Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Psychophysiology ; 57(4): e13520, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898810

RESUMO

Individuals with current depression show reduced amplitude of the P300 component of the stimulus-locked event-related potential (ERP)-an effect most often examined in oddball tasks. Although imperative stimuli in response-monitoring paradigms (e.g., the flanker task), also elicit a P300, it is unclear whether a blunted P300 can be observed in depression in these tasks. Moreover, the P300 overlaps with the correct-response negativity (CRN) and error-related negativity (ERN), and is similar to the error positivity (Pe)-response-locked ERPs frequently examined in flanker tasks. The current study examined the stimulus-locked P300 and response-monitoring ERPs on error (i.e., ERN, Pe) and correct responses (i.e., CRN) during an arrowhead flanker task in 72 individuals with a current depressive disorder and 42 never depressed healthy individuals. Consistent with findings from oddball tasks, P300 amplitude was reduced among participants with depression. Further, results indicated increased ERN and CRN, and decreased Pe, in depression. However, when the blunted P300 was included in analyses, group differences in response-monitoring ERPs were no longer evident. Accordingly, P300 amplitudes were correlated negatively with the ERN/CRN and positively with Pe in both groups. A blunted P300 in depression can be observed in speeded response tasks, and can produce apparent increases in ERN and CRN due to ERP component overlap. Further, reduced Pe in participants with depression may reflect a reduced P300 to error commission. These data highlight the central role of reduced P300 in clinical depression, and demonstrate that this effect can be observed across both stimulus- and response-locked ERPs in speeded response tasks.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have found a reduced reward positivity (RewP) among individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Event-related potential studies have also reported blunted neural responses to pleasant pictures in MDD as reflected by the late positive potential (LPP). These deficits have been interpreted broadly in terms of anhedonia and decreased emotional engagement characteristic of depression. METHODS: In the current study, a community-based sample of 83 participants with current MDD and 45 healthy individuals performed both a guessing task and a picture viewing paradigm with neutral and pleasant pictures to assess the RewP and the LPP, respectively. RESULTS: We found that both RewP and LPP to pleasant pictures were reduced in the MDD group; moreover, RewP and LPP were both independent predictors of MDD status. Within the MDD group, a smaller RewP predicted impaired mood reactivity in younger but not older participants. Smaller LPP amplitudes were associated with increased anhedonia severity in the MDD group. CONCLUSIONS: These data replicate and merge separate previous lines of research, and suggest that a blunted RewP and LPP reflect independent neural deficits in MDD - which could be used in conjunction to improve the classification of depression.

3.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 20(1): 172-180, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820417

RESUMO

Research has identified the neural response to errors (the error-related negativity; ERN) as a marker of current anxiety, as well as risk for future anxiety. Previous work found that traditional cognitive behavioral therapy approaches do not impact the ERN. However, none of these approaches directly target the psychological constructs linked to an increased ERN (e.g., error sensitivity). In the current study, we examine the extent to which a brief, computerized intervention ("Treating the ERN"; i.e., TERN) might impact the ERN by reducing error sensitivity. Results suggest that TERN reduced the ERN and that the impact of the intervention was larger amongst individuals with an increased baseline ERN. This study is an important first step in the development of a novel intervention approach that directly targets error sensitivity, and thereby the ERN.

4.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(1): 29-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868385

