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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223337, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA sequencing has been proposed as a means of increasing diagnostic rates in studies of undiagnosed rare inherited disease. Recent studies have reported diagnostic improvements in the range of 7.5-35% by profiling splicing, gene expression quantification and allele specific expression. To-date however, no study has systematically assessed the presence of gene-fusion transcripts in cases of germline disease. Fusion transcripts are routinely identified in cancer studies and are increasingly recognized as having diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic relevance. Isolated reports exist of fusion transcripts being detected in cases of developmental and neurological phenotypes, and thus, systematic application of fusion detection to germline conditions may further increase diagnostic rates. However, current fusion detection methods are unsuited to the investigation of germline disease due to performance biases arising from their development using tumor, cell-line or in-silico data. METHODS: We describe a tailored approach to fusion candidate identification and prioritization in a cohort of 47 undiagnosed, suspected inherited disease patients. We modify an existing fusion transcript detection algorithm by eliminating its cell line-derived filtering steps, and instead, prioritize candidates using a custom workflow that integrates genomic and transcriptomic sequence alignment, biological and technical annotations, customized categorization logic, and phenotypic prioritization. RESULTS: We demonstrate that our approach to fusion transcript identification and prioritization detects genuine fusion events excluded by standard analyses and efficiently removes phenotypically unimportant candidates and false positive events, resulting in a reduced candidate list enriched for events with potential phenotypic relevance. We describe the successful genetic resolution of two previously undiagnosed disease cases through the detection of pathogenic fusion transcripts. Furthermore, we report the experimental validation of five additional cases of fusion transcripts with potential phenotypic relevance. CONCLUSIONS: The approach we describe can be implemented to enable the detection of phenotypically relevant fusion transcripts in studies of rare inherited disease. Fusion transcript detection has the potential to increase diagnostic rates in rare inherited disease and should be included in RNA-based analytical pipelines aimed at genetic diagnosis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427378

RESUMO

Diagnostic Exome Sequencing yields a single genetic diagnosis in approximately 30% of cases, and according to recent studies the prevalence of identifying two genetic conditions in a single individual ranges between 4.6 and 7%. We present a patient diagnosed with three different rare conditions, each explained by a pathogenic mutation in a different gene. A 17 year old female was evaluated for history of motor and speech delay, scoliosis, distinctive craniofacial features and dry skin in the Department of Clinical Genomics at Mayo Clinic. Her distinctive features included prominent forehead, epicanthus, depressed nasal bridge, narrow mouth, prognathism, malar flattening and oligodontia. Family history was notable for dry skin in her mother and missing teeth in the paternal grandmother. Previous diagnostic testing was unrevealing including biochemical testing, echocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound and electroencephalogram. Previous genetic testing included a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization that was reported normal. Three pathogenic loss-of-function heterozygous variants were identified by exome trio sequencing, each linked to different genetic conditions: SIN3A (Witteveen-Kolk syndrome), FLG (dermatitis) and EDAR (ectodermal dysplasia). Together, these three genetic alterations could explain the patient's overall phenotype. This patient demonstrates the importance of performing a thorough curation of exome data when presented with a complex phenotype. Although phenotypic variability can explain some of these situations, the hypothesis of multiple diseases co-existing in a single patient should never be disregarded completely.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(9): 1753-1768, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate experience and feasibility of a precision medicine approach for patients with unexplained cytopenias, defined as low blood counts in one or more cell lineages, persistent for 6 months or longer, in the absence of known nutritional, autoimmune, infectious, toxic, and neoplastic (secondary) causes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were evaluated in our clinic between November 8, 2016, and January 12, 2018. After a thorough evaluation of known causes, family history, and appropriate clinical assays, genomic evaluation was performed in a stepwise manner, through Sanger, targeted, and/or whole-exome sequencing. Variants were analyzed and discussed in a genomics tumor board attended by clinicians, bioinformaticians, and molecular biologists. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were evaluated in our clinic. After genomic interrogation, they were classified into inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) (n=24, 35%), cytopenias without a known clinical syndrome which included idiopathic and clonal cytopenias of undetermined significance (CCUS) (n=30, 44%), and patients who did not fit into the above two categories ("others," n=14, 21%). A significant family history was found in only 17 (25%) patients (9 IBMFS, 2 CCUS, and 6 others), whereas gene variants were found in 43 (63%) patients (34 [79%] pathogenic including 12 IBMFS, 17 CCUS, and 5 others]. Genomic assessment resulted in a change in clinical management in 17 (25%) patients, as evidenced by changes in decisions with regards to therapeutic interventions (n=8, 47%), donor choice (n=6, 35%), and/or choice of conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=8, 47%). CONCLUSION: We show clinical utility of a real-world algorithmic precision medicine approach for unexplained cytopenias.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the chromatin organizer CTCF were previously reported in seven individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). METHODS: Through international collaboration we collected data from 39 subjects with variants in CTCF. We performed transcriptome analysis on RNA from blood samples and utilized Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of Ctcf dosage alteration on nervous system development and function. RESULTS: The individuals in our cohort carried 2 deletions, 8 likely gene-disruptive, 2 splice-site, and 20 different missense variants, most of them de novo. Two cases were familial. The associated phenotype was of variable severity extending from mild developmental delay or normal IQ to severe intellectual disability. Feeding difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were common, and variable other findings including growth restriction and cardiac defects were observed. RNA-sequencing in five individuals identified 3828 deregulated genes enriched for known NDD genes and biological processes such as transcriptional regulation. Ctcf dosage alteration in Drosophila resulted in impaired gross neurological functioning and learning and memory deficits. CONCLUSION: We significantly broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum of CTCF-associated NDDs. Our data shed light onto the functional role of CTCF by identifying deregulated genes and show that Ctcf alterations result in nervous system defects in Drosophila.

