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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035393

RESUMO

Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality (CVM). Pulse pressure (PP) is considered as an easily available marker of vascular stiffness and the double product (DP) as a marker of cardiac workload. Therefore, we have examined the predictive value of PP and DP in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study, a monocentric cohort study of 3316 patients referred to coronary angiography. An increase of SBP or PP by 1mmHg increased the risk of CVM with hazard ratios of 1.009 (95% CI, 1.005-1.012) and 1.016 (1.012-1.020), respectively. Increasing DP by 100 mm Hg/min was associated with a 1.010 (1.007-1.013) higher risk of CVM. In patient subgroups with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), PP and DP predicted CVM better than SBP or MAP. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for sex, BMI, diabetes, eGFR, hazard ratios for CVM for z-standardized PP, DP, SBP, and HR were 1.20, 1.16, 1.12, and 1.14. After adding age to the multivariate analysis, only DP and HR remained significant. We provide evidence that PP and DP are powerful predictors of CVM and all-cause mortality in a CV medium- to high-risk population, especially in patients with CAD and HF. While DP proved to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality also in multivariate analysis, PP was no independent predictor in our cohort with widespread antihypertensive treatment (>85%). PP is associated with age, presence of diabetes, obesity, and impaired renal function.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915819

RESUMO

Epistasis analysis elucidates the effects of gene-gene interactions (G×G) between multiple loci for complex traits. However, the large computational demands and the high multiple testing burden impede their discoveries. Here, we illustrate the utilization of two methods, main effect filtering based on individual GWAS results and biological knowledge-based modeling through Biofilter software, to reduce the number of interactions tested among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 15 cardiac-related traits and 14 fatty acids. We performed interaction analyses using the two filtering methods, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, and the first three principal components from genetic data, among 2,824 samples from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular (LURIC) Health Study. Using Biofilter, one interaction nearly met Bonferroni significance: an interaction between rs7735781 in XRCC4 and rs10804247 in XRCC5 was identified for venous thrombosis with a Bonferroni-adjusted likelihood ratio test (LRT) p: 0.0627. A total of 57 interactions were identified from main effect filtering for the cardiac traits G×G (10) and fatty acids G×G (47) at Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p < 0.05. For cardiac traits, the top interaction involved SNPs rs1383819 in SNTG1 and rs1493939 (138kb from 5' of SAMD12) with Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p: 0.0228 which was significantly associated with history of arterial hypertension. For fatty acids, the top interaction between rs4839193 in KCND3 and rs10829717 in LOC107984002 with Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p: 2.28×10-5 was associated with 9-trans 12-trans octadecanoic acid, an omega-6 trans fatty acid. The model inflation factor for the interactions under different filtering methods was evaluated from the standard median and the linear regression approach. Here, we applied filtering approaches to identify numerous genetic interactions related to cardiac-related outcomes as potential targets for therapy. The approaches described offer ways to detect epistasis in the complex traits and to improve precision medicine capability.

3.
Atherosclerosis ; 311: 84-90, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very rare loss-of-function mutations in the apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene have been associated with low circulating apoC-III, low triglycerides, and reduced cardiovascular risk. We aimed to analyze the impact of common APOC3 variants on key parameters of lipid metabolism and coronary artery disease in the largest sample so far. METHODS: Common variants in APOC3 were tested for associations with circulating apoC-III, lipids, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in 3041 participants of the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular health study (LURIC). These variants were then tested for associations with coronary artery disease in a meta-analysis comprising up to 332,389 participants of the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D consortium and the UK Biobank. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) apoC-III concentration was 14.6 (5.1) mg/dl. Seven common variants in APOC3 (rs734104, rs4520, rs5142, rs5141, rs5130, rs5128, and rs4225) were associated with circulating apoC-III (all p < 0.05). The alleles that modestly raised apoC-III were also associated with markedly higher total triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and cholesterol (all p < 0.05), but not with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total apoB (all p > 0.05). These variants were not associated with coronary artery disease in the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D consortium and the UK Biobank (all p > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Modest, genetically caused elevations of apoC-III are associated with a marked increase of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins but not with an increase of LDL cholesterol, total apoB, and coronary artery disease. Whether effective inhibition of apoC-III production with antisense oligomers will be instrumental to reduce cardiovascular risk remains to be demonstrated.