RESUMO

Researchers in clinical psychophysiology make several methodological decisions during the analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). In the current study, we review these choices from the perspective of individual differences. We focus on baseline period and reference scheme (i.e., average, mastoid, current source density), as well as choices regarding where (i.e., single electrode site vs. pooling of sites), when (i.e., area, area around peak), and how (i.e., subtraction- or regression-based difference scores) to quantify ERPs. To illustrate the impact of these analytic pathways on internal consistency reliability and individual differences, we focus on the error-related negativity (ERN) and anxiety-and present data from 2 samples: 1st, in adults with diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); 2nd, in relation to continuous self-reported symptoms of GAD in a large community sample of female adolescents. Results generally indicated similar internal consistency and between-subjects effect sizes across all evaluated methods. Nonetheless, some patterns of variation emerged, such as that, across both data sets, difference-based ERN measures, especially with mastoid reference, yielded more robust associations with GAD diagnosis and symptoms, despite somewhat lower internal consistency. The current analyses suggest that the association between ERN and anxiety is robust across a range of commonly used methodological choices. The present study is an example of how systematic analyses of analytic strategies on measures of internal consistency and between-subjects variability could help inform individual-differences ERP research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(7): 671-677, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448932

RESUMO

Hyperactive error monitoring is a robust neurocognitive characteristic in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet, relatively little is known about the flexibility and potential moderators of error monitoring in OCD. The current study investigates error monitoring in 30 healthy participants and 28 patients with OCD using a flanker task in 2 conditions either emphasizing speed or accuracy. Results indicate that no group difference is observable in error-related negativity (ERN) under the accuracy-focused condition. Both groups show an ERN attenuation in the speed condition; however, this reduction is larger in healthy controls leading to pronounced group differences in the speed-focused condition. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic analyses yield an area under the curve (AUC) of .62 in the accuracy-focused condition, whereas under speed instruction an AUC of .85 suggests a marked increase in classification accuracy. Behavioral results and results from a drift-diffusion model of decision making indicate a more cautious response strategy and less adaptability to experimental manipulations in OCD. Overall, results suggest that the observed increases in error-related neural activity in OCD might stem from a reduced flexibility and diminished ability to disengage from an accuracy-oriented, error-avoidant response style. Further, the present results suggest that emphasizing speed in experimental instructions may lead to a better neural differentiation between patients with OCD and healthy controls which has important implications for the use of the ERN as a risk indicator. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-10, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328972

RESUMO

Blunted reward processing both characterizes major depressive disorder and predicts increases in depressive symptoms. However, little is known about the interaction between blunted reward processing and other risk factors in relation to increases in depressive symptoms. Stressful life events and sleep problems are prominent risk factors that contribute to the etiopathogenesis of depression and have been linked to reward dysfunction; these factors may interact with reward dysfunction to predict increased depressive symptoms. In a large sample of 8- to 14-year-old adolescent girls, the current study examined how blunted reward processing, stressful life events, and sleep problems at baseline interacted to predict increases in depressive symptoms 1 year later. Reward processing was indexed by the reward positivity (RewP), an event-related potential elicited during a simple monetary reward paradigm (i.e., Doors task). Two-way interactions confirmed that a blunted RewP predicted increased depressive symptoms at (a) high levels of stress but not average or low levels of stress, and (b) high and average levels of sleep problems but not low levels of sleep problems. Finally, a 3-way interaction confirmed that a blunted RewP predicted increased depressive symptoms at high levels of stress and sleep problems but not average or low levels of stress and sleep problems. Thus, adolescents characterized by low reward response (i.e., blunted RewP) were at an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms if they experienced increased stressful life events or sleep problems; moreover, risk was greatest among adolescents characterized by all 3.

7.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 15: 71-95, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067414

RESUMO

Event-related potentials (ERPs) are direct measures of brain activity that can be leveraged for clinically meaningful research. They can relate robustly both to continuous measures of individual difference and to categorical diagnoses in ways that clarify similarities and distinctions between apparently related disorders and traits. ERPs can be linked to genetic risk, can act as moderators of developmental trajectories and responses to stress, and can be leveraged to identify those at greater risk for psychopathology, especially when used in combination with other neural and self-report measures. ERPs can inform models of the development of, and risk for, psychopathology. Finally, ERPs can be used as targets for existing and novel interventions and prevention efforts. We provide concrete examples for each of these possibilities by focusing on programmatic research on the error-related negativity and anxiety, and thus show that ERPs are poised to make greater contributions toward the identification, prediction, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