5.
Proteins ; 87(11): 904-916, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152607

RESUMO

Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) is a protein that mediates cancer-associated processes in the cell nucleus. Proteomic experiments, reported here, demonstrate that HP1α complexes with importin α (IMPα), a protein necessary for its nuclear transport. This data is congruent with Simple Linear Motif (SLiM) analyses that identify an IMPα-binding motif within the linker that joins the two globular domains of this protein. Using molecular modeling and dynamics simulations, we develop a model of the IMPα-HP1α complex and investigate the impact of phosphorylation and genomic variants on their interaction. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of the HP1α linker likely regulates its association with IMPα, which has implications for HP1α access to the nucleus, where it functions. Cancer-associated genomic variants do not abolish the interaction of HP1α but instead lead to rearrangements where the variant proteins maintain interaction with IMPα, but with less specificity. Combined, this new mechanistic insight bears biochemical, cell biological, and biomedical relevance.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 108-121, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204009

RESUMO

Pediatric acute liver failure (ALF) is life threatening with genetic, immunologic, and environmental etiologies. Approximately half of all cases remain unexplained. Recurrent ALF (RALF) in infants describes repeated episodes of severe liver injury with recovery of hepatic function between crises. We describe bi-allelic RINT1 alterations as the cause of a multisystem disorder including RALF and skeletal abnormalities. Three unrelated individuals with RALF onset ≤3 years of age have splice alterations at the same position (c.1333+1G>A or G>T) in trans with a missense (p.Ala368Thr or p.Leu370Pro) or in-frame deletion (p.Val618_Lys619del) in RINT1. ALF episodes are concomitant with fever/infection and not all individuals have complete normalization of liver function testing between episodes. Liver biopsies revealed nonspecific liver damage including fibrosis, steatosis, or mild increases in Kupffer cells. Skeletal imaging revealed abnormalities affecting the vertebrae and pelvis. Dermal fibroblasts showed splice-variant mediated skipping of exon 9 leading to an out-of-frame product and nonsense-mediated transcript decay. Fibroblasts also revealed decreased RINT1 protein, abnormal Golgi morphology, and impaired autophagic flux compared to control. RINT1 interacts with NBAS, recently implicated in RALF, and UVRAG, to facilitate Golgi-to-ER retrograde vesicle transport. During nutrient depletion or infection, Golgi-to-ER transport is suppressed and autophagy is promoted through UVRAG regulation by mTOR. Aberrant autophagy has been associated with the development of similar skeletal abnormalities and also with liver disease, suggesting that disruption of these RINT1 functions may explain the liver and skeletal findings. Clarifying the pathomechanism underlying this gene-disease relationship may inform therapeutic opportunities.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1764-1777, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240838

