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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The CD40-CD40 Ligand (CD40L) system has an important role in vascular inflammation. For this reason, we assessed the association of soluble CD40L with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD40L were determined in 2759 persons using an enzyme immunoassay. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the association between plasma concentration of sCD40 ligand and short-term (12 months) and long-term (10 years) mortality. Subpopulation analyses were conducted in seven different risk groups. Cox regression models were adjusted for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: The present study did not reveal significant association between sCD40L plasma levels and all-cause mortality, as well as cardiovascular mortality at one-year follow-up. In selected subgroups only, significant association between elevated sCD40L plasma levels and short-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality could be observed. With regard to long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality analyses, no significant correlation with increased plasma levels of sCD40L could be detected, neither overall nor in any subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble sCD40L is not associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in this large cohort. Only in selected patient subgroups elevated levels of sCD40L correlate with short-term mortality but this correlation disappears in long-term analysis.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(17): 7083-7097, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency and excess are associated with increased risk of age-related-diseases and mortality. It has been suggested that high- and low-B12 concentrations link to increased mortality through accelerated genomic aging and inflammation. Evidence to support this is limited. RESULTS: B12 was associated with all-cause-mortality, RTL and hsCRP in a non-linear fashion. The association between B12 and mortality was not independent, as it lost significance after adjustment for potential confounders. In the lowest-(LB12) and highest-(HB12) quartiles of B12 mortality was higher than in the mid-range (HR:LB12:1.23;CI95%:1.06-1.43; HR:HB12:1.24;CI95%:1.06-1.44). We divided subjects with LB12 in quartiles of their RTL. Those with the longest-telomeres had a lower mortality-rate (HR:0.57;95%CI:0.39-0.83) and lower homocysteine than those with the shortest-telomeres. Amongst subjects with HB12, those with long-telomeres also had a lower mortality than those with short-telomeres (HR:0.40;95%CI:0.27-0.59). IL-6 and hsCRP concentrations were low in HB12LT but were high in HB12ST. METHODS: B12, homocysteine, telomere length (RTL), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitive-C-reactive-protein (hsCRP) were measured in 2970 participants of the LURIC study. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality, stratified according to B12 and RTL, seems to be driven by different mechanisms. In LB12 and HB12 subjects, mortality and accelerated telomere shortening might be driven by homocysteine and inflammation, respectively.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415634

RESUMO

AIMS: The international-normalized-ratio (INR) is typically used to monitor patients on warfarin or related oral anticoagulant therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of the INR with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients not on oral anticoagulant therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1997 to 2000 the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study enrolled 3316 patients of German ancestry that had been referred for coronary angiography. We excluded patients on coumarin therapy (n = 222) and patients with an INR more than 5 standard deviations (SD) away from the mean (n = 30). During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 884 patients died, 547 patients from cardiovascular causes. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors the INR was associated with all-cause mortality in all patients and the CAD positive group with HRs (95% CI) of 1.14(1.07-1.21) and 1.16(1.09-1.23) per 1-SD increase, respectively. Adjustment for NT-proBNP rendered the association insignificant. CONCLUSION: In LURIC, the INR was positively associated with mortality in patients with prevalent CAD not on oral anticoagulant therapy as well as in patients without CAD. Adjustment for NT-proBNP abolished the association suggesting clinical or subclinical heart failure strongly contributing to increased INR and higher mortality.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate biomarkers representing low-grade systemic inflammation and their association with cardiovascular mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. METHODS: The included 3134 consecutive patients underwent coronary angiography between June 1997 and May 2001 with a median follow-up of 9.9 years. Plasma levels of IL-6, and acute-phase reactants serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. SAA and IL-6 polymorphisms were genotyped. RESULTS: During a median observation time of 9.9 years, 949 deaths (30.3%) occurred, of these 597 (19.2%) died from cardiovascular causes. High plasma levels of IL-6, CRP and SAA were associated with unstable CAD, as well as established risk factors including type 2 diabetes mellitus, smoking, low glomerular filtration rate, low TGs and low HDL-C. After adjusting for established cardiovascular risk markers and the other two inflammatory markers, SAA was found to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality after a short-term follow-up (6 months-1 year) with a HR per SD of 1.41. IL-6 was identified as an independent risk factor for long-term follow-up (3, 5, and 9.9 years) with HRs per SD of 1.21, 1.22 and 1.18. CRP lost significance after adjustment. Although 6 out of 27 SAA SNPs were significantly associated with SAA plasma concentrations, the genetic risk score was not associated with cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings from the large, prospective LURIC cohort underline the importance of inflammation in CAD and the prognostic relevance of inflammatory biomarkers that independently predict cardiovascular mortality.