8.
Psychol Med ; 49(7): 1207-1217, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased neural error-signals have been observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, and inconsistently in depression. Reduced neural error-signals have been observed in substance use disorders (SUD). Thus, alterations in error-monitoring are proposed as a transdiagnostic endophenotype. To strengthen this notion, data from unaffected individuals with a family history for the respective disorders are needed. METHODS: The error-related negativity (ERN) as a neural indicator of error-monitoring was measured during a flanker task from 117 OCD patients, 50 unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients, and 130 healthy comparison participants. Family history information indicated, that 76 healthy controls were free of a family history for psychopathology, whereas the remaining had first-degree relatives with depression (n = 28), anxiety (n = 27), and/or SUD (n = 27). RESULTS: Increased ERN amplitudes were found in OCD patients and unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients. In addition, unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with anxiety disorders were also characterized by increased ERN amplitudes, whereas relatives of individuals with SUD showed reduced amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in neural error-signals in unaffected first-degree relatives with a family history of OCD, anxiety, or SUD support the utility of the ERN as a transdiagnostic endophenotype. Reduced neural error-signals may indicate vulnerability for under-controlled behavior and risk for substance use, whereas a harm- or error-avoidant response style and vulnerability for OCD and anxiety appears to be associated with increased ERN. This adds to findings suggesting a common neurobiological substrate across psychiatric disorders involving the anterior cingulate cortex and deficits in cognitive control.

9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 103: 233-240, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721837

RESUMO

The menstrual cycle is known to impact mood and cognitive function and has been shown to lead to variability in symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorders and anxiety. Using a within-subject design, the present study examined ovarian hormones, the error-related negativity (ERN), and self-reported checking symptoms in both the mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. ERN amplitude and checking symptom severity did not vary between the follicular and luteal phases. However, a more negative ERN was associated with greater checking symptoms in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, even when controlling for ERN amplitude in the follicular phase. Moreover, changes in checking symptoms between phases were associated with phase-related changes in the ERN. Finally, a significant mediation model was found such that the ERN measured in the luteal phase mediated the association between progesterone in the luteal phase and checking symptoms in the luteal phase. Collectively, the present findings suggest that levels of progesterone in the luteal phase could impact checking symptoms by modulating response monitoring and sensitivity to errors, and that fluctuation in the ERN between menstrual cycle phases may play an important role in the expression of anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

10.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 36: 100620, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731426

RESUMO

Adolescence is frequently described as a developmental period characterized by increased sensitivity to rewards. However, previous research on age-related changes in the neural response to gains and losses have produced mixed results, with only some studies reporting potentiated neural responses during adolescence. The current study examined the ERP responses to gains and losses during a simple monetary reward (i.e., Doors) task in a large and longitudinal sample of 248 adolescent females assessed at two time points, separated by two years. At baseline, when the sample was 8- to 14-years-old, age related to larger (i.e., more positive) ERP responses to both gains and losses; moreover, age-related effects were stronger in relation to gains than losses. Overall, the amplitude of the ERP response to gains, but not losses, significantly increased from baseline to follow-up; however, this effect was moderated by age, such that reward-related ERPs only increased longitudinally among the younger participants. At the follow-up assessment, ERP responses to gains and losses were equally related to age. Collectively, these within- and between-subjects findings suggest a relatively specific developmental increase in reward-related neural activity during late childhood and early adolescence.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 269(2): 235-243, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721727