4.
Circulation ; 142(6): 546-555, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies examining the role of factor V Leiden among patients at higher risk of atherothrombotic events, such as those with established coronary heart disease (CHD), are lacking. Given that coagulation is involved in the thrombus formation stage on atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we hypothesized that factor V Leiden may be a stronger risk factor for atherothrombotic events in patients with established CHD. METHODS: We performed an individual-level meta-analysis including 25 prospective studies (18 cohorts, 3 case-cohorts, 4 randomized trials) from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) consortium involving patients with established CHD at baseline. Participating studies genotyped factor V Leiden status and shared risk estimates for the outcomes of interest using a centrally developed statistical code with harmonized definitions across studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain age- and sex-adjusted estimates. The obtained estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. The primary outcome was composite of myocardial infarction and CHD death. Secondary outcomes included any stroke, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The studies included 69 681 individuals of whom 3190 (4.6%) were either heterozygous or homozygous (n=47) carriers of factor V Leiden. Median follow-up per study ranged from 1.0 to 10.6 years. A total of 20 studies with 61 147 participants and 6849 events contributed to analyses of the primary outcome. Factor V Leiden was not associated with the combined outcome of myocardial infarction and CHD death (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.92-1.16]; I2=28%; P-heterogeneity=0.12). Subgroup analysis according to baseline characteristics or strata of traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show relevant differences. Similarly, risk estimates for the secondary outcomes including stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were also close to identity. CONCLUSIONS: Factor V Leiden was not associated with increased risk of subsequent atherothrombotic events and mortality in high-risk participants with established and treated CHD. Routine assessment of factor V Leiden status is unlikely to improve atherothrombotic events risk stratification in this population.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5945, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231212

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(3): 358-373, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate biomarkers representing low-grade systemic inflammation and their association with cardiovascular mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. METHODS: The included 3134 consecutive patients underwent coronary angiography between June 1997 and May 2001 with a median follow-up of 9.9 years. Plasma levels of IL-6, and acute-phase reactants serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. SAA and IL-6 polymorphisms were genotyped. RESULTS: During a median observation time of 9.9 years, 949 deaths (30.3%) occurred, of these 597 (19.2%) died from cardiovascular causes. High plasma levels of IL-6, CRP and SAA were associated with unstable CAD, as well as established risk factors including type 2 diabetes mellitus, smoking, low glomerular filtration rate, low TGs and low HDL-C. After adjusting for established cardiovascular risk markers and the other two inflammatory markers, SAA was found to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality after a short-term follow-up (6 months-1 year) with a HR per SD of 1.41. IL-6 was identified as an independent risk factor for long-term follow-up (3, 5, and 9.9 years) with HRs per SD of 1.21, 1.22 and 1.18. CRP lost significance after adjustment. Although 6 out of 27 SAA SNPs were significantly associated with SAA plasma concentrations, the genetic risk score was not associated with cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings from the large, prospective LURIC cohort underline the importance of inflammation in CAD and the prognostic relevance of inflammatory biomarkers that independently predict cardiovascular mortality.