6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low individual socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for morbidity and mortality. A related measure is the area-based SES (abSES), which describes the average SES of a region. The association of measures of abSES with morbidity and mortality is less well studied. METHODS: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study consists of 3316 patients hospitalized for coronary angiography between 1997 and 2000 at a tertiary care centre in Germany. Patients were followed up for a median of 10 years. Two measures of abSES were used: the regional purchasing index (PPI, data obtained from IQVIA GmbH) and the German Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (GISD, developed by the Robert-Koch Institute). The association of abSES with disease and with mortality was analysed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. RESULTS: Study participants living in regions with higher abSES had lower HbA1c and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. A higher abSES was associated with lower prevalence of active smoking, vitamin D deficiency and diabetes mellitus. We further found significantly increased mortality for participants in the lowest PPI quartile (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.38-0.90) as compared to the first quartile), and in the highest GISD tertile (HR of 1.32 (1.13-1.54) as compared to the first tertile). CONCLUSION: Living in an area with a low abSES was associated with a higher burden of diabetes mellitus, a higher percentage of severe vitamin D deficiency, higher systemic inflammation and a significant increase in mortality.

7.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Short telomeres and B vitamin deficiencies have been proposed as risk factors for age-related diseases and mortality that interact through oxidative stress and inflammation. However, available data to support this concept are insufficient. We aimed to investigate the predictive role of B vitamins and homocysteine (HCY) for mortality in cardiovascular patients. We explored potential relationships between HCY, B vitamins, relative telomere length (RTL), and indices of inflammation. METHODS: Vitamin B6, HCY, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and RTL were measured in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. Death events were recorded over a median follow-up of 9.9 years. RESULTS: All-cause mortality increased with higher concentrations of HCY and lower vitamin B6. Patients in the 4th quartile of HCY and vitamin B6 had hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality of 2.77 (95% CI 2.28-3.37) and 0.41(95% CI 0.33-0.49), respectively, and for cardiovascular mortality of 2.78 (95% CI 2.29-3.39) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.33-0.49), respectively, compared to those in the 1st quartile. Multiple adjustments for confounders did not change these results. HCY and vitamin B6 correlated with age-corrected RTL (r = - 0.086, p < 0.001; r = 0.04, p = 0.031, respectively), IL-6 (r = 0.148, p < 0.001; r = - 0.249, p < 0.001, respectively), and hs-CRP (r = 0.101, p < 0.001; r = - 0.320, p < 0.001, respectively). Subjects with the longest telomeres had a significantly higher concentration of vitamin B6, but lower concentrations of HCY, IL-6, and hs-CRP. Multiple regression analyses identified HCY as an independent negative predictor of age-corrected RTL. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin B6 deficiency are risk factors for death from any cause. Hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin B6 deficiency correlate with increased mortality. This correlation might, at least partially, be explained by accelerated telomere shortening induced by oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these circumstances.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infraction (MI) using Mendelian randomization (MR) used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust MR methodologies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both CHD and MI using MR. We used both an allele score approach and pleiotropy robust MR models. The allele score was composed of 38 fibrinogen-associated variants from recent GWAS. Initial analyses using the allele score used a meta-analysis of 11 European-ancestry prospective cohorts, free of CHD and MI at baseline, to examine incidence CHD and MI. We also applied 2 sample MR methods with data from a prevalent CHD and MI GWAS. Results are given in terms of the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on the study design, and associated 95% confidence interval (CI). In single variant analyses no causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD or MI was observed. In multi-variant analyses using incidence CHD cases and the allele score approach, the estimated causal effect (HR) of a 1 g/L higher fibrinogen concentration was 1.62 (CI = 1.12, 2.36) when using incident cases and the allele score approach. In 2 sample MR analyses that accounted for pleiotropy, the causal estimate (OR) was reduced to 1.18 (CI = 0.98, 1.42) and 1.09 (CI = 0.89, 1.33) in the 2 most precise (smallest CI) models, out of 4 models evaluated. In the 2 sample MR analyses for MI, there was only very weak evidence of a causal effect in only 1 out of 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: A small causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD is observed using multi-variant MR approaches which account for pleiotropy, but not single variant MR approaches. Taken together, results indicate that even with large sample sizes and multi-variant approaches MR analyses still cannot exclude the null when estimating the causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD, but that any potential causal effect is likely to be much smaller than observed in epidemiological studies.

9.
Clin Chem ; 65(7): 849-861, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia has been shown to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality, whereas the role of iron metabolism remains controversial. METHODS: We analyzed iron metabolism and its associations with cardiovascular death and total mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography with a median follow-up of 9.9 years. Hemoglobin and iron status were determined in 1480 patients with stable CAD and in 682 individuals in whom significant CAD had been excluded by angiography. RESULTS: Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total mortality in the lowest quartiles of iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were 1.22 (95% CI, 0.96-1.60), 1.23 (95% CI, 0.97-1.56), 1.27 (95% CI, 1.02-1.58), 1.26 (95% CI, 0.97-1.65), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.79-1.24), respectively, compared to the second or third quartile, which served as reference (1.00) because of a J-shaped association. The corresponding HRs for total mortality in the highest quartiles were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.10-1.87), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.05-1.77), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.92-1.50), 1.76 (95% CI, 1.39-2.22), and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.63-1.09). HRs for cardiovascular death were similar. For hepcidin, the adjusted HRs for total mortality and cardiovascular deaths were 0.62 (95% CI, 0.49-0.78) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.52-0.90) in the highest quartile compared to the lowest one. CONCLUSIONS: In stable patients undergoing angiography, serum iron, transferrin saturation, sTfR, and ferritin had J-shaped associations and hemoglobin only a marginal association with cardiovascular and total mortality. Hepcidin was continuously and inversely related to mortality.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2750, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809046

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for onset and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Discovery of predisposing loci for kidney function in CAD patients was performed using a genome-wide association approach. Inclusion criteria were CAD with ≥50% stenosis (≥1 coronary artery) and a creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-75 ml/min/1.73 m2. An association of rs139401390 located to a region 58.8 kb upstream of renalase (RNLS) with eGFR was detected in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study (n = 499, p = 7.88 × 10-9, mean eGFR 60.7 ml/min/1.73 m2). Direct genotyping of rs139401390A > G suggested increased eGFR by 12.0 ml/min/1.73 m2 per A allele (p = 0.000004). Genome-wide replication of rs139401390A > G in the Coronary Artery Disease and Renal Failure (CAD-REF) registry with a mean eGFR of 47.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 574, p = 0.033) was only nominally significant. Comparison of rs139401390 genotypes for risk of reduced kidney function in the overall LURIC study revealed higher adjusted odds ratios (OR) for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for CAD patients (n = 1992, OR = 2.36, p = 0.008, G/A + G/G vs A/A) compared to patients with/without CAD (n = 2908, OR = 1.97, p = 0.014, G/A + G/G vs A/A). No significant risk elevation was detected in patients without CAD (n = 948, p = 0.571). rs139401390 may affect kidney function in CAD patients with mild reduction in eGFR.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1101, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705337

RESUMO

Guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases use risk scores to guide the intensity of treatment. A comparison of these scores in a German population has not been performed. We have evaluated the correlation, discrimination and calibration of ten commonly used risk equations in primary care in 4044 participants of the DETECT (Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Evaluation: Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment) study. The risk equations correlate well with each other. All risk equations have a similar discriminatory power. Absolute risks differ widely, in part due to the components of clinical endpoints predicted: The risk equations produced median risks between 8.4% and 2.0%. With three out of 10 risk scores calculated and observed risks well coincided. At a risk threshold of 10 percent in 10 years, the ACC/AHA atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) equation has a sensitivity to identify future CVD events of approximately 80%, with the highest specificity (69%) and positive predictive value (17%) among all the equations. Due to the most precise calibration over a wide range of risks, the large age range covered and the combined endpoint including non-fatal and fatal events, the ASCVD equation provides valid risk prediction for primary prevention in Germany.

12.
Atherosclerosis ; 282: 37-44, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides have been associated with prevalent angiographic coronary artery disease. The present analysis was designed to investigate the association of LDL triglycerides with cardiovascular mortality and to explore possible mechanisms that may link LDL triglycerides to cardiovascular risk. METHODS: LDL triglycerides were measured in 3140 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. They were prospectively followed for cardiovascular mortality (median duration 9.9 years). Genome wide association data for LDL triglycerides were available for 2900 LURIC participants. Genetic data and measurements of hepatic lipase activity were available for 478 participants of the HERITAGE Family study. Genome wide association data for cardiovascular disease were available for 184,305 participants of the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. RESULTS: There was a continuous positive association between LDL triglycerides and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for 5th vs. 1st quintile = 2.53, p < 0.001) and this association was similar in males and females. Genome wide association analysis in LURIC revealed that LDL triglycerides were strongly associated with variation in the hepatic lipase region (p < 10-15 for rs1800588 and rs10468017). The LDL triglyceride raising alleles in rs1800588 and rs10468017 were associated with low hepatic lipase activity in HERITAGE and increased cardiovascular risk in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis (HERITAGE and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) using rs1800588 and rs10468017 as instrumental variable suggested that low hepatic lipase activity may cause increased cardiovascular risk (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Low hepatic lipase activity may link high LDL triglycerides to increased cardiovascular risk.

13.
Blood ; 133(9): 967-977, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642921

RESUMO

Factor VII (FVII) is an important component of the coagulation cascade. Few genetic loci regulating FVII activity and/or levels have been discovered to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies of plasma FVII levels (7 FVII activity and 2 FVII antigen) among 27 495 participants of European and African ancestry. Each study performed ancestry-specific association analyses. Inverse variance weighted meta-analysis was performed within each ancestry group and then combined for a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Our primary analysis included the 7 studies that measured FVII activity, and a secondary analysis included all 9 studies. We provided functional genomic validation for newly identified significant loci by silencing candidate genes in a human liver cell line (HuH7) using small-interfering RNA and then measuring F7 messenger RNA and FVII protein expression. Lastly, we used meta-analysis results to perform Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of FVII activity on coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke (IS), and venous thromboembolism. We identified 2 novel (REEP3 and JAZF1-AS1) and 6 known loci associated with FVII activity, explaining 19.0% of the phenotypic variance. Adding FVII antigen data to the meta-analysis did not result in the discovery of further loci. Silencing REEP3 in HuH7 cells upregulated FVII, whereas silencing JAZF1 downregulated FVII. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest that FVII activity has a positive causal effect on the risk of IS. Variants at REEP3 and JAZF1 contribute to FVII activity by regulating F7 expression levels. FVII activity appears to contribute to the etiology of IS in the general population.

14.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609725

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine if increased mortality associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reflects a causal relationship by using a Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach with genetic variants in the vitamin D synthesis pathway. Individual participant data from three European cohorts were harmonized with standardization of 25(OH)D according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program. Most relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes CYP2R1 (rs12794714, rs10741657) and DHCR7/NADSYN1 (rs12785878, rs11234027), were combined in two allelic scores. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used with the ratio estimator and the delta method for calculating the hazards ratio (HR) and standard error of genetically determined 25(OH)D effect on all-cause mortality. We included 10,501 participants (50.1% females, 67.1±10.1 years) of whom 4003 died during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. The observed adjusted HR for all-cause mortality per decrease in 25(OH)D by 20 nmol/L was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.15⁻1.25). The HR per 20 nmol/L decrease in genetically determined 25(OH)D was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.80⁻2.24) and 1.35 (95% CI of 0.81 to 2.37) based on the two scores. In conclusion, the results of this MR study in a combined sample from three European cohort studies provide further support for a causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and increased all-cause mortality. However, as the current study, even with ~10,000 participants, was underpowered for the study of the effect of the allele score on mortality, larger studies on genetics and mortality are needed to improve the precision.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/genética , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/metabolismo , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/sangue
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 475, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679668

RESUMO

Soluble urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (suPAR) is risk factor for kidney disease and biomarker for cardiovascular outcomes but long term longitudinal analyses in a large European cohort have not been perfomed. To hus, we studied suPAR in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study over a very long follow-up time of nearly 10 years. We estimated overall risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death by Cox proportional hazards regression according to quartiles of suPAR, including age, sex, use of lipid-lowering drugs, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, lipids, as well as glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), NT-proBNP, interleukin-6 and high-sensitive CRP as covariates. A total of 2940 participants (age 62.7 ± 10.5years) having a median eGFR of 83.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 were included. The median suPAR concentration was 3010 pg/mL (interquartile range, 2250-3988 pg/mL). Using the lowest quartile of suPAR as the reference, crude hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality were 1.58 (95% CI 1.16-2.16), 1.85 (95% CI 1.37-2.52) and 2.75 (95% CI 2.03-3.71) in the second, third and fourth quartile, respectively. Adjusting for NT-proBNPeGFR or inflammation (interleukin-6 and high-sensitive CRP) confirmed results. suPAR predicts all-cause and cardiovascular death over a period of ten years in persons undergoing coronary angiography, independent of the natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP, kidney function and of markers of systemic inflammation. Future investigation into a potential causal role of suPAR in cardiovascular disease is warranted.

16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 144-152, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673084

RESUMO

Importance: Increased free thyroxine (FT4) and decreased thyrotropin are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in observational studies, but direct involvement is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the potential direct involvement of thyroid traits on AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Study-level mendelian randomization (MR) included 11 studies, and summary-level MR included 55 114 AF cases and 482 295 referents, all of European ancestry. Exposures: Genomewide significant variants were used as instruments for standardized FT4 and thyrotropin levels within the reference range, standardized triiodothyronine (FT3):FT4 ratio, hypothyroidism, standardized thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and hyperthyroidism. Mendelian randomization used genetic risk scores in study-level analysis or individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2-sample MR for the summary-level data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident AF. Results: The study-level analysis included 7679 individuals with AF and 49 233 referents (mean age [standard error], 62 [3] years; 15 859 men [29.7%]). In study-level random-effects meta-analysis, the pooled hazard ratio of FT4 levels (nanograms per deciliter) for incident AF was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.20; P = .02; I2 = 76%) and the pooled odds ratio (OR) for prevalent AF was 2.80 (95% CI, 1.41-5.54; P = .003; I2 = 64%) in multivariable-adjusted analyses. The FT4 genetic risk score was associated with an increase in FT4 by 0.082 SD (standard error, 0.007; P < .001) but not with incident AF (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62-1.14; P = .27) or prevalent AF (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.64-2.73; P = .46). Similarly, in summary-level inverse-variance weighted random-effects MR, gene-based FT4 within the reference range was not associated with AF (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14; P = .88). However, gene-based increased FT3:FT4 ratio, increased thyrotropin within the reference range, and hypothyroidism were associated with AF with inverse-variance weighted random-effects OR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.63; P = .006), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P < .001), and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P = .009), respectively, and robust to tests of horizontal pleiotropy. However, the subset of hypothyroidism single-nucleotide polymorphisms involved in autoimmunity and thyroid peroxidase antibodies levels were not associated with AF. Gene-based hyperthyroidism was associated with AF with MR-Egger OR of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.05-1.63; P = .02) with evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (P = .045). Conclusions and Relevance: Genetically increased FT3:FT4 ratio and hyperthyroidism, but not FT4 within the reference range, were associated with increased AF, and increased thyrotropin within the reference range and hypothyroidism were associated with decreased AF, supporting a pathway involving the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(1): 37-55, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547256

RESUMO

This study was performed to highlight the relationship between single dietary risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the WHO European Region. We used the comparative risk assessment framework of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate CVD mortality attributable to diet; comprising eleven forms of CVDs, twelve food and nutrient groups and 27 risk-outcome pairs in four GBD regions including 51 countries by age and sex between 1990 and 2016. In 2016, dietary risks were associated with 2.1 million cardiovascular deaths (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 1.7-2.5 million) in the WHO European Region, accounting for 22.4% of all deaths and 49.2% of CVD deaths. In terms of single dietary risks, a diet low in whole grains accounted for approximately 429,000 deaths, followed by a diet low in nuts and seeds (341,000 deaths), a diet low in fruits (262,000 deaths), a diet high in sodium (251,000 deaths), and a diet low in omega-3 fatty acids (227,000 deaths). Thus, with an optimized, i.e. balanced diet, roughly one in every five premature deaths could be prevented. Although age-standardized death rates decreased over the last 26 years, the absolute number of diet-related cardiovascular deaths increased between 2010 and 2016 by 25,600 deaths in Western Europe and by 4300 deaths in Central Asia. In 2016, approximately 601,000 deaths (28.6% of all diet-related CVD deaths) occurred among adults younger than 70 years. Compared to other behavioural risk factors, a balanced diet is a potential key lever to avoid premature deaths.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade Prematura , Fatores de Risco
18.
Circulation ; 139(5): 620-635, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF. METHODS: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. RESULTS: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10-8) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

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