RESUMO

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show dysfunctions of the fronto-striatal circuitry, which imply corresponding oculomotor deficits including smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). However, evidence for a deficit in SPEM is inconclusive, with some studies reporting reduced velocity gain while others did not find any SPEM dysfunctions in OCD patients. Interestingly, psychosis-like traits have repeatedly been linked to both OCD and impaired SPEM. Here, we examined a large sample of n = 168 patients with OCD, n = 93 unaffected first-degree relatives and n = 171 healthy control subjects to investigate whether elevated levels of schizotypy and SPEM deficits represent potential endophenotypes of OCD. We applied a SPEM task with high demands on predictive pursuit that is more sensitive to assess executive dysfunctions than a standard task with continuous visual feedback, as episodes of target blanking put increased demands on basal ganglia and prefrontal involvement. Additionally, we examined the relation between schizotypy and SPEM performance in OCD patients and their relatives. Results indicate that OCD patients and unaffected relatives do not show deficient performance in either standard or predictive SPEM. Yet, both patients and relatives exhibited elevated levels of schizotypy, and schizotypy was significantly correlated with velocity gain during standard trials in unmedicated and depression-free OCD patients. These findings highlight the role of schizotypy as a candidate endophenotype of OCD and add to the growing evidence for predisposing personality traits in OCD. Furthermore, intact gain may represent a key characteristic that distinguishes the OCD and schizophrenia patient populations.


Assuntos
Endofenótipos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme/fisiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 284, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008679

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit alterations in fronto-striatal circuitry. Performance deficits in the antisaccade task would support this model, but results from previous small-scale studies have been inconclusive as either increased error rates, prolonged antisaccade latencies, both or neither have been reported in OCD patients. In order to address this issue, we investigated antisaccade performance in a large sample of OCD patients (n = 169) and matched control subjects (n = 183). As impaired antisaccade performance constitutes a potential endophenotype of OCD, unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients (n = 100) were assessed, as well. Furthermore, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to integrate our data with previous findings. In the empirical study, OCD patients exhibited significantly increased antisaccade latencies, intra-subject variability (ISV) of antisaccade latencies, and antisaccade error rates. The latter effect was driven by errors with express latency (80-130 ms), as patients did not differ significantly from controls with regards to regular errors (>130 ms). Notably, unaffected relatives of OCD patients showed elevated antisaccade express error rates and increased ISV of antisaccade latencies, as well. Antisaccade performance was not associated with state anxiety within groups. Among relatives, however, we observed a significant correlation between antisaccade error rate and harm avoidance. Medication status of OCD patients, symptom severity, depressive comorbidity, comorbid anxiety disorders and OCD symptom dimensions did not significantly affect antisaccade performance. Meta-analysis of 10 previous and the present empirical study yielded a medium-sized effect (SMD = 0.48, p < 0.001) for higher error rates in OCD patients, while the effect for latencies did not reach significance owing to strong heterogeneity (SMD = 0.51, p = 0.069). Our results support the assumption of impaired antisaccade performance in OCD, although effects sizes were only moderately large. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence that increased antisaccade express error rates and ISV of antisaccade latencies may constitute endophenotypes of OCD. Findings regarding these more detailed antisaccade parameters point to potentially underlying mechanisms, such as early pre-stimulus inhibition of the superior colliculus.

13.
J Anxiety Disord ; 57: 24-30, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890378

RESUMO

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show deficient planning capacity in the Tower of London (TOL) problem solving task. Preliminary evidence for similar deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives suggests that impaired planning may constitute an endophenotype of OCD. However, results on this issue are inconsistent, possibly owing to small sample sizes and variability in problem structure across TOL tasks. Here, we adopted a computerized version of the TOL task featuring a 2 × 2 factorial design (high/low search depth × full/partial tower goal state) and examined a well-characterized sample of n = 72 OCD patients, n = 76 unaffected first-degree relatives and n = 102 healthy comparison subjects. Both OCD patients and relatives exhibited significantly less accurate problem solving than controls. Search depth, goal hierarchy, or the number of minimum moves did not moderate these group differences. Medication, OCD symptoms, and depressive comorbidity did not affect TOL performance in patients, suggesting a state-independent effect. In conclusion, we found that OCD patients as well as unaffected first-degree relatives show deficient TOL performance across a range of task conditions, strongly supporting the role of impaired planning as an endophenotype of OCD, and contributing to the growing evidence for fronto-striatal dysfunctions in OCD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição , Endofenótipos , Função Executiva , Saúde da Família , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Resolução de Problemas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 147(7): 1066-1077, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565607

