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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001458

RESUMO

This study describes the clinical spectrum and genetic background of high myopia caused by mutations in the ARR3 gene. We performed an observational case series of three multigenerational families with high myopia (SER≤-6D), from the departments of Clinical Genetics and Ophthalmology of a tertiary Dutch hospital. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) with a vision-related gene panel was performed, followed by a full open exome sequencing. We identified three Caucasian families with high myopia caused by three different pathogenic variants in the ARR3 gene (c.214C>T, p.Arg72*; c.767+1G>A; p.?; c.848delG, p.(Gly283fs)). Myopia was characterized by a high severity (<-8D), an early onset (<6 years), progressive nature, and a moderate to bad atropine treatment response. Remarkably, a female limited inheritance pattern was present in all three families accordant with previous reports. The frequency of a pathogenic variant in the ARR3 gene in our diagnostic WES cohort was 5%. To conclude, we identified three families with early onset, therapy-resistant, high myopia with a female-limited inheritance pattern, caused by a mutation in the ARR3 gene. The singular mode of inheritance might be explained by metabolic interference due to X-inactivation. Identification of this type of high myopia will improve prompt myopia treatment, monitoring, and genetic counseling.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022715

RESUMO

Refractive errors are associated with a range of pathological conditions such as myopic maculopathy and glaucoma and are highly heritable. Studies of missense and putative loss-of-function (pLOF) variants identified via whole exome sequencing (WES) offer the prospect of directly implicating potentially causative disease genes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for refractive error in 51 624 unrelated adults of European ancestry aged 40-69 years from the United Kingdom genotyped using WES. After testing 29 179 pLOF and 495 263 missense variants, 1 pLOF and 18 missense variants in 14 distinct genomic regions were taken forward for fine-mapping analysis. This yielded 19 putative causal variants, of which 18 had a posterior inclusion probability > 0.5. Of the 19 putative causal variants, 12 were novel discoveries. Specific variants were associated with a more myopic refractive error while others were associated with a more hyperopic refractive error. Association with age-of-onset of spectacle wear (AOSW) was examined in an independent validation sample (38 100 early-AOSW cases and 74 243 controls). Of 11 novel variants that could be tested, 8 (73%) showed evidence of association with AOSW status. This work identified COL4A4 and ATM as novel candidate genes associated with refractive error. In addition, novel putative causal variants were identified in the genes RASGEF1, ARMS2, BMP4, SIX6, GSDMA, GNGT2, ZNF652 and CRX. Despite these successes, the study also highlighted the limitations of community-based WES studies compared to high myopia case-control WES studies.

3.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; : 101034, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902546

RESUMO

An increasing number of artificial intelligence (AI) systems are being proposed in ophthalmology, motivated by the variety and amount of clinical and imaging data, as well as their potential benefits at the different stages of patient care. Despite achieving close or even superior performance to that of experts, there is a critical gap between development and integration of AI systems in ophthalmic practice. This work focuses on the importance of trustworthy AI to close that gap. We identify the main aspects or challenges that need to be considered along the AI design pipeline so as to generate systems that meet the requirements to be deemed trustworthy, including those concerning accuracy, resiliency, reliability, safety, and accountability. We elaborate on mechanisms and considerations to address those aspects or challenges, and define the roles and responsibilities of the different stakeholders involved in AI for ophthalmic care, i.e., AI developers, reading centers, healthcare providers, healthcare institutions, ophthalmological societies and working groups or committees, patients, regulatory bodies, and payers. Generating trustworthy AI is not a responsibility of a sole stakeholder. There is an impending necessity for a collaborative approach where the different stakeholders are represented along the AI design pipeline, from the definition of the intended use to post-market surveillance after regulatory approval. This work contributes to establish such multi-stakeholder interaction and the main action points to be taken so that the potential benefits of AI reach real-world ophthalmic settings.

4.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913968

RESUMO

Importance: High myopia incidence and prevalence is increasing worldwide, and the visual burden caused by myopia is expected to rise accordingly. Studies investigating the occurrence of myopic complications in individuals of European ancestry with high myopia are scarce, hampering insights into the frequency of myopic retinal complications in European individuals and their visual burden. Objective: To assess the frequency of myopic macular features in individuals of European ancestry with high myopia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional analysis of the Dutch Myopia Study (MYST) and individuals with high myopia from the Rotterdam Study (RS) included 626 patients with high myopia (spherical equivalent of refractive error [SER] ≤-6 diopters [D] or axial length [AL] ≥26 mm) who underwent an extensive ophthalmic examination including multimodal retinal imaging. In addition to this combination of a population-based cohort study and mix-based high myopia study, a systematic literature review was also performed to compare findings with studies of individuals of Asian ancestry. Exposures: High myopia, age, and AL. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequency of myopic macular and optic disc features: tessellated fundus, myopic macular degeneration (MMD), staphyloma, peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation, peripapillary atrophy (PPA), and "plus" lesions (choroidal neovascularization, Fuchs spot, and lacquer cracks). Results: The mean (SD) SER of the combined study population (MYST and RS) was -9.9 (3.2) D; the mean (SD) age was 51.4 (15.1) years, and 387 (61.8%) were women. The prevalence of MMD was 25.9% and increased with older age (P for trend <.001), lower SER (odds ratio [OR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.65-0.76; P < .001), and higher AL (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 2.13-3.06; P < .001). Choroidal neovascularization or Fuchs spot was present in 2.7% (n = 17), both lesions in 0.3% (n = 2), and lacquer cracks in 1.4% (n = 9). Staphyloma, PPA, and MMD were highly prevalent in visual impaired and blind eyes (frequency was 73.9% [20 of 27], 90.5% [19 of 21], and 63.0% [17 of 27] of unilateral blind eyes for MMD, staphyloma, and PPA, respectively). Seven previous studies in Asian populations reported a variable MMD frequency ranging from 8.3% to 64%, but frequencies were similar for comparable risk profiles based on age and SER. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of a highly myopic Dutch population of European ancestry, myopic retinal features were frequent; were associated with age, SER, and AL; and occurred in all visually severely impaired eyes. The absence of treatment options for most of these retinal complications emphasizes the need for effective strategies to prevent high myopia.

5.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 97, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795310

RESUMO

Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a major cause of visual impairment. These clinically heterogeneous disorders are caused by pathogenic variants in more than 270 genes. As 30-40% of cases remain genetically unexplained following conventional genetic testing, we aimed to obtain a genetic diagnosis in an IRD cohort in which the genetic cause was not found using whole-exome sequencing or targeted capture sequencing. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to identify causative variants in 100 unresolved cases. After initial prioritization, we performed an in-depth interrogation of all noncoding and structural variants in genes when one candidate variant was detected. In addition, functional analysis of putative splice-altering variants was performed using in vitro splice assays. We identified the genetic cause of the disease in 24 patients. Causative coding variants were observed in genes such as ATXN7, CEP78, EYS, FAM161A, and HGSNAT. Gene disrupting structural variants were also detected in ATXN7, PRPF31, and RPGRIP1. In 14 monoallelic cases, we prioritized candidate noncanonical splice sites or deep-intronic variants that were predicted to disrupt the splicing process based on in silico analyses. Of these, seven cases were resolved as they carried pathogenic splice defects. WGS is a powerful tool to identify causative variants residing outside coding regions or heterozygous structural variants. This approach was most efficient in cases with a distinct clinical diagnosis. In addition, in vitro splice assays provide important evidence of the pathogenicity of rare variants.