RESUMO

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disorder principally characterized by calcification and ossification of spinal ligaments and entheses. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant disabling disorder characterized by progressive ossification of skeletal muscle, fascia, tendons, and ligaments. These conditions manifest phenotypic overlap in the ossification of tendons and ligaments. We describe herein a patient with DISH, exhibiting heterotopic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament where clinical whole exome sequencing identified a variant within ACVR1, a gene implicated in FOP. This variant, p.K400E, is a novel variant, not identified previously, and occurs in a highly conserved region across orthologs. We used sequence-based predicative algorithms, molecular modeling, and molecular dynamics simulations, to test the potential for p.K400E to alter the structure and dynamics of ACVR1. We applied the same modeling and simulation methods to established FOP variants, to identify the detailed effects that they have on the ACVR1 protein, as well as to act as positive controls against which the effects of p.K400E could be evaluated. Our in silico molecular analyses support p.K400E as altering the behavior of ACVR1. In addition, functional testing to measure the effect of this variant on BMP-pSMAD 1/5/8 target genes was carried out which revealed this variant to cause increased ID1 and Msx2 expression compared with the wild-type receptor. This analysis supports the potential for the variant of uncertain significance to contribute to the patient's phenotype.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(9): 1379-1388, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053785

RESUMO

Microphthalmia with brain and digital anomalies (MCOPS6, MIM# 607932) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by loss-of-function variants or large deletions involving BMP4, which encodes bone morphogenetic protein 4, a member of the TGF-ß protein superfamily. BMP4 has a number of roles in embryonic development including neurogenesis, lens induction, development of cartilage and bone, urogenital development, limb and digit patterning, hair follicle regeneration, as well as tooth formation. In addition to syndromic microphthalmia, BMP4 variants have been implicated in non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and congenital healed cleft lip indicating different allelic presentations. MCOPS6 subjects may also lack some of the major phenotypic hallmarks of the disorder, including microphthalmia, indicating variable expressivity. As only a handful of individuals with MCOPS6 have been described, we review the clinical findings in previously reported cases with either deletions or loss-of-function variants in BMP4. We describe three new cases, including two subjects with novel deletions and one subject with a likely pathogenic de novo nonsense variant [c.1052C>G, p.(S351*)] in BMP4. One of the subjects had dual molecular diagnoses including a co-occurring microdeletion at 17q21.31 associated with Koolen de Vries syndrome, which has a partially overlapping disease phenotype. None of these individuals had clinically apparent microphthalmia or anopthalmia, which have been reported in a majority of previously described cases. One subject had exophthalmia and strabismus, while another had bilateral Peters anomaly and sclerocornea, thus expanding the phenotype associated with BMP4 loss-of-function variants.