RESUMO

Touch is central to mammalian communication, socialization, and wellbeing. Despite this prominence, interpersonal touch is relatively understudied. In this preregistered investigation, we assessed the influence of interpersonal touch on the subjective, neural, and behavioral correlates of cognitive control. Forty-five romantic couples were recruited (N = 90; dating >6 months), and one partner performed an inhibitory control task while electroencephalography was recorded to assess neural performance monitoring. Interpersonal touch was provided by the second partner and was manipulated between experimental blocks. A within-subject repeated-measures design was used to maximize statistical power, with our sample size providing 80% power for even small effect sizes (ds > .25). Results indicated that participants were not only happier when receiving touch, but also showed increased neural processing of mistakes. Further exploratory cognitive modeling using indirect effects tests and drift diffusion models of decision making revealed that touch was indirectly associated with both improved inhibitory control and increased rates of evidence accumulation (drift rate) through its influence on neural monitoring. Thus, beyond regulating emotion and stress, interpersonal touch appears to enhance the neurocognitive processes underling flexible goal-directed behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuroimage Clin ; 17: 426-434, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159055

RESUMO

Previous research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has indicated performance decrements in working memory (WM) and response inhibition. However, underlying neural mechanisms of WM deficits are not well understood to date, and empirical evidence for a proposed conceptual link to inhibition deficits is missing. We investigated WM performance in a numeric n-back task with four WM load conditions during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 51 patients with OCD and 49 healthy control participants who were matched for age, sex, and education. Additionally, a stop signal task was performed outside the MRI scanner in a subsample. On the behavioral level, a significant WM load by group interaction was found for both accuracy (p < 0.02) and reaction time measures (p < 0.03), indicating increased reaction times as well as reduced accuracy specifically at high WM load (3-back) in patients with OCD. Whole-brain analyses of fMRI-data identified neural correlates of a load-dependent WM decrement in OCD in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Within the OCD sample, SMA-activity as well as n-back performance were correlated with stop signal task performance. Results from behavioral and fMRI-analyses indicate a reduced WM load-dependent modulation of neural activity in OCD and suggest a common neural mechanism for inhibitory dysfunction and WM decrements in OCD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações
16.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 126(6): 750-760, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541065

RESUMO

Frontal electroencephalographic alpha asymmetry as an indicator of trait approach and trait inhibition systems has previously been studied in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with mixed results. We explored frontal alpha asymmetry as a possible risk factor in OCD by investigating a large sample of OCD patients (n = 113), healthy control participants (n = 113), and unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients (n = 37). Additionally, the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and frontal alpha asymmetry was explored. OCD patients and healthy control participants did not differ in alpha asymmetry scores. Hence, the current results do not support the notion that OCD as a diagnostic entity is associated with a shift in frontal cortical activity. Furthermore, alpha asymmetry scores were not statistically related to specific OCD symptom dimensions. Reasons for inconsistent results in OCD are discussed and should be explored in future studies. Compared to OCD patients and healthy control participants, unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients showed increased left frontal activity. Such asymmetry has previously been found to be associated with positive affect and adaptive emotion regulation under stress. Because stressful life events play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of OCD, increased left frontal activity might serve as a resilience factor in unaffected 1st-degree relatives. Future studies should follow up on these results with longitudinal risk studies and pre- and posttherapy assessments to further explore causality of this putative factor. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/patologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychophysiology ; 54(9): 1284-1294, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481032