9.
Atherosclerosis ; 292: 52-59, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis and smoking is a well-known risk factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to analyse the effect of smoking on circulating markers of endothelial function and to investigate whether such effects have an influence on the potential use of these markers to estimate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Stratified for smoking, levels of sE-/sP-/sL-selectin, von Willebrand (vWF), sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, their association with mortality using Cox regression, and their accuracy of risk prediction using area-under-the-ROC-curve and net-reclassification-index were analysed in 1926 participants from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) - a prospective case-control study in patients who underwent coronary angiography with a median mortality follow-up of 10.6 years. RESULTS: In smokers, higher concentrations of sICAM-1, sE-selectin sP-selectin, but lower concentrations of sL-selectin and sVCAM-1, were detected compared to never-smokers. A direct association with mortality was found for levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF regardless of smoking. Low sL-selectin levels were inversely associated with mortality in heavy and light smokers, with hazard ratios of 0.72 and 0.67 per 1-SD increase, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Adding sL-selectin to a model based on traditional risk factors significantly improved AUC from 0.725 to 0.752 (p = 0.034) with an NRI of 43% (16.9%-62.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking alters the concentration of circulating markers of endothelial function. sL-selectin is decreased in smokers, inversely associated with risk, and could be a useful marker to improve risk prediction.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 41(9): 1054-1056, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834377
11.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(1): 103-114, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low individual socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for morbidity and mortality. A related measure is the area-based SES (abSES), which describes the average SES of a region. The association of measures of abSES with morbidity and mortality is less well studied. METHODS: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study consists of 3316 patients hospitalized for coronary angiography between 1997 and 2000 at a tertiary care centre in Germany. Patients were followed up for a median of 10 years. Two measures of abSES were used: the regional purchasing index (PPI, data obtained from IQVIA GmbH) and the German Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (GISD, developed by the Robert-Koch Institute). The association of abSES with disease and with mortality was analysed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. RESULTS: Study participants living in regions with higher abSES had lower HbA1c and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. A higher abSES was associated with lower prevalence of active smoking, vitamin D deficiency and diabetes mellitus. We further found significantly increased mortality for participants in the lowest PPI quartile (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.38-0.90) as compared to the first quartile), and in the highest GISD tertile (HR of 1.32 (1.13-1.54) as compared to the first tertile). CONCLUSION: Living in an area with a low abSES was associated with a higher burden of diabetes mellitus, a higher percentage of severe vitamin D deficiency, higher systemic inflammation and a significant increase in mortality.

12.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(4): 1399-1411, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Short telomeres and B vitamin deficiencies have been proposed as risk factors for age-related diseases and mortality that interact through oxidative stress and inflammation. However, available data to support this concept are insufficient. We aimed to investigate the predictive role of B vitamins and homocysteine (HCY) for mortality in cardiovascular patients. We explored potential relationships between HCY, B vitamins, relative telomere length (RTL), and indices of inflammation. METHODS: Vitamin B6, HCY, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and RTL were measured in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. Death events were recorded over a median follow-up of 9.9 years. RESULTS: All-cause mortality increased with higher concentrations of HCY and lower vitamin B6. Patients in the 4th quartile of HCY and vitamin B6 had hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality of 2.77 (95% CI 2.28-3.37) and 0.41(95% CI 0.33-0.49), respectively, and for cardiovascular mortality of 2.78 (95% CI 2.29-3.39) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.33-0.49), respectively, compared to those in the 1st quartile. Multiple adjustments for confounders did not change these results. HCY and vitamin B6 correlated with age-corrected RTL (r = - 0.086, p < 0.001; r = 0.04, p = 0.031, respectively), IL-6 (r = 0.148, p < 0.001; r = - 0.249, p < 0.001, respectively), and hs-CRP (r = 0.101, p < 0.001; r = - 0.320, p < 0.001, respectively). Subjects with the longest telomeres had a significantly higher concentration of vitamin B6, but lower concentrations of HCY, IL-6, and hs-CRP. Multiple regression analyses identified HCY as an independent negative predictor of age-corrected RTL. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin B6 deficiency are risk factors for death from any cause. Hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin B6 deficiency correlate with increased mortality. This correlation might, at least partially, be explained by accelerated telomere shortening induced by oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these circumstances.