9.
Cell Cycle ; 18(12): 1407-1421, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130069

RESUMO

Heterochromatin Protein 1 α (HP1α) associates with members of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) during mitosis, at centromeres where it is required for full Aurora Kinase B (AURKB) activity. Conversely, recent reports have identified AURKB as the major kinase responsible for phosphorylation of HP1α at Serine 92 (S92) during mitosis. Thus, the current study was designed to better understand the functional role of this posttranslationally modified form of HP1α. We find that S92-phosphorylated HP1α is generated in cells at early prophase, localizes to centromeres, and associates with regulators of chromosome stability, such as Inner Centromere Protein, INCENP. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, HP1α knockout alone or reconstituted with a non-phosphorylatable (S92A) HP1α mutant results in mitotic chromosomal instability characterized by the formation of anaphase/telophase chromatin bridges and micronuclei. These effects are rescued by exogenous expression of wild type HP1α or a phosphomimetic (S92D) variant. Thus, the results from the current study extend our knowledge of the role of HP1α in chromosomal stability during mitosis.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1225-1234, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976111

RESUMO

The DOCK3 gene encodes the Dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) protein, which belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors and is expressed almost exclusively in the brain and spinal cord. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the molecular cause of developmental delay and hypotonia in three unrelated probands. WES identified truncating and splice site variants in Patient 1 and compound heterozygous and homozygous missense variants in Patients 2 and 3, respectively. We studied the effect of the three missense variants in vitro by using site-directed mutagenesis and pull-down assay and show that the induction of Rac1 activation was significantly lower in DOCK3 mutant cells compared with wild type human DOCK3 (P < 0.05). We generated a protein model to further examine the effect of the two missense variants within or adjacent to the DHR-2 domain in DOCK3 and this model supports pathogenicity. Our results support a loss of function mechanism but the data on the patients with missense variants should be cautiously interpreted because of the variability of the phenotypes and limited number of cases. Prior studies have described DOCK3 bi-allelic loss of function variants in two families with ataxia, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Here, we report on three patients with DOCK3-related developmental delay, wide-based or uncoordinated gait, and hypotonia, further supporting DOCK3's role in a neurodevelopmental syndrome and expanding the spectrum of phenotypic and genotypic variability.

11.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(5): 460-466, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990878

RESUMO

Pathogenic hemizygous variants in the SH2D1A gene cause X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome, a rare primary immunodeficiency usually associated with fatal Epstein-Barr virus infection. Disease onset is typically in early childhood, and the average life expectancy of affected males is ∼11 years. We describe clinical, radiographic, neuropathologic, and genetic features of a 49-year-old man presenting with central nervous system vasculitis that was reminiscent of adult primary angiitis but which was unresponsive to treatment. The patient had 2 brothers; 1 died of aplastic anemia at age 13 and another died of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in his sixties. Exome sequencing of the patient and his older brother identified a novel hemizygous variant in SH2D1A (c.35G>T, p.Ser12Ile), which encodes the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). Molecular modeling and functional analysis showed that this variant had decreased protein stability, similar to other pathogenic missense variants in SH2D1A. The family described in this report highlights the broadly heterogeneous clinical presentations of XLP and the accompanying diagnostic challenges in individuals presenting in adulthood. In addition, this report raises the possibility of a biphasic distribution of XLP cases, some of which may be mistaken for age-related malignancies and autoimmune conditions.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 570-578, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734472

RESUMO

DDX3X (Xp11.4) encodes a DEAD-box RNA helicase that escapes X chromosome inactivation. Pathogenic variants in DDX3X have been shown to cause X-linked intellectual disability (ID) (MRX102, MIM: 300958). The phenotypes associated with DDX3X variants are heterogeneous and include brain and behavioral abnormalities, microcephaly, hypotonia, and movement disorders and/or spasticity. The majority of DDX3X variants described are de novo mutations in females with ID. In contrast, most male DDX3X variants are inherited from an unaffected mother, with one documented exception being a recently identified de novo splice site variant. It has been suggested, therefore, that DDX3X exerts its effects through haploinsufficiency in females, and that affected males carry hypomorphic alleles that retain partial function. Given the lack of male de novo DDX3X variants, loss-of-function variants in this gene are suspected to be male lethal. Through whole-exome sequencing, we identified three unrelated males with hemizygous missense DDX3X variants and ID. All three variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, with two established as de novo. In silico analyses were supportive of pathogenicity. We report the male phenotypes and compare them to phenotypes observed in previously reported male and female patients. In conclusion, we propose that de novo DDX3X variants are not necessarily male lethal and should be considered as a cause of syndromic ID in both males and females.

15.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1238-e1249, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B, encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools. RESULTS: We describe 17 new variants in STX1B, which are distributed across the whole gene. We discerned 4 different phenotypic groups across the newly identified and previously published patients (49 patients in 23 families): (1) 6 sporadic patients or families (31 affected individuals) with febrile and afebrile seizures with a benign course, generally good drug response, normal development, and without permanent neurologic deficits; (2) 2 patients with genetic generalized epilepsy without febrile seizures and cognitive deficits; (3) 13 patients or families with intractable seizures, developmental regression after seizure onset and additional neuropsychiatric symptoms; (4) 2 patients with focal epilepsy. More often, we found loss-of-function mutations in benign syndromes, whereas missense variants in the SNARE motif of syntaxin-1B were associated with more severe phenotypes. CONCLUSION: These data expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of STX1B-related epilepsies to a diverse range of epilepsies that span the International League Against Epilepsy classification. Variants in STX1B are protean and contribute to many different epilepsy phenotypes, similar to SCN1A, the most important gene associated with fever-associated epilepsies.

16.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(4): 533-540, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778614

RESUMO

Genetic variants in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are known to cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), occurring in up to 1 in 200 people (Youngblom E. et al. 1993 and Nordestgaard BG et al. 34:3478-3490a, 2013) and leading to significant risk for heart disease. Clinical genomics testing using high-throughput sequencing is identifying novel genomic variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in individuals suspected of having FH, but for whom the causal link to the disease remains to be established (Nordestgaard BG et al. 34:3478-3490a, 2013). Unfortunately, experimental data about the atomic structure of the LDL binding domains of LDLR at extracellular pH does not exist. This leads to an inability to apply protein structure-based methods for assessing novel variants identified through genetic testing. Thus, the ambiguities in interpretation of LDLR variants are a barrier to achieving the expected clinical value for personalized genomics assays for management of FH. In this study, we integrated data from the literature and related cellular receptors to develop high-resolution models of full-length LDLR at extracellular conditions and use them to predict which VUS alter LDL binding. We believe that the functional effects of LDLR variants can be resolved using a combination of structural bioinformatics and functional assays, leading to a better correlation with clinical presentation. We have completed modeling of LDLR in two major physiologic conditions, generating detailed hypotheses for how each of the 1007 reported protein variants may affect function. KEY MESSAGES: • Hundreds of variants are observed in the LDLR, but most lack interpretation. • Molecular modeling is aided by biochemical knowledge. • We generated context-specific 3D protein models of LDLR. • Our models allowed mechanistic interpretation of many variants. • We interpreted both rare and common genomic variants in their physiologic context. • Effects of genomic variants are often context-specific.

17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(3): e00560, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe a patient presenting with pachygyria, epilepsy, developmental delay, short stature, failure to thrive, facial dysmorphisms, and multiple osteochondromas. METHODS: The patient underwent extensive genetic testing and analysis in an attempt to diagnose the cause of his condition. Clinical testing included metaphase karyotyping, array comparative genomic hybridization, direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and trio-based exome sequencing. Subsequently, research-based whole transcriptome sequencing was conducted to determine whether it might shed light on the undiagnosed phenotype. RESULTS: Clinical exome sequencing of patient and parent samples revealed a maternally inherited splice-site variant in the doublecortin (DCX) gene that was classified as likely pathogenic and diagnostic of the patient's neurological phenotype. Clinical array comparative genome hybridization analysis revealed a 16p13.3 deletion that could not be linked to the patient phenotype based on affected genes. Further clinical testing to determine the cause of the patient's multiple osteochondromas was unrevealing despite extensive profiling of the most likely causative genes, EXT1 and EXT2, including mutation screening by direct sequence analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Whole transcriptome sequencing identified a SAMD12-EXT1 fusion transcript that could have resulted from a chromosomal deletion, leading to the loss of EXT1 function. Re-review of the clinical array comparative genomic hybridization results indicated a possible unreported mosaic deletion affecting the SAMD12 and EXT1 genes that corresponded precisely to the introns predicted to be affected by a fusion-causing deletion. The existence of the mosaic deletion was subsequently confirmed clinically by an increased density copy number array and orthogonal methodologies CONCLUSIONS: While mosaic mutations and deletions of EXT1 and EXT2 have been reported in the context of multiple osteochondromas, to our knowledge, this is the first time that transcriptomics technologies have been used to diagnose a patient via fusion transcript analysis in the congenital disease setting.


Assuntos
Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/genética , Fusão Gênica , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Criança , Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/patologia , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Motivo Estéril alfa/genética
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

19.
J Clin Invest ; 129(3): 1240-1256, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620337

RESUMO

Sphingolipid imbalance is the culprit in a variety of neurological diseases, some affecting the myelin sheath. We have used whole-exome sequencing in patients with undetermined leukoencephalopathies to uncover the endoplasmic reticulum lipid desaturase DEGS1 as the causative gene in 19 patients from 13 unrelated families. Shared features among the cases include severe motor arrest, early nystagmus, dystonia, spasticity, and profound failure to thrive. MRI showed hypomyelination, thinning of the corpus callosum, and progressive thalamic and cerebellar atrophy, suggesting a critical role of DEGS1 in myelin development and maintenance. This enzyme converts dihydroceramide (DhCer) into ceramide (Cer) in the final step of the de novo biosynthesis pathway. We detected a marked increase of the substrate DhCer and DhCer/Cer ratios in patients' fibroblasts and muscle. Further, we used a knockdown approach for disease modeling in Danio rerio, followed by a preclinical test with the first-line treatment for multiple sclerosis, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya). The enzymatic inhibition of Cer synthase by fingolimod, 1 step prior to DEGS1 in the pathway, reduced the critical DhCer/Cer imbalance and the severe locomotor disability, increasing the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes in a zebrafish model. These proof-of-concept results pave the way to clinical translation.

20.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(4): e13550, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We identified a pedigree over five generations with 49 members, some of whom had chronic megacolon presenting in adolescence or adulthood. We aimed to assess the genetic cause of chronic megacolon through clinical and DNA studies. DESIGN: After ethical approval and informed consent, family members provided answers to standard bowel disease questionnaires, radiological or surgical records, and DNA (buccal mucosal scraping). Exome DNA sequencing of colon tissue or blood DNA from seven family members with colon or duodenal dilatation, or no megacolon (n = 1) was carried out. Sanger sequencing was performed in 22 additional family members to further evaluate candidate variants. The study focused on genes of potential relevance to enteric nerve (ENS) maturation and Hirschsprung's disease or megacolon, based on the literature (GFRA1, NKX2-1, KIF26A, TPM3, ACTG2, SCN10A, and C17orf107 [CHRNE]) and other genetic variants that co-segregated with megacolon in the six affected family members. RESULTS: Information was available in all except five members alive at time of study; among 30 members who provided DNA, six had definite megacolon, one megaduodenum, seven significant constipation without bowel dilatation, and 16 normal bowel function by questionnaire. Among genes studied, SEMA3F (g.3:50225360A>G; c1873A>G) was found in 6/6 family members with megacolon. The SEMA3F gene variant was assessed as potentially pathogenic, based on M-CAP in silico prediction. SEMA3F function is associated with genes (KIT and PDGFRB) that impact intestinal pacemaker function. CONCLUSION: Familial chronic megacolon appears to be associated with SEMA3F, which is associated with genes impacting enteric nerve or pacemaker function.

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