6.
Optom Vis Sci ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759237

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that non-Dutch background, lower maternal education, and lower net household income level may be new risk factors for myopia development in the Netherlands. Newly introduced physical activity spaces may not be effective enough in increasing outdoor exposure in children to reduce eye growth. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to evaluate socioeconomic inequalities in myopia incidence, eye growth, outdoor exposure, and computer use, and to investigate if newly introduced physical activity spaces can reduce eye growth in school-aged children. METHODS: Participants (n = 2643) from the Dutch population-based birth cohort Generation R were examined at ages 6 and 9 years. Socioeconomic inequalities in myopia incidence, eye growth and lifestyle were determined using regression analyses. Information on physical activity spaces located in Rotterdam was obtained. Differences in eye growth between those who became exposed to new physical activity spaces (n = 230) and those non-exposed (n = 1866) were evaluated with individual level fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Myopia prevalence was 2.2% at 6 years and 12.2% at 9 years. Outdoor exposure was 11.4 hours/week at 6 years and 7.4 hours/week at 9 years. Computer use was 2.1 hours/week at 6 years, and 5.2 hours/week at 9 years. Myopia incidence was higher in children with non-Dutch background, families with lower household income and lower maternal education (OR = 1.081, 95%CI = 1.052-1.112; OR = 1.035, 95%CI = 1.008-1.063; OR = 1.028, 95%CI = 1.001-1.055; respectively). Children living <600 meters of a physical activity space did not have increased outdoor exposure, except those from families with lower maternal education (ß = 1.33 hours/week, 95%CI = 0.15-2.51). Newly introduced physical activity spaces were not associated with reduction of eye growth. CONCLUSIONS: Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families became more often myopic than those from socioeconomically advantaged families. We did not find evidence that physical activity spaces protect against myopia for the population at large, but subgroups may benefit.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791242

RESUMO

The interocular distance, or orbital telorism, is a distinctive craniofacial trait that also serves as a clinically informative measure. While its extremes, hypo- and hypertelorism, have been linked to monogenic disorders and are often syndromic, little is known about the genetic determinants of interocular distance within the general population. We derived orbital telorism measures from cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by calculating the distance between the eyeballs' center of gravity, which showed a good reproducibility with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.985-0.994). Heritability estimates were 76% (standard error = 12%) with a family-based method (N = 364), and 39% (standard error = 2.4%) with a single nucleotide polymorphism-based method (N = 34 130), and were unaffected by adjustment for height (model II), and intracranial volume (model III) or head width (model IV). Genome-wide association studies in 34 130 European individuals identified 56 significantly associated genomic loci (P < 5 x 10-8) across four different models of which 46 were novel for facial morphology, and overall these findings replicated in an independent sample (N = 10 115) with telorism-related horizontal facial distance measures. Genes located nearby these 56 identified genetic loci were 4.9-fold enriched for Mendelian hypotelorism and hypertelorism genes, underlining their biological relevance. This study provides novel insights into the genetic architecture underlying interocular distance in particular, and the face in general, and explores its potential for applications in a clinical setting.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification of AMD can lead to prompt and more effective treatment, better outcomes, and better final visual acuity; several risk scores have been devised to determine the individual level of risk for developing AMD. Herein, the Delphi method was used to provide recommendations for daily practice regarding preventive measures and follow-up required for subjects at low, moderate, and high risk of AMD evaluated with the Simplified Test AMD Risk-assessment Scale (STARS®) questionnaire. METHODS: A steering committee of three experts drafted and refined 25 statements on the approach to be recommended in different clinical situations [general recommendations (n = 2), use of evaluation tools (n = 4), general lifestyle advice (n = 3), and AREDS-based nutritional supplementation (n = 5)] with the help of a group of international experts, all co-authors of this paper. Thirty retinal specialists from Europe and the US were chosen based on relevant publications, clinical expertise, and experience in AMD, who then provided their level of agreement with the statements. Statements for which consensus was not reached were modified and voted upon again. RESULTS: In the first round of voting, consensus was reached for 24 statements. After modification, consensus was then reached for the remaining statement. CONCLUSION: An interprofessional guideline to support preventive measures in patients at risk of AMD based on STARS® scoring has been developed to aid clinicians in daily practice, which will help to optimize preventive care of patients at risk of AMD.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634119

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Whether thyroid dysfunction is related to altered brain circulation in the general population remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We determined the association of thyroid hormones with different markers of brain circulation within community-dwelling elderly. DESIGN: Three subcohorts of the Rotterdam Study, starting in 1989, 2000 and 2006 respectively. SETTING: Population-based. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5,142 participants (mean age, 63.8 years; 55.4% women), underwent venapuncture to measure serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Between 2005 and 2015, all participants underwent phase-contrast brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess global brain perfusion (mL of blood flow/100 mL of brain/min). Arteriolar retinal calibers were assessed using digitized images of stereoscopic fundus color transparencies in 3,105 participants as markers of microcirculation. We investigated associations of TSH, FT4 with brain circulation measures using (non-)linear regression models. Results. FT4 (in pmol/L) levels had an inverse u-shaped association with global brain perfusion, such that high and low levels of FT4 were associated with lower global brain perfusion compared to middle levels of FT4. The difference in global brain perfusion between high FT4 levels (25 pmol/L) and middle FT4 levels (FT4 = 15 pmol/L; P non-linearity = 0.002) was up to -2.44 mL (95% confidence interval (95%CI)= -4.31; -0.56). Similarly, higher and lower levels of FT4, compared with middle FT4 levels, were associated with arteriolar retinal vessels (mean difference up to -2.46 µm, 95%CI -4.98; 0.05 for lower FT4). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that thyroid dysfunction could lead to brain diseases such as stroke or dementia through a suboptimal brain circulation that is potentially modifiable.

10.
Ophthalmology ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the natural course, phenotype, and genotype of patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred forty patients with XLRS from 178 presumably unrelated families. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study reviewed medical records of patients with XLRS for medical history, symptoms, visual acuity (VA), ophthalmoscopy, full-field electroretinography, and retinal imaging (fundus photography, spectral-domain [SD] OCT, fundus autofluorescence). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset, age at diagnosis, severity of visual impairment, annual visual decline, and electroretinography and imaging findings. RESULTS: Three hundred forty patients were included with a mean follow-up time of 13.2 years (range, 0.1-50.1 years). The median ages to reach mild visual impairment and low vision were 12 and 25 years, respectively. Severe visual impairment and blindness were observed predominantly in patients older than 40 years, with a predicted prevalence of 35% and 25%, respectively, at 60 years of age. The VA increased slightly during the first 2 decades of life and subsequently transitioned into an average annual decline of 0.44% (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found in decline of VA between variants that were predicted to be severe and mild (P = 0.239). The integrity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) as well as the photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length in the fovea on SD OCT correlated significantly with VA (Spearman's ρ = -0.759 [P < 0.001] and -0.592 [P = 0.012], respectively). Fifty-three different RS1 variants were found. The most common variants were the founder variant c.214G→A (p.(Glu72Lys)) (101 patients [38.7%]) and a deletion of exon 3 (38 patients [14.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: Large variabilities in phenotype and natural course of XLRS were seen in this study. In most patients, XLRS showed a slow deterioration starting in the second decade of life, suggesting an optimal window of opportunity for treatment within the first 3 decades of life. The integrity of EZ as well as the PROS length on SD OCT may be important in choosing optimal candidates for treatment and as potential structural end points in future therapeutic studies. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation was found.

12.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(11): 1218-1226, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647987