RESUMO

Recent evidence indicates that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as their unaffected first-degree relatives show deficits in the volitional control of saccades, suggesting that volitional saccade performance may constitute an endophenotype of OCD. Here, we aimed to replicate and extend these findings in a large, independent sample. One hundred and fifteen patients with OCD, 103 healthy comparison subjects without a family history of OCD, and 31 unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients were examined using structured clinical interviews and performed a volitional saccade task as well as a prosaccade task. In contrast to previous reports, neither patients nor relatives showed impairments in the performance of volitional saccades compared to healthy controls. Notably, medicated patients did not differ from nonmedicated patients, and there was no effect of depressive comorbidity. Additional analyses investigating correlations between saccade performance and OCD symptom dimensions yielded no significant associations. In conclusion, the present results do not support the notion that volitional saccade execution constitutes an endophenotype of OCD. Possible explanations for inconsistencies with previous studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Volição/fisiologia , Adulto , Endofenótipos , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 125(2): 292-298, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26692121

RESUMO

Brain correlates of performance-monitoring have been shown to be hyperactive in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), indexed by enhanced amplitudes of the error-related negativity (ERN) in the event-related potential (ERP). This hyperactivity was found to be temporally stable, independent of symptom remission, and could not be further increased by punishing committed errors. The current study examined whether the ERN in OCD is generally insensitive to modulatory influences or can be decreased by manipulation of task demands. Twenty-two OCD patients and 22 control participants performed a flanker task alone or with a concurrent n-back task to manipulate attentional resource allocation. Response-related ERP data were examined. OCD patients showed enhanced ERN-amplitudes in the standard flanker (ηp2 = .13). In both groups a significant decrease in ERN was found under dual-task conditions (ηp2 = .72) that was larger in the OCD group (ηp2 = .14), resulting in a nonsignificant ERN group difference in dual-task conditions. The current study replicated enhanced performance-monitoring in OCD as indexed by higher ERN-amplitudes. Importantly, it further showed a larger ERN-reduction with dual-task demands in patients compared to healthy participants. These results suggest that overactive performance-monitoring was normalized in patients with OCD by experimental conditions. Changing the attentional focus appears to be an effective strategy in modifying hyperactive error-signals in OCD and might be a target for innovative interventions.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
Psychophysiology ; 51(8): 761-72, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24735386

RESUMO

The present study investigated the modulation of the N2 and the correct-related negativity (CRN) by conflict frequency. Conflict costs, as measured by reaction times and error rate, were reduced with increasing conflict frequency, indicating improved conflict resolution. N2 amplitudes in incompatible trials increased with higher conflict frequency, while postresponse CRN amplitudes decreased. In concert with behavioral findings of reduced conflict costs and greater interference suppression, the increase of N2 might reflect enhanced conflict resolution during stimulus processing. The CRN, however, might reflect postresponse implementation of cognitive control, which is reduced when conflict is already adequately resolved during stimulus processing. Furthermore, N2 and CRN in incompatible trials were inversely related on the between- and within-subject level, implying that the two modes of implementing cognitive control are applied complementarily.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 14(3): 983-95, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24470279

RESUMO

Hyperactive performance monitoring is a robust finding in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients show increased amplitudes of the error-related negativity (ERN) and correct-related negativity (CRN). Recently, two temporo-spatial factors were shown to contribute to both ERPs in healthy individuals. In the present study, it was investigated whether the factor structure underlying ERN and CRN is similar in OCD and which factors differ between groups. A principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to investigate the temporo-spatial factor structure of ERN and CRN. Twenty-six OCD patients and 26 healthy controls conducted a flanker task. EEG data were analyzed as conventional ERP components and as factor scores derived from temporo-spatial PCA. ERP results showed expected increases in ERN and CRN amplitudes in OCD patients. For both groups, the PCA confirmed the assumed factor structure of a central and a fronto-parietal factor contributing to ERN and CRN. Factor scores of both factors were differently affected by response correctness in OCD. Alterations in factor scores indicate increased activity in both an outcome-independent monitoring process and an error-sensitive process, contributing to overactive performance monitoring in OCD.


Assuntos
Variação Contingente Negativa/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA