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1.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e14060, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551209

RESUMO

The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is well known. The effect of SNPs on disease predisposition has been established not only for protein coding genes but also for genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs). The miR-143/145 cluster is smooth muscle cell-specific and implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Whether SNPs within the genomic sequence of the miR-143/145 cluster are involved in cardiovascular disease development is not known. We thus searched annotated sequence databases for possible SNPs associated with miR-143/145. We identified one SNP, rs41291957 (G > A), located -91 bp from the mature miR-143 sequence, as the nearest genetic variation to this miRNA cluster, with a minor allele frequency > 10%. In silico and in vitro approaches determined that rs41291957 (A) upregulates miR-143 and miR-145, modulating phenotypic switching of vascular smooth cells towards a differentiated/contractile phenotype. Finally, we analysed association between rs41291957 and CAD in two cohorts of patients, finding that the SNP was a protective factor. In conclusion, our study links a genetic variation to a pathological outcome through involvement of miRNAs.

3.
Atherosclerosis ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality is the consumption of alcohol. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of alcohol consumption on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study includes 3316 patients hospitalized for coronary angiography at a tertiary care centre in Southwest Germany. Patients were followed-up for a median of 9.9 (range 0.1-11.9 years) years. Total mortality number in the follow-up period was 995, and the number of incident cases, i.e. cardiovascular death, was 622. Information on alcohol consumption assessed by self-report questionnaires was used to calculate intake in grams of ethanol per day. Associations of alcohol consumption with morbidity and mortality were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: We found significantly increased mortality for patients in the highest alcohol intake group age- and sex-adjusted (hazard ratio of 1.59 (95%CI, 0.93-2.72)) and a reduced risk for the group of low-volume drinkers (hazard ratio of 0.75 (95%CI, 0.65-0.86)). After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, the risk difference between abstainers and low-volume drinkers was not significant anymore. CONCLUSIONS: In the LURIC study, the risk of overall mortality and cardiovascular mortality is significantly increased in study participants with very high alcohol consumption and slightly increased in total abstainers as compared to participants with low consumption in unadjusted analysis, replicating the well-known J-curve. Adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors rendered the risk decrease observed for low-volume drinkers insignificant. Therefore, our results do not show a significant health benefit of low-volume alcohol consumption in a cohort of patients at medium-to-high cardiovascular risk.

4.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(4): G252-G261, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132110

RESUMO

Untreated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may have significant consequences including an increase in mortality and cardiovascular injury. Thus, early detection of NAFLD is currently believed not only to prevent liver-related but also cardiovascular mortality. However, almost nothing is known about coexisting NAFLD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the impact of surrogate scores of fibrosis in NAFLD in a large cohort of patients referred to coronary angiography. Modeling the common NALFD and fibrosis scores, fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), as splines revealed significant associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when Cox regression models were only adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors that were not already included in the calculation of the scores. Stratifying the scores into quartiles yielded hazard ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality for the 4th quartile versus the 1st quartile of 2.28 (1.90-2.75) and 2.11 (1.67-2.67) for FIB-4 and of 3.21 (2.61-3.94) and 3.12 (2.41-4.04) for NFS. However, we did not observe an independent association of FIB-4 or NFS with overall or cardiovascular mortality in our prospective CAD cohort after full adjustment for all cardiovascular risk factors [all-cause mortality: HR 1.13 (0.904-1.41) and 1.17 (0.903-1.52); cardiovascular mortality: HR 1.06 (0.8-1.41) and 1.02 (0.738-1.41)]. Thus, neither FIB-4 nor NFS, as surrogate markers for NAFLD/NASH, were independent risk factors for overall or cardiovascular mortality in patients with CAD. Our data show that surrogate risk scores for NAFLD-related fibrosis do not add information in assessing the CVD events in patients with CAD proven by angiography.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the impact of NAFLD surrogate markers in a large cohort of patients that had been referred to coronary angiography. In contrast to a repeatedly demonstrated increased link of cardiovascular events in patients with NALFD, we demonstrated that NAFLD surrogate markers were not independent risk factors for overall or cardiovascular mortality in patients with CAD. Thus, these markers may not be useful for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with CAD.

5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(8): 2019-2028, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of targeted exome-arrays with common, rare variants and functionally enriched variation has led to discovery of new genes contributing to population variation in risk factors. Plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and the plasma product D-dimer are important components of the fibrinolytic system. There have been few large-scale genome-wide or exome-wide studies of PAI-1, tPA, and D-dimer. OBJECTIVES: We sought to discover new genetic loci contributing to variation in these traits using an exome-array approach. METHODS: Cohort-level analyses and fixed effects meta-analyses of PAI-1 (n = 15 603), tPA (n = 6876,) and D-dimer (n = 19 306) from 12 cohorts of European ancestry with diverse study design were conducted, including single-variant analyses and gene-based burden testing. RESULTS: Five variants located in NME7, FGL1, and the fibrinogen locus, all associated with D-dimer levels, achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8 ). Replication was sought for these 5 variants, as well as 45 well-imputed variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in the discovery using an independent cohort. Replication was observed for three out of the five significant associations, including a novel and uncommon (0.013 allele frequency) coding variant p.Trp256Leu in FGL1 (fibrinogen-like-1) with increased plasma D-dimer levels. Additionally, a candidate-gene approach revealed a suggestive association for a coding variant (rs143202684-C) in SERPINB2, and suggestive associations with consistent effect in the replication analysis include an intronic variant (rs11057830-A) in SCARB1 associated with increased D-dimer levels. CONCLUSION: This work provides new evidence for a role of FGL1 in hemostasis.


Assuntos
Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Exoma , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Fibrinogênio/genética , Fibrinólise , Humanos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/genética
6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878186

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a strong genetic predisposition. However, despite substantial discoveries made by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a large proportion of heritability awaits identification. Non-additive genetic-effects might be responsible for part of the unaccounted genetic variance. Here we attempted a proof-of-concept study to identify non-additive genetic effects, namely epistatic interactions, associated with CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested for epistatic interactions in ten CAD case-control studies and UK Biobank with focus on 8,068 SNPs at 56 loci with known associations with CAD risk. We identified a SNP pair located in cis at the LPA locus, rs1800769 and rs9458001, to be jointly associated with risk for CAD (odds ratio [OR]=1.37, p = 1.07 × 10-11), peripheral arterial disease (OR = 1.22, p = 2.32 × 10-4), aortic stenosis (OR = 1.47, p = 6.95 × 10-7), hepatic lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) transcript levels (beta = 0.39, p = 1.41 × 10-8), and Lp(a) serum levels (beta = 0.58, p = 8.7 × 10-32), while individual SNPs displayed no association. Further exploration of the LPA locus revealed a strong dependency of these associations on a rare variant, rs140570886, that was previously associated with Lp(a) levels. We confirmed increased CAD risk for heterozygous (relative OR = 1.46, p = 9.97 × 10-32) and individuals homozygous for the minor allele (relative OR = 1.77, p = 0.09) of rs140570886. Using forward model selection, we also show that epistatic interactions between rs140570886, rs9458001, and rs1800769 modulate the effects of the rs140570886 risk allele. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale knowledge-based epistasis scan and provide rare evidence of an epistatic interaction in a complex human disease. We were directed to a variant (rs140570886) influencing risk through additive genetic as well as epistatic effects. In summary, this study provides deeper insights into the genetic architecture of a locus important for cardiovascular diseases. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Genetic variants identified by GWAS studies explain about a quarter of the heritability of coronary artery disease by additive genetic effects. Our study demonstrates that non-additive effects contribute to the genetic architecture of the disease as well and identifies complex interaction patterns at the LPA locus, which affect LPA expression, Lp(a) plasma levels and risk of atherosclerosis. This proof-of-concept study encourages systematic searches for epistatic interactions in further studies to shed new light on the aetiology of the disease.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 42(18): 1742-1756, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748830

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway such as interleukin-1ß can therapeutically be targeted. Associations of genetically determined inflammasome-mediated systemic inflammation with CVD and mortality in humans are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We explored the association of genetic NLRP3 variants with prevalent CVD and cardiovascular mortality in 538 167 subjects on the individual participant level in an explorative gene-centric approach without performing multiple testing. Functional relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been evaluated in monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Genetic analyses identified the highly prevalent (minor allele frequency 39.9%) intronic NLRP3 variant rs10754555 to affect NLRP3 gene expression. rs10754555 carriers showed significantly higher C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A plasma levels. Carriers of the G allele showed higher NLRP3 inflammasome activation in isolated human PBMCs. In carriers of the rs10754555 variant, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was significantly higher as compared to non-carriers with a significant interaction between rs10754555 and age. Importantly, rs10754555 carriers had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. Inflammasome inducers (e.g. urate, triglycerides, apolipoprotein C3) modulated the association between rs10754555 and mortality. CONCLUSION: The NLRP3 intronic variant rs10754555 is associated with increased systemic inflammation, inflammasome activation, prevalent coronary artery disease, and mortality. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of genetically driven systemic inflammation in CVD and highlights the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Inflamassomos , Inflamação , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamação/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética
8.
Eur Heart J ; 42(9): 919-933, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532862

RESUMO

AIMS: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1ß (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infarto do Miocárdio , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Células Endoteliais , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Japão , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(7): 1191-1198, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Elevated leukocyte counts are associated with cardiovascular disease. Smoking induces inflammation and alters levels of leukocyte subtypes. AIMS AND METHODS: Our aim was to investigate the effect of smoking on circulating immune cells and their association with mortality. Lymphocyte subtypes were identified by flow cytometry of fluorescent-labeled cells. We analyzed the association of leukocytes with mortality using Cox regression and assessed their effect on risk prediction based on principle components (PCs) using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and net-reclassification in 2173 participants from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study, a prospective case-control study in patients who underwent coronary angiography. RESULTS: The numbers of T cells, monocytes, and neutrophils were higher and natural killer cells were lower in smokers compared with never-smokers. In never-smokers, lymphocyte counts were inversely associated with mortality while a positive association was observed for neutrophils. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) had the strongest association in never-smokers with a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.43 (1.26-1.61). No associations were found in smokers. Adding the first five PCs or the NLR to a risk prediction model based on conventional risk factors did not improve risk prediction in smokers, but significantly increased the area under the curve from 0.777 to 0.801 and 0.791, respectively, in never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphocyte counts were inversely associated with mortality in never-smokers but not in active smokers. Markers of innate immunity, namely total neutrophils and CD11b+/CD18+ and CD31+/CD40- granulocytes, were directly associated with mortality. Adding markers of immune function like PCs or the NLR to basic risk models improved risk prediction in never-smokers only. IMPLICATIONS: Total leukocyte counts were higher in active smokers as compared to never-smokers due to elevated counts of neutrophils and monocytes but declined in ex-smokers with increasing time since quitting. In the never-smokers but not in smokers, lymphocyte counts were inversely associated with mortality while there was a direct association with neutrophils, even after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Adding markers of immune function to basic risk models improved risk prediction in never-smokers only. Our data indicate that smoking status has an important impact on the ability of leukocyte counts to predict long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

11.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(1): 149-158, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405238

RESUMO

Inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) represents an emerging pharmaceutical approach for the treatment of heart failure. The mechanisms by which SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the risk of heart failure are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC5A2 gene, encoding SGLT2, and heart failure, and to assess potential mediators of this association. Regression and mediation analyses were conducted with individual participant data of the UK Biobank (n = 416,737) and validated in the cardiovascular high-risk cohort of the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health study (LURIC; n = 3316). Two intronic SNPs associated with SLC5A2 expression were included in a genetic score, which was associated with lower risk of heart failure in UK Biobank (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval, 0.95-0.99, P = 0.016). This association was also present in participants without type 2 diabetes or coronary artery disease (CAD). The associations of the genetic score with HbA1c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, uric acid, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body composition mediated 35% of the effect of the score on heart failure risk. No associations of the genetic SGLT2 score with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcomes or markers of volume status were observed, which was confirmed in the LURIC study. Variations in the gene encoding SGLT2 were associated with the risk of prevalent or incident heart failure. This association was mediated by several mechanisms and did not depend on the presence of type 2 diabetes or previous CAD events.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
12.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003513, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating biomarkers are associated with the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its complications by reflecting pathophysiological pathways and/or organ dysfunction. We explored the associations between 157 cardiovascular (CV) and inflammatory biomarkers and CV death using proximity extension assays (PEA) in patients with chronic CHD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The derivation cohort consisted of 605 cases with CV death and 2,788 randomly selected non-cases during 3-5 years follow-up included in the STabilization of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY (STABILITY) trial between 2008 and 2010. The replication cohort consisted of 245 cases and 1,042 non-cases during 12 years follow-up included in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study between 1997 and 2000. Biomarker levels were measured with conventional immunoassays and/or with the OLINK PEA panels CVD I and Inflammation. Associations with CV death were evaluated by Random Survival Forest (RF) and Cox regression analyses. Both cohorts had the same median age (65 years) and 20% smokers, while there were slight differences in male sex (82% and 76%), hypertension (70% and 78%), and diabetes (39% and 30%) in the respective STABILITY and LURIC cohorts. The analyses identified 18 biomarkers with confirmed independent association with CV death by Boruta analyses and statistical significance (all p < 0.0001) by Cox regression when adjusted for clinical characteristics in both cohorts. Most prognostic information was carried by N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), hazard ratio (HR for 1 standard deviation [SD] increase of the log scale of the distribution of the biomarker in the replication cohort) 2.079 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.799-2.402), and high-sensitivity troponin T (cTnT-hs) HR 1.715 (95% CI 1.491-1.973). The other proteins with independent associations were growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) HR 1.728 (95% CI 1.527-1.955), transmembrane immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein (TIM-1) HR 1.555 (95% CI 1.362-1.775), renin HR 1.501 (95% CI 1.305-1.727), osteoprotegerin (OPG) HR 1.488 (95% CI 1.297-1.708), soluble suppression of tumorigenesis 2 protein (sST2) HR 1.478 (95% CI 1.307-1.672), cystatin-C (Cys-C) HR 1.370 (95% CI 1.243-1.510), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) HR 1.205 (95% CI 1.131-1.285), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125) HR 1.347 (95% CI 1.226-1.479), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) HR 1.399 (95% CI 1.255-1.561), interleukin 6 (IL-6) HR 1.478 (95% CI 1.316-1.659), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) HR 1.259 (95% CI 1.134-1.396), spondin-1 HR 1.295 (95% CI 1.156-1.450), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) HR 1.349 (95% CI 1.237-1.472), chitinase-3 like protein 1 (CHI3L1) HR 1.284 (95% CI 1.129-1.461), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) HR 1.486 (95% CI 1.307-1.689), and adrenomedullin (AM) HR 1.750 (95% CI 1.490-2.056). The study is limited by the differences in design, size, and length of follow-up of the 2 studies and the lack of results from coronary angiograms and follow-up of nonfatal events. CONCLUSIONS: Profiles of levels of multiple plasma proteins might be useful for the identification of different pathophysiological pathways associated with an increased risk of CV death in patients with chronic CHD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00799903.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Kidney Int ; 99(4): 926-939, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137338

RESUMO

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m2/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs. 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Rim , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Humanos , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas , Reino Unido
14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(6): e002769, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). METHODS: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D). RESULTS: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.

15.
Biomedicines ; 8(11)2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233452

RESUMO

(1) Background and Aims: Efforts to reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) by raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) have not been uniformly successful. A more important factor than HDL-C may be cellular cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL, which has been shown to be associated with CAD. In this report, we analyzed the influence of cardiovascular biomarkers and risk factors on cholesterol efflux in a prospective observational study of patients referred to coronary angiography. (2) Methods: HDL-mediated efflux capacity was determined for 2468 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study who were referred to coronary angiography at baseline between 1997 and 2000. Median follow-up time was 9.9 years. Primary and secondary endpoints were cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, respectively. (3) Results: Cholesterol efflux strongly correlated with HDL-related markers including HDL cholesterol, HDL phospholipids, and apolipoproteins AI and AII, as well as HDL particle concentration, which was not seen for low density lipoprotein (LDL) markers including LDL cholesterol and apoB. Cholesterol efflux was associated negatively with C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum amyloid A. Cardiovascular mortality was higher in patients in the lowest cholesterol efflux quartile. This association was weakened, but not fully abolished, after adjustment for HDL cholesterol. (4) Conclusions: We demonstrate that cholesterol efflux was associated with HDL-composition as well as inflammatory burden in patients referred for coronary angiography, and that this inversely predicts cardiovascular mortality independently of HDL cholesterol.

16.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(12): 2332-2342, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035393

RESUMO

Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality (CVM). Pulse pressure (PP) is considered as an easily available marker of vascular stiffness and the double product (DP) as a marker of cardiac workload. Therefore, we have examined the predictive value of PP and DP in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study, a monocentric cohort study of 3316 patients referred to coronary angiography. An increase of SBP or PP by 1mmHg increased the risk of CVM with hazard ratios of 1.009 (95% CI, 1.005-1.012) and 1.016 (1.012-1.020), respectively. Increasing DP by 100 mm Hg/min was associated with a 1.010 (1.007-1.013) higher risk of CVM. In patient subgroups with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), PP and DP predicted CVM better than SBP or MAP. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for sex, BMI, diabetes, eGFR, hazard ratios for CVM for z-standardized PP, DP, SBP, and HR were 1.20, 1.16, 1.12, and 1.14. After adding age to the multivariate analysis, only DP and HR remained significant. We provide evidence that PP and DP are powerful predictors of CVM and all-cause mortality in a CV medium- to high-risk population, especially in patients with CAD and HF. While DP proved to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality also in multivariate analysis, PP was no independent predictor in our cohort with widespread antihypertensive treatment (>85%). PP is associated with age, presence of diabetes, obesity, and impaired renal function.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Atherosclerosis ; 311: 84-90, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very rare loss-of-function mutations in the apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene have been associated with low circulating apoC-III, low triglycerides, and reduced cardiovascular risk. We aimed to analyze the impact of common APOC3 variants on key parameters of lipid metabolism and coronary artery disease in the largest sample so far. METHODS: Common variants in APOC3 were tested for associations with circulating apoC-III, lipids, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in 3041 participants of the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular health study (LURIC). These variants were then tested for associations with coronary artery disease in a meta-analysis comprising up to 332,389 participants of the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D consortium and the UK Biobank. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) apoC-III concentration was 14.6 (5.1) mg/dl. Seven common variants in APOC3 (rs734104, rs4520, rs5142, rs5141, rs5130, rs5128, and rs4225) were associated with circulating apoC-III (all p < 0.05). The alleles that modestly raised apoC-III were also associated with markedly higher total triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and cholesterol (all p < 0.05), but not with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total apoB (all p > 0.05). These variants were not associated with coronary artery disease in the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D consortium and the UK Biobank (all p > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Modest, genetically caused elevations of apoC-III are associated with a marked increase of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins but not with an increase of LDL cholesterol, total apoB, and coronary artery disease. Whether effective inhibition of apoC-III production with antisense oligomers will be instrumental to reduce cardiovascular risk remains to be demonstrated.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hipertrigliceridemia , Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , VLDL-Colesterol , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Humanos , Lipoproteínas VLDL , Triglicerídeos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915819

RESUMO

Epistasis analysis elucidates the effects of gene-gene interactions (G×G) between multiple loci for complex traits. However, the large computational demands and the high multiple testing burden impede their discoveries. Here, we illustrate the utilization of two methods, main effect filtering based on individual GWAS results and biological knowledge-based modeling through Biofilter software, to reduce the number of interactions tested among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 15 cardiac-related traits and 14 fatty acids. We performed interaction analyses using the two filtering methods, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, and the first three principal components from genetic data, among 2,824 samples from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular (LURIC) Health Study. Using Biofilter, one interaction nearly met Bonferroni significance: an interaction between rs7735781 in XRCC4 and rs10804247 in XRCC5 was identified for venous thrombosis with a Bonferroni-adjusted likelihood ratio test (LRT) p: 0.0627. A total of 57 interactions were identified from main effect filtering for the cardiac traits G×G (10) and fatty acids G×G (47) at Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p < 0.05. For cardiac traits, the top interaction involved SNPs rs1383819 in SNTG1 and rs1493939 (138kb from 5' of SAMD12) with Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p: 0.0228 which was significantly associated with history of arterial hypertension. For fatty acids, the top interaction between rs4839193 in KCND3 and rs10829717 in LOC107984002 with Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p: 2.28×10-5 was associated with 9-trans 12-trans octadecanoic acid, an omega-6 trans fatty acid. The model inflation factor for the interactions under different filtering methods was evaluated from the standard median and the linear regression approach. Here, we applied filtering approaches to identify numerous genetic interactions related to cardiac-related outcomes as potential targets for therapy. The approaches described offer ways to detect epistasis in the complex traits and to improve precision medicine capability.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epistasia Genética , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Marcadores Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Circulation ; 142(6): 546-555, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies examining the role of factor V Leiden among patients at higher risk of atherothrombotic events, such as those with established coronary heart disease (CHD), are lacking. Given that coagulation is involved in the thrombus formation stage on atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we hypothesized that factor V Leiden may be a stronger risk factor for atherothrombotic events in patients with established CHD. METHODS: We performed an individual-level meta-analysis including 25 prospective studies (18 cohorts, 3 case-cohorts, 4 randomized trials) from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) consortium involving patients with established CHD at baseline. Participating studies genotyped factor V Leiden status and shared risk estimates for the outcomes of interest using a centrally developed statistical code with harmonized definitions across studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain age- and sex-adjusted estimates. The obtained estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. The primary outcome was composite of myocardial infarction and CHD death. Secondary outcomes included any stroke, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The studies included 69 681 individuals of whom 3190 (4.6%) were either heterozygous or homozygous (n=47) carriers of factor V Leiden. Median follow-up per study ranged from 1.0 to 10.6 years. A total of 20 studies with 61 147 participants and 6849 events contributed to analyses of the primary outcome. Factor V Leiden was not associated with the combined outcome of myocardial infarction and CHD death (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.92-1.16]; I2=28%; P-heterogeneity=0.12). Subgroup analysis according to baseline characteristics or strata of traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show relevant differences. Similarly, risk estimates for the secondary outcomes including stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were also close to identity. CONCLUSIONS: Factor V Leiden was not associated with increased risk of subsequent atherothrombotic events and mortality in high-risk participants with established and treated CHD. Routine assessment of factor V Leiden status is unlikely to improve atherothrombotic events risk stratification in this population.

20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 13: 2069-2080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606866

RESUMO

Purpose: Organic cation transporters (Octs) use cations like endogenous compounds, toxins, and drugs, such as metformin, as substrates. Therefore, these proteins determine the pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of metformin and thus its efficacy. Of note, metformin is today the most commonly used pharmaceutical in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with nevertheless a great variability in clinical response, which attributes to genetic variances. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of intronic OCT1 SNPs on prevalence of all-cause and cardiovascular death. Patients and Methods: Genotypes of 27 intronic SNPs in OCT1 were investigated in the LURIC study, a prospective cohort of 3316 participants scheduled for coronary angiography. We investigated whether these variants were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular death in 73 individuals with T2DM under metformin therapy, in individuals without diabetes, individuals with T2DM and individuals with T2DM without metformin therapy. Results: In a multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for classical cardiovascular risk factors, 4 intronic OCT1 SNPs were significantly associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with T2DM on metformin therapy. Conclusion: According to their OCT1 genotype, some individuals with T2DM on metformin therapy might be prone to an increased risk of cardiovascular death.

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