May 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020. Exposures: State-level HPV vaccination school-entry requirements from 2008 to 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Health care professional-confirmed HPV vaccination initiation. Results: The 2017 cross-sectional study included 4784 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (2228 [46.6%] girls; 2556 [53.4%] boys; mean [SD] age, 15.0 [1.4] years; interquartile range, 14-16 years). Compared with nonpolicy jurisdictions within the same region, Rhode Island and the District of Columbia, which have HPV immunization school-entry requirements, had higher levels of HPV vaccination initiation (Rhode Island: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.34; 95% CI, 2.16-10.00; District of Columbia: aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.39-4.19). However, compared with regional nonpolicy states, Virginia's HPV vaccination initiation did not differ significantly (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72-1.42). The 2008-2017 pre-post policy comparisons involved 42 431 adolescents aged 13-17 years (22 362 [52.7%] girls; 20 069 [47.3%] boys; mean [SD] age, 15.0 [1.4] years; interquartile range, 14-16 years). Postpolicy levels of HPV vaccination initiation in girls was significantly higher in Rhode Island (aOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.92-5.07) than prepolicy values. Similar changes were noted for postpolicy HPV vaccination initiation in boys in the District of Columbia (aOR, 6.36; 95% CI, 4.27-9.46) and Rhode Island (aOR, 5.84; 95% CI, 3.92-8.69) compared with prepolicy measures. With respect to regional nonpolicy states during the same period, both girls and boys in Rhode Island and boys in the District of Columbia experienced larger increases in HPV vaccination initiation. For example, in Rhode Island, boys aged 16 to 17 years had 7.32 (95% CI, 3.56-15.06) times the change in pre-post policy HPV vaccination initiation, while girls aged 16 to 17 years had 1.28 (95% CI, 0.60-2.73) times the change. In the District of Columbia, boys had 6.36 (95% CI, 4.27-9.46) times the change in pre-post policy HPV vaccination initiation. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination school-entry requirements are associated with increases in vaccination initiation. Expanding such policies may increase HPV vaccination in the US.

2.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The syphilis epidemic continues to cause substantial morbidity worldwide and is worsening despite ongoing control efforts. Syphilis remains an important public health problem among three key populations: men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women, and female sex workers. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients that received rapid point-of-care treponemal antibody tests from January 2019-July 2019 in four STI clinics in Lima, Peru. We assessed patient medical records for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, past history of sexually transmitted infections, as well as sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Cross-sectional descriptive analyses were used to determine factors associated with treponemal positivity. RESULTS: We included 401 patient records in our analyses: 252 MSM, 31 transgender women, and 118 female sex workers. The overall median age of patients was 29.0 years old (interquartile range: 24.0, 36.0). Positivity on the treponemal test was 28.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 24.3%, 33.3%) overall, 37.7% (95% CI: 31.7%, 44.0%) for MSM, 54.8% (95% CI: 36.0%, 72.7%) for transgender women, and 3.4% (95% CI: 0.9%, 8.5%) for female sex workers. In the bivariate analysis, treponemal positivity was also associated with receptive anal sex in the last 6 months in MSM (p<0.01). Additionally, treponemal positivity increased with age (p=0.0212) and varied by socio-economic status (p<0.01). Multivariate LASSO logistic regression showed that treponemal positivity was highly associated with HIV co-infection (Adj OR = 5.42) and previous sexually transmitted infection other than HIV or syphilis (Adj OR = 1.54). CONCLUSIONS: A review of the medical records of members of three key populations who had recently received a rapid point-of-care treponemal test in Lima, Peru, revealed that lifetime prevalence of syphilis was high among MSM and transgender women, but low among female sex workers. Those results may indicate a need for more frequent, regular testing among MSM and transgender women - possibly in conjunction with HIV testing, and appropriate treatment of those shown to be positive.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(Supplement_1): S52-S57, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578863

RESUMO

We reviewed relevant syphilis diagnostic literature and conducted a meta-analysis to address the question, "What is the sensitivity and specificity of the Syphilis Health Check, a rapid qualitative test for the detection of human antibodies to Treponema pallidum." The Syphilis Health Check is the only rapid syphilis test currently cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis using Bayesian bivariate random-effects and fixed-effect models to create pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the Syphilis Health Check. We identified 5 test evaluations published in the literature and 10 studies submitted to the FDA and for a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments waiver application. The pooled sensitivity (95% CI) from the laboratory evaluations (n = 5) was 98.5% (92.1-100%), while pooled specificity was 95.9% (81.5-100.0%). The pooled sensitivity for prospective studies (n = 10) was 87.7% ( 71.8-97.2%), while pooled specificity was 96.7% (91.9-99.2%). Using nontreponemal supplemental testing, the sensitivity improved to a pooled sensitivity of 97.0% (94.8-98.6%). The Syphilis Health Check may provide accurate detection of treponemal antibody.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 444, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The syphilis epidemic continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, despite several recent disease control initiatives. Though our understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease and the biology of the syphilis agent, Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum has improved over the last two decades, further research is necessary to improve clinical diagnosis and disease management protocols. Additionally, such research efforts could contribute to the identification of possible targets for the development of an effective vaccine to stem syphilis spread. METHODS: This study will recruit two cohorts of participants with active syphilis infection, one with de novo infection, one with repeat infection. Whole blood specimens will be collected from each study participant at baseline, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, to track specific markers of their immunological response, as well as to compare humoral reactivity to Treponema pallidum antigens between the two groups. Additionally, we will use serum specimens to look for unique cytokine patterns in participants with early syphilis. Oral and blood samples, as well as samples from any syphilitic lesions present, will also be collected to sequence any Treponema pallidum DNA found. DISCUSSION: By furthering our understanding of syphilis pathogenesis and human host immune response to Treponema pallidum, we will provide important data that will help in development of new point-of-care tests that could better identify active infection, leading to improved syphilis diagnosis and management. Findings could also contribute to vaccine development efforts.

6.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium is emerging globally. There is paucity of data from sub-Saharan Africa where syndromic management is used to treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a molecular epidemiological study to determine the prevalence of azithromycin resistance and epidemic diversity of M. genitalium infections in South Africa. METHODS: We analysed 90 M. genitalium-positive specimens that had been collected consecutively from men and women (50% symptomatic) from geographically diverse communities across the northern part of South Africa between 2015 and 2019. Melting curve analysis followed by targeted sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene was performed to detect azithromycin resistance. Molecular typing was done through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the MG191 gene and short tandem repeats (STR) assessment of the MG309 gene. An overview of all published M. genitalium sequence types was generated and novel sequence types identified in this study were allocated numbers accordingly. RESULTS: Azithromycin resistance was detected in 1/90 M. genitalium-positive specimens (1.1%; 95% CI 0% to 3.3%) as conferred by A2071G mutation; this strain also harboured a C234T mutation in the parC gene with wild type gyrA gene. SNP typing and STR assessment was successful in 38/90 specimens (42%) and showed a genetically diverse epidemic, without geographic clustering, with eight novel sequence types identified. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that determines resistance in M. genitalium infection since introduction of azithromycin in the syndromic management regimen for STIs in South Africa in 2015. Despite a well-established epidemic, azithromycin-resistant M. genitalium infection is still uncommon in the public healthcare sector. However, it has the potential to undermine the effectiveness of syndromic management. Introduction of molecular diagnostics and continuous surveillance are warranted for early detection emergence of resistance.

8.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(6): 811-816, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247863

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in the rectum and pharynx are important extragenital reservoirs of infection. Few assays approved by the US Food and Drug Administration are commercially available to diagnose pharyngeal or rectal infections. The current study reports on the analytical performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, including the limit of detection, inclusivity, and analytical specificity for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in rectal and pharyngeal specimens. The limit of detection was performed using known concentrations of organisms, elementary bodies per milliliter (EB/mL) for C. trachomatis and colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) for N. gonorrhoeae, in clinical rectal and pharyngeal swab matrices. Inclusivity was performed against 12 serovars of C. trachomatis and seven strains of N. gonorrhoeae. The analytical specificity was performed using 28 different bacteria and viruses. The limit of detection for C. trachomatis was 2.56 EB/mL in pharyngeal specimens and 12.8 EB/mL in rectal specimens. The limit of detection for N. gonorrhoeae was 0.0256 CFU/mL for both pharyngeal and rectal specimens. The inclusivity and analytical specificity were 100% for both rectal and pharyngeal specimens. These analytical performance data demonstrate that the Abbott CT/NG RealTime assay is an accurate, sensitive, and specific assay in rectal and pharyngeal specimens, supporting the potential of the assay for detection of rectal and pharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections.

9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(7)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321783

RESUMO

Data from a large prospective multicenter clinical validation study of a nucleic acid amplification in vitro diagnostic test for Mycoplasma genitalium were analyzed to describe the prevalence of M. genitalium infection, risk factors, and disease associations in female and male patients seeking care in diverse geographic regions of the United States. Among 1,737 female and 1,563 male participants, the overall prevalence of M. genitalium infection was 10.3% and was significantly higher in persons ages 15 to 24 years than in persons ages 35 to 39 years (for females, 19.8% versus 4.7% [odds ratio {OR} = 5.05; 95% confidence interval {CI} = 3.01 to 8.46]; for males, 16.5% versus 9.4% [OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.20 to 3.02]). The risk for M. genitalium infection was higher in black than in white participants (for females, 12.0% versus 6.8% [OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.30 to 2.72]; for males, 12.9% versus 6.9% [OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.38 to 2.96]) and higher in non-Hispanic than in Hispanic participants (for females, 11.2% versus 6.0% [OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.25 to 3.10]; for males, 11.6% versus 6.8% [OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.14 to 2.85]). Participants reporting urogenital symptoms had a significantly elevated risk of M. genitalium infection compared to that for asymptomatic individuals (for females, OR = 1.53 [95% CI = 1.09 to 2.14]; for males, OR = 1.42 [95% CI = 1.02 to 1.99]). Women diagnosed with vaginitis and cervicitis had a higher prevalence of M. genitalium infection than women without those diagnoses, although this was statistically significant only for vaginitis (for vaginitis, OR = 1.88 [95% CI = 1.37 to 2.58]; for cervicitis, OR = 1.42 [95% CI = 0.61 to 2.96]). A diagnosis of urethritis in men was also significantly associated with M. genitalium infection (OR = 2.97; 95% CI = 2.14 to 4.13). Few characteristics distinguished asymptomatic from symptomatic M. genitalium infections. These results from persons seeking care in the United States suggest that M. genitalium infection should be considered in young persons presenting with urogenital symptoms.

10.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(7): 481-483, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209954

RESUMO

We examined whether the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommended screening of Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae with proactive follow-up among high-risk youth recruited from community and clinic settings reduced future C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae diagnoses. After the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendations demonstrated a 41% decline in sexually transmitted infections; 3 tests in 1 year resulted in a 10% decline.

11.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 112S: 4-11, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220409

RESUMO

The application of digital technologies to better assess, understand, and treat substance use disorders (SUDs) is a particularly promising and vibrant area of scientific research. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN), launched in 1999 by the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse, has supported a growing line of research that leverages digital technologies to glean new insights into SUDs and provide science-based therapeutic tools to a diverse array of persons with SUDs. This manuscript provides an overview of the breadth and impact of research conducted in the realm of digital health within the CTN. This work has included the CTN's efforts to systematically embed digital screeners for SUDs into general medical settings to impact care models across the nation. This work has also included a pivotal multi-site clinical trial conducted on the CTN platform, whose data led to the very first "prescription digital therapeutic" authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of SUDs. Further CTN research includes the study of telehealth to increase capacity for science-based SUD treatment in rural and under-resourced communities. In addition, the CTN has supported an assessment of the feasibility of detecting cocaine-taking behavior via smartwatch sensing. And, the CTN has supported the conduct of clinical trials entirely online (including the recruitment of national and hard-to-reach/under-served participant samples online, with remote intervention delivery and data collection). Further, the CTN is supporting innovative work focused on the use of digital health technologies and data analytics to identify digital biomarkers and understand the clinical trajectories of individuals receiving medications for opioid use disorder (OUD). This manuscript concludes by outlining the many potential future opportunities to leverage the unique national CTN research network to scale-up the science on digital health to examine optimal strategies to increase the reach of science-based SUD service delivery models both within and outside of healthcare.

12.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000651, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191696

RESUMO

Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) is critically needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Detection of nucleic acids in genotypic AST can be rapid, but it has not been successful for ß-lactams (the largest antibiotic class used to treat Ng). Rapid phenotypic AST for Ng is challenged by the pathogen's slow doubling time and the lack of methods to quickly quantify the pathogen's response to ß-lactams. Here, we asked two questions: (1) Is it possible to use nucleic acid quantification to measure the ß-lactam susceptibility phenotype of Ng very rapidly, using antibiotic-exposure times much shorter than the 1- to 2-h doubling time of Ng? (2) Would such short-term antibiotic exposures predict the antibiotic resistance profile of Ng measured by plate growth assays over multiple days? To answer these questions, we devised an innovative approach for performing a rapid phenotypic AST that measures DNA accessibility to exogenous nucleases after exposure to ß-lactams (termed nuclease-accessibility AST [nuc-aAST]). We showed that DNA in antibiotic-susceptible cells has increased accessibility upon exposure to ß-lactams and that a judiciously chosen surfactant permeabilized the outer membrane and enhanced this effect. We tested penicillin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone and found good agreement between the results of the nuc-aAST after 15-30 min of antibiotic exposure and the results of the gold-standard culture-based AST measured over days. These results provide a new pathway toward developing a critically needed phenotypic AST for Ng and additional global-health threats.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/farmacologia , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/urina , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(3): 221-229, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996095
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(6): 1169-1175, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are a global health burden. NG resistance to cephalosporins, which is increasingly reported, is an imminent threat to public health. Many hypothesize that commensal Neisseria species are an important reservoir for genetic material conferring antimicrobial resistance in NG; however, clinical data are lacking. METHODS: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam, completed a questionnaire regarding antibiotic use. We collected pharyngeal specimens, cultured Neisseria species, and measured minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ciprofloxacin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, and cefpodoxime. Using MIC criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility in NG, we categorized the Neisseria species and compared mean MIC levels between different antibiotic user groups. RESULTS: Of 207 participants, 38% used at least 1 antibiotic in the past 6 months; 52% without a prescription. A median of 1 Neisseria species was cultured from each participant (range, 1-4) with 10 different Neisseria species identified overall. The proportion of Neisseria with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was 93%, cefpodoxime 84%, cefixime 31%, and ceftriaxone 28%. Antibiotic use within the past month was strongly associated with Neisseria species having increased MICs to cefixime, ceftriaxone, and cefpodoxime (mean MIC ratios of 6.27, 4.11, and 7.70, respectively), compared with those who used antibiotics between 1 and 6 months prior (P < .05, all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: MSM in our study often used antibiotics without a prescription. At least 1 commensal Neisseria species colonized all men. Recent use of any antibiotics may select for oropharyngeal Neisseria species with antimicrobial resistance. The normal flora of the oropharynx may be an important source of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(6): 1247-1253, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504345

RESUMO

Bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been increasing over the past 2 decades in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. With the widespread use of early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, which virtually eliminates transmission risk, and the availability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, there have been attitudinal changes regarding HIV infection with resultant increases in sexual contact and declines in condom use. Doxycycline is used for primary prophylaxis in a number of infectious diseases. We conducted a state-of-the-art review to examine the current state of research, knowledge gaps, and challenges around the use of doxycycline prophylaxis to prevent syphilis and other STIs. International academic and government experts met in March 2019 to frame the initial inquiry, which was supplemented by focused literature searches. Two small short-term randomized controlled trials examining doxycycline prophylaxis found high efficacy. Five additional clinical studies are underway or in development. Studies differed in design, population, outcomes, and safety measures. Doxycycline prophylaxis for bacterial STIs shows promise. Better and more robust data are needed on efficacy; target population; community acceptability; behavioral risk compensation; doxycycline dose, regimen, and formulation; long-term safety; antimicrobial resistance; cost-effectiveness; and risk-benefit.

17.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(1): 19-23, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual, transgender, and homeless youth are at risk of sexually transmitted infections. As part of an adolescent human immunodeficiency virus prevention study, we provided same-day Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) testing and treatment. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of same-day CT and NG treatment on the proportion of participants receiving timely treatment. METHODS: We recruited adolescents with high sexual risk behaviors aged 12 to 24 years from homeless shelters, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender organizations, and community health centers in Los Angeles, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana from May 2017 to June 2019. Initially, participants were offered point-of-care pharyngeal, rectal, and urethral/vaginal CT and NG testing and referral to another clinic for treatment. After March 2018 in Los Angeles and November 2018 in New Orleans, we provided same-day treatment (and partner treatment packs) for study participants. We measured the proportion of participants who received same-day treatment and the median time to treatment. We collected frequency of partner treatment and any reported adverse treatment-related events. RESULTS: The proportion of participants receiving same-day CT and NG treatment increased from 3.6% (5/140) to 21.1% (20/95; Δ17.5%; 95% confidence interval, 9.2%-26.9%) after implementation of same-day testing and treatment. The median time to treatment decreased from 18.5 to 3 days. Overall, 36 participants took a total of 48 partner treatment packs. There were no reported treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Providing sexually transmitted infection treatment to adolescents at the same visit as testing is feasible and safe, and can increase the proportion of individuals receiving timely treatment.

18.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(2): 111-113, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688726

RESUMO

Targeted antibiotics could delay emergence of resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The DNA gyrase subunit A assay predicts susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. A model found that adding a $50 gyrase subunit A test for asymptomatic patients screened for N. gonorrhoeae resulted in cost neutrality. When ciprofloxacin susceptibility was high, a $114 test resulted in savings.

20.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(1): 5-11, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658242

RESUMO

The goal of the STAR Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinical Trial Group (STI CTG) Programmatic meeting on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in Pregnancy and Reproductive Health in April 2018 was to review the latest research and develop recommendations to improve prevention and management of STIs during pregnancy. Experts from academia, government, nonprofit, and industry discussed the burden of STIs during pregnancy; the impact of STIs on adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; interventions that work to reduce STIs in pregnancy, and the evidence, policy, and technology needed to improve STI care during pregnancy. Key points of the meeting are as follows: (i) alternative treatments and therapies for use during pregnancy are needed; (ii) further research into the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and STIs during pregnancy should be supported; (iii) more research to determine whether STI tests function equally well in pregnant as nonpregnant women is needed; (iv) development of new lower cost, rapid point-of-care testing assays could allow for expanded STI screening globally; (v) policies should be implemented that create standard screening and treatment practices globally; (vi) federal funding should be increased for STI testing and treatment initiatives supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Centers of Excellence in STI Treatment, public STD clinics, and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

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