RESUMO

Importance: Early-onset drusen maculopathy (EODM) is a severe disease and can lead to advanced macular degeneration early in life; however, genetic and phenotypic characteristics of individuals with EODM are not well studied. Objective: To identify genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of individuals with EODM. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study collected data from the European Genetic Database from September 2004 to October 2019. A total of 89 patients with EODM diagnosed at 55 years or younger and 91 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) diagnosed at 65 years or older were included. Exposures: Coding regions of CFH, CFI, C3, C9, CFB, ABCA4, PRPH2, TIMP3, and CTNNA1 genes were sequenced, genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated based on 52 AMD-associated variants, and phenotypic characteristics on color fundus photographs were analyzed comparing patients with EODM and AMD. Main Outcomes and Measures: GRS, frequency of rare genetic complement variants, and phenotypic characteristics. Results: This case-control study included 89 patients with EODM (mean [SD] age, 51.8 [8.7] years; 58 [65.2%] were female) and 91 patients with AMD (mean [SD] age, 77.6 [6.1] years; 45 [49.5%] female). At a mean (SD) age of 56.4 (7.3) years, 40 of 89 patients with EODM (44.9%) were affected by geographic atrophy or choroidal neovascularization. A lower GRS was observed in patients with EODM compared with patients with AMD (1.03 vs 1.60; P = .002), and 27 of 89 patients with EODM (30.3%) carried rare variants in the CFH gene compared with 7 of 91 patients with AMD (7.7%). Carriership of a rare CFH variant was associated with EODM (odds ratio, 7.2; 95% CI, 2.7-19.6; P < .001). A large macular drusen area (more than 50% covered with drusen) was observed in patients with EODM (24 of 162 eyes [14.8%]) compared with patients with AMD (9 of 164 eyes [5.5%]) (odds ratio, 4.57; 95% CI, 1.5-14.1; P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: A large proportion of patients with EODM in this study carried rare CFH variants, with most of the identified CFH variants clustered in the first 7 complement control protein domains affecting factor H and factor H-like 1. Because EODM frequently leads to advanced macular degeneration at an early age and can result in many years of vision loss, this study supports targeting the complement system and sequencing the CFH gene in patients with EODM to improve genetic counseling and future treatments for AMD.

13.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of physical activity (PA) on the incidence or progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the general population. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. METHODS: We included a total of 14,630 adults with no or early AMD at baseline from seven population-based studies and examined associations of PA with AMD incidence and progression using multi-state models (MSM) per study and subsequent random effects meta-analysis. Age effects were assessed using meta-regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Hazard ratio (HR) for incident early or progression to late AMD. RESULTS: At baseline, mean age ranged from 60.7± 6.9 to 76.4 ± 4.3 years and prevalence of early AMD was 7.7%, ranging from 3.6 to 16.9% between cohorts. During follow-up, 1461 and 189 events occurred for early and late AMD, respectively. In meta-analyses, no or low to moderate PA (high PA as reference) was associated with an increased risk for incident early AMD (HR 1.19; 95%CI=[1.01, 1.40]; p=0.04), but not for late AMD. In subsequent meta-regression, we found no association of age with the effect of PA on incident AMD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests high levels of PA to be protective for the development of early AMD across several population-based cohort studies. Our results establish PA as a modifiable risk factor for AMD and inform further AMD prevention strategies to reduce its public health impact.

14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1094, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535759

RESUMO

Applying deep learning in population genomics is challenging because of computational issues and lack of interpretable models. Here, we propose GenNet, a novel open-source deep learning framework for predicting phenotypes from genetic variants. In this framework, interpretable and memory-efficient neural network architectures are constructed by embedding biologically knowledge from public databases, resulting in neural networks that contain only biologically plausible connections. We applied the framework to seventeen phenotypes and found well-replicated genes such as HERC2 and OCA2 for hair and eye color, and novel genes such as ZNF773 and PCNT for schizophrenia. Additionally, the framework identified ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, endocrine system and viral infectious diseases as most predictive biological pathways for schizophrenia. GenNet is a freely available, end-to-end deep learning framework that allows researchers to develop and use interpretable neural networks to obtain novel insights into the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases.

15.
Retina ; 41(12): 2472-2478, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To increase insight into the myopic presentation of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) by comparing a large group of myopic patients with CSC with reference groups with only one of the diagnoses. METHODS: Myopic patients with CSC (spherical equivalent ≤-3D, n = 46), emmetropic patients with CSC (spherical equivalent -0.5 to 0.5 D, n = 83), and myopic, non-CSC patients (n = 50) were included in this multicenter cross-sectional study. Disease characteristics and imaging parameters, such as subfoveal choroidal thickness and indocyanine green angiography patterns, were compared between cases and reference groups. RESULTS: In myopic patients with CSC, median subfoveal choroidal thickness (286 µm [IQR 226-372 µm]) was significantly thicker than subfoveal choroidal thickness in myopic, non-CSC patients (200 µm [IQR 152-228 µm], P < 0.001) but thinner than emmetropic patients with CSC (452 µm [IQR 342-538 µm], P < 0.001). They also had pachyvessels in 70% of the eyes comparable with emmetropic CSC (76%, P = 0.70). Choroidal hyperpermeability was frequently present on indocyanine green angiography in both myopic and emmetropic CSC eyes. Need for treatment, treatment success, and recurrence rate were not significantly different between CSC groups. CONCLUSION: Myopic CSC presents with similar imaging and clinical characteristics as emmetropic CSC, apart from their thinner choroids. Keeping in mind the structural changes of myopia, other imaging characteristics could aid the diagnostic process.