13.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 25: 659-670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797636

RESUMO

Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) allow agnostic investigation of common genetic variants in relation to a variety of phenotypes but preserving the power of PheWAS requires careful phenotypic quality control (QC) procedures. While QC of genetic data is well-defined, no established QC practices exist for multi-phenotypic data. Manually imposing sample size restrictions, identifying variable types/distributions, and locating problems such as missing data or outliers is arduous in large, multivariate datasets. In this paper, we perform two PheWAS on epidemiological data and, utilizing the novel software CLARITE (CLeaning to Analysis: Reproducibility-based Interface for Traits and Exposures), showcase a transparent and replicable phenome QC pipeline which we believe is a necessity for the field. Using data from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular (LURIC) Health Study we ran two PheWAS, one on cardiac-related diseases and the other on polyunsaturated fatty acids levels. These phenotypes underwent a stringent quality control screen and were regressed on a genome-wide sample of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Seven SNPs were significant in association with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, of which five were within fatty acid desaturases FADS1 and FADS2. PheWAS is a useful tool to elucidate the genetic architecture of complex disease phenotypes within a single experimental framework. However, to reduce computational and multiple-comparisons burden, careful assessment of phenotype quality and removal of low-quality data is prudent. Herein we perform two PheWAS while applying a detailed phenotype QC process, for which we provide a replicable pipeline that is modifiable for application to other large datasets with heterogenous phenotypes. As investigation of complex traits continues beyond traditional genome wide association studies (GWAS), such QC considerations and tools such as CLARITE are crucial to the in the analysis of non-genetic big data such as clinical measurements, lifestyle habits, and polygenic traits.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4957, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673082

RESUMO

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cognição , Consanguinidade , Fertilidade/genética , Nível de Saúde , Depressão por Endogamia/genética , Assunção de Riscos , Alelos , Haplótipos , Homozigoto , Humanos
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(17): 7083-7097, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency and excess are associated with increased risk of age-related-diseases and mortality. It has been suggested that high- and low-B12 concentrations link to increased mortality through accelerated genomic aging and inflammation. Evidence to support this is limited. RESULTS: B12 was associated with all-cause-mortality, RTL and hsCRP in a non-linear fashion. The association between B12 and mortality was not independent, as it lost significance after adjustment for potential confounders. In the lowest-(LB12) and highest-(HB12) quartiles of B12 mortality was higher than in the mid-range (HR:LB12:1.23;CI95%:1.06-1.43; HR:HB12:1.24;CI95%:1.06-1.44). We divided subjects with LB12 in quartiles of their RTL. Those with the longest-telomeres had a lower mortality-rate (HR:0.57;95%CI:0.39-0.83) and lower homocysteine than those with the shortest-telomeres. Amongst subjects with HB12, those with long-telomeres also had a lower mortality than those with short-telomeres (HR:0.40;95%CI:0.27-0.59). IL-6 and hsCRP concentrations were low in HB12LT but were high in HB12ST. METHODS: B12, homocysteine, telomere length (RTL), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitive-C-reactive-protein (hsCRP) were measured in 2970 participants of the LURIC study. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality, stratified according to B12 and RTL, seems to be driven by different mechanisms. In LB12 and HB12 subjects, mortality and accelerated telomere shortening might be driven by homocysteine and inflammation, respectively.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 291: 127-131, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The CD40-CD40 Ligand (CD40L) system has an important role in vascular inflammation. For this reason, we assessed the association of soluble CD40L with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD40L were determined in 2759 persons using an enzyme immunoassay. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the association between plasma concentration of sCD40 ligand and short-term (12 months) and long-term (10 years) mortality. Subpopulation analyses were conducted in seven different risk groups. Cox regression models were adjusted for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: The present study did not reveal significant association between sCD40L plasma levels and all-cause mortality, as well as cardiovascular mortality at one-year follow-up. In selected subgroups only, significant association between elevated sCD40L plasma levels and short-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality could be observed. With regard to long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality analyses, no significant correlation with increased plasma levels of sCD40L could be detected, neither overall nor in any subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble sCD40L is not associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in this large cohort. Only in selected patient subgroups elevated levels of sCD40L correlate with short-term mortality but this correlation disappears in long-term analysis.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415634