16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(10): 16, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406332

RESUMO

Purpose: To study the relatively high effect of the refractive error gene GJD2 in human myopia, and to assess its relationship with refractive error, ocular biometry and lifestyle in various age groups. Methods: The population-based Rotterdam Study (RS), high myopia case-control study MYopia STudy, and the birth-cohort study Generation R were included in this study. Spherical equivalent (SER), axial length (AL), axial length/corneal radius (AL/CR), vitreous depth (VD), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured using standard ophthalmologic procedures. Biometric measurements were compared between GJD2 (rs524952) genotype groups; education and environmental risk score (ERS) were calculated to estimate gene-environment interaction effects, using the Synergy index (SI). Results: RS adults carrying two risk alleles had a lower SER and longer AL, ACD and VD (AA versus TT, 0.23D vs. 0.70D; 23.79 mm vs. 23.52 mm; 2.72 mm vs. 2.65 mm; 16.12 mm vs. 15.87 mm; all P < 0.001). Children carrying two risk alleles had larger AL/CR at ages 6 and 9 years (2.88 vs. 2.87 and 3.00 vs. 2.96; all P < 0.001). Education and ERS both negatively influenced myopia and the biometric outcomes, but gene-environment interactions did not reach statistical significance (SI 1.25 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.85-1.85] and 1.17 [95% CI, 0.55-2.50] in adults and children). Conclusions: The elongation of the eye caused by the GJD2 risk genotype follows a dose-response pattern already visible at the age of 6 years. These early effects are an example of how a common myopia gene may drive myopia.


Assuntos
Conexinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Miopia/genética , Vigilância da População , RNA/genética , Refração Ocular , Alelos , Câmara Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Comprimento Axial do Olho , Biometria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Conexinas/biossíntese , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Hum Mutat ; 42(12): 1521-1547, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411390

RESUMO

Mutations in PRPH2, encoding peripherin-2, are associated with the development of a wide variety of inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). To determine the causality of the many PRPH2 variants that have been discovered over the last decades, we surveyed all published PRPH2 variants up to July 2020, describing 720 index patients that in total carried 245 unique variants. In addition, we identified seven novel PRPH2 variants in eight additional index patients. The pathogenicity of all variants was determined using the ACMG guidelines. With this, 107 variants were classified as pathogenic, 92 as likely pathogenic, one as benign, and two as likely benign. The remaining 50 variants were classified as variants of uncertain significance. Interestingly, of the total 252 PRPH2 variants, more than half (n = 137) were missense variants. All variants were uploaded into the Leiden Open source Variation and ClinVar databases. Our study underscores the need for experimental assays for variants of unknown significance to improve pathogenicity classification, which would allow us to better understand genotype-phenotype correlations, and in the long-term, hopefully also support the development of therapeutic strategies for patients with PRPH2-associated IRD.

18.
Ophthalmology ; 128(12): 1681-1688, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between smartphone use and refractive error in teenagers using the Myopia app. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 525 teenagers 12 to 16 years of age from 6 secondary schools and from the birth cohort study Generation R participated. METHODS: A smartphone application (Myopia app; Innovattic) was designed to measure smartphone use and face-to-screen distance objectively and to pose questions about outdoor exposure. Participants underwent cycloplegic refractive error and ocular biometry measurements. Mean daily smartphone use was calculated in hours per day and continuous use as the number of episodes of 20 minutes on screen without breaks. Linear mixed models were conducted with smartphone use, continuous use, and face-to-screen distance as determinants and spherical equivalent of refraction (SER) and axial length-to-corneal radius (AL:CR) ratio as outcome measures stratified by median outdoor exposure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Spherical equivalent of refraction in diopters and AL:CR ratio. RESULTS: The teenagers on average were 13.7 ± 0.85 years of age, and myopia prevalence was 18.9%. During school days, total smartphone use on average was 3.71 ± 1.70 hours/day and was associated only borderline significantly with AL:CR ratio (ß = 0.008; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.001 to 0.017) and not with SER. Continuous use on average was 6.42 ± 4.36 episodes of 20-minute use without breaks per day and was associated significantly with SER and AL:CR ratio (ß = -0.07 [95% CI, -0.13 to -0.01] and ß = 0.004 [95% CI, 0.001-0.008], respectively). When stratifying for outdoor exposure, continuous use remained significant only for teenagers with low exposure (ß = -0.10 [95% CI, -0.20 to -0.01] and ß = 0.007 [95% CI, 0.001-0.013] for SER and AL:CR ratio, respectively). Smartphone use during weekends was not associated significantly with SER and AL:CR ratio, nor was face-to-screen distance. CONCLUSIONS: Dutch teenagers spent almost 4 hours per day on their smartphones. Episodes of 20 minutes of continuous use were associated with more myopic refractive errors, particularly in those with low outdoor exposure. This study suggested that frequent breaks should become a recommendation for smartphone use in teenagers. Future large longitudinal studies will allow more detailed information on safe screen use in youth.

19.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 234: 37-48, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural disease course of retinal dystrophies associated with crumbs cell polarity complex component 1 (CRB1) and identify clinical end points for future clinical trials. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective case series. METHODS: An investigator-initiated nationwide collaborative study that included 22 patients with CRB1-associated retinal dystrophies. Patients underwent ophthalmic assessment at baseline and 2 years after baseline. Clinical examination included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study charts, Goldmann kinetic perimetry (V4e isopter seeing retinal areas), microperimetry, full-field electroretinography, full-field stimulus threshold (FST), fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. RESULTS: Based on genetic, clinical, and electrophysiological data, patients were diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (19 [86%]), cone-rod dystrophy (2 [9%]), or isolated macular dystrophy (1 [5%]). Analysis of the entire cohort at 2 years showed no significant changes in BCVA (P = .069) or V4e isopter seeing retinal areas (P = .616), although signs of clinical progression were present in individual patients. Macular sensitivity measured on microperimetry revealed a significant reduction at the 2-year follow-up (P < .001). FST responses were measurable in patients with nonrecordable electroretinograms. On average, FST responses remained stable during follow-up. CONCLUSION: In CRB1-associated retinal dystrophies, visual acuity and visual field measures remain relatively stable over the course of 2 years. Microperimetry showed a significant decrease in retinal sensitivity during follow-up and may be a more sensitive progression marker. Retinal sensitivity on microperimetry may serve as a functional clinical end point in future human treatment trials for CRB1-associated retinal dystrophies.

20.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 676, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083742

RESUMO

Myopia is the most common developmental disorder of juvenile eyes, and it has become an increasing cause of severe visual impairment. The GJD2 locus has been consistently associated with myopia in multiple independent genome-wide association studies. However, despite the strong genetic evidence, little is known about the functional role of GJD2 in refractive error development. Here, we find that depletion of gjd2a (Cx35.5) or gjd2b (Cx35.1) orthologs in zebrafish, cause changes in the biometry and refractive status of the eye. Our immunohistological and scRNA sequencing studies show that Cx35.5 (gjd2a) is a retinal connexin and its depletion leads to hyperopia and electrophysiological changes in the retina. These findings support a role for Cx35.5 (gjd2a) in the regulation of ocular biometry. Cx35.1 (gjd2b) has previously been identified in the retina, however, we found an additional lenticular role. Lack of Cx35.1 (gjd2b) led to a nuclear cataract that triggered axial elongation. Our results provide functional evidence of a link between gjd2 and refractive error.


Assuntos
Conexinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Mutação , Erros de Refração/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Catarata/genética , Conexinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Miopia/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
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