RESUMO

AIMS: The international-normalized-ratio (INR) is typically used to monitor patients on warfarin or related oral anticoagulant therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of the INR with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients not on oral anticoagulant therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1997 to 2000 the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study enrolled 3316 patients of German ancestry that had been referred for coronary angiography. We excluded patients on coumarin therapy (n = 222) and patients with an INR more than 5 standard deviations (SD) away from the mean (n = 30). During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 884 patients died, 547 patients from cardiovascular causes. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors the INR was associated with all-cause mortality in all patients and the CAD positive group with HRs (95% CI) of 1.14(1.07-1.21) and 1.16(1.09-1.23) per 1-SD increase, respectively. Adjustment for NT-proBNP rendered the association insignificant. CONCLUSION: In LURIC, the INR was positively associated with mortality in patients with prevalent CAD not on oral anticoagulant therapy as well as in patients without CAD. Adjustment for NT-proBNP abolished the association suggesting clinical or subclinical heart failure strongly contributing to increased INR and higher mortality.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infraction (MI) using Mendelian randomization (MR) used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust MR methodologies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both CHD and MI using MR. We used both an allele score approach and pleiotropy robust MR models. The allele score was composed of 38 fibrinogen-associated variants from recent GWAS. Initial analyses using the allele score used a meta-analysis of 11 European-ancestry prospective cohorts, free of CHD and MI at baseline, to examine incidence CHD and MI. We also applied 2 sample MR methods with data from a prevalent CHD and MI GWAS. Results are given in terms of the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on the study design, and associated 95% confidence interval (CI). In single variant analyses no causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD or MI was observed. In multi-variant analyses using incidence CHD cases and the allele score approach, the estimated causal effect (HR) of a 1 g/L higher fibrinogen concentration was 1.62 (CI = 1.12, 2.36) when using incident cases and the allele score approach. In 2 sample MR analyses that accounted for pleiotropy, the causal estimate (OR) was reduced to 1.18 (CI = 0.98, 1.42) and 1.09 (CI = 0.89, 1.33) in the 2 most precise (smallest CI) models, out of 4 models evaluated. In the 2 sample MR analyses for MI, there was only very weak evidence of a causal effect in only 1 out of 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: A small causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD is observed using multi-variant MR approaches which account for pleiotropy, but not single variant MR approaches. Taken together, results indicate that even with large sample sizes and multi-variant approaches MR analyses still cannot exclude the null when estimating the causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD, but that any potential causal effect is likely to be much smaller than observed in epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Fibrinogênio/farmacologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Alelos , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Pleiotropia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Genéticos , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Razão de Chances
20.
Clin Chem ; 65(7): 849-861, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia has been shown to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality, whereas the role of iron metabolism remains controversial. METHODS: We analyzed iron metabolism and its associations with cardiovascular death and total mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography with a median follow-up of 9.9 years. Hemoglobin and iron status were determined in 1480 patients with stable CAD and in 682 individuals in whom significant CAD had been excluded by angiography. RESULTS: Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total mortality in the lowest quartiles of iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were 1.22 (95% CI, 0.96-1.60), 1.23 (95% CI, 0.97-1.56), 1.27 (95% CI, 1.02-1.58), 1.26 (95% CI, 0.97-1.65), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.79-1.24), respectively, compared to the second or third quartile, which served as reference (1.00) because of a J-shaped association. The corresponding HRs for total mortality in the highest quartiles were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.10-1.87), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.05-1.77), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.92-1.50), 1.76 (95% CI, 1.39-2.22), and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.63-1.09). HRs for cardiovascular death were similar. For hepcidin, the adjusted HRs for total mortality and cardiovascular deaths were 0.62 (95% CI, 0.49-0.78) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.52-0.90) in the highest quartile compared to the lowest one. CONCLUSIONS: In stable patients undergoing angiography, serum iron, transferrin saturation, sTfR, and ferritin had J-shaped associations and hemoglobin only a marginal association with cardiovascular and total mortality. Hepcidin was continuously and inversely related to mortality.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Transferrina/metabolismo
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