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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861953

RESUMO

JAG2 encodes the Notch ligand Jagged2. The conserved Notch signaling pathway contributes to the development and homeostasis of multiple tissues, including skeletal muscle. We studied an international cohort of 23 individuals with genetically unsolved muscular dystrophy from 13 unrelated families. Whole-exome sequencing identified rare homozygous or compound heterozygous JAG2 variants in all 13 families. The identified bi-allelic variants include 10 missense variants that disrupt highly conserved amino acids, a nonsense variant, two frameshift variants, an in-frame deletion, and a microdeletion encompassing JAG2. Onset of muscle weakness occurred from infancy to young adulthood. Serum creatine kinase (CK) levels were normal or mildly elevated. Muscle histology was primarily dystrophic. MRI of the lower extremities revealed a distinct, slightly asymmetric pattern of muscle involvement with cores of preserved and affected muscles in quadriceps and tibialis anterior, in some cases resembling patterns seen in POGLUT1-associated muscular dystrophy. Transcriptome analysis of muscle tissue from two participants suggested misregulation of genes involved in myogenesis, including PAX7. In complementary studies, Jag2 downregulation in murine myoblasts led to downregulation of multiple components of the Notch pathway, including Megf10. Investigations in Drosophila suggested an interaction between Serrate and Drpr, the fly orthologs of JAG1/JAG2 and MEGF10, respectively. In silico analysis predicted that many Jagged2 missense variants are associated with structural changes and protein misfolding. In summary, we describe a muscular dystrophy associated with pathogenic variants in JAG2 and evidence suggests a disease mechanism related to Notch pathway dysfunction.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8318, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859327

RESUMO

T cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare disease with aggressive clinical course. Cytogenetic analysis, whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing have identified primary structural alterations in T-PLL, including inversion, translocation and copy number variation. Recurrent somatic mutations were also identified in genes encoding chromatin regulators and those in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Epigenetic alterations are the hallmark of many cancers. However, genome-wide epigenomic profiles have not been reported in T-PLL, limiting the mechanistic study of its carcinogenesis. We hypothesize epigenetic mechanisms also play a key role in T-PLL pathogenesis. To systematically test this hypothesis, we generated genome-wide maps of regulatory regions using H3K4me3 and H3K27ac ChIP-seq, as well as RNA-seq data in both T-PLL patients and healthy individuals. We found that genes down-regulated in T-PLL are mainly associated with defense response, immune system or adaptive immune response, while up-regulated genes are enriched in developmental process, as well as WNT signaling pathway with crucial roles in cell fate decision. In particular, our analysis revealed a global alteration of regulatory landscape in T-PLL, with differential peaks highly enriched for binding motifs of immune related transcription factors, supporting the epigenetic regulation of oncogenes and genes involved in DNA damage response and T-cell activation. Together, our work reveals a causal role of epigenetic dysregulation in T-PLL.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779033

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant condition with variable expressivity most commonly due to a germline pathogenic variant in PTPN11, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. Gain-of-function variants in PTPN11 are known to promote oncogenic behavior in affected tissues. We report the clinical description of a young adult male presenting with relapsing ganglioneuromas, dysmorphic features, cardiac abnormalities, and multiple lentigines, strongly suspicious for NS. Solid tumor testing identified the recurrent pathogenic c.922G>A (p.Asn308Asp) in PTPN11. Proband and parental blood sampling testing confirmed c.922G>A as a de novo germline alteration. Comprehensive literature review of solid tumors specifically associated to PTPN11, indicates that this is the first documentation of ganglioneuroma and its clinical recurrence after resection in conjunction with a genetically confirmed NS diagnosis. The findings in our patient further extend the list of neuroblastic and neural crest-derived neoplasms associated with this condition.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(3): 502-516, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596411

RESUMO

Deletion 1p36 (del1p36) syndrome is the most common human disorder resulting from a terminal autosomal deletion. This condition is molecularly and clinically heterogeneous. Deletions involving two non-overlapping regions, known as the distal (telomeric) and proximal (centromeric) critical regions, are sufficient to cause the majority of the recurrent clinical features, although with different facial features and dysmorphisms. SPEN encodes a transcriptional repressor commonly deleted in proximal del1p36 syndrome and is located centromeric to the proximal 1p36 critical region. Here, we used clinical data from 34 individuals with truncating variants in SPEN to define a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with features that overlap considerably with those of proximal del1p36 syndrome. The clinical profile of this disease includes developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, aggressive behavior, attention deficit disorder, hypotonia, brain and spine anomalies, congenital heart defects, high/narrow palate, facial dysmorphisms, and obesity/increased BMI, especially in females. SPEN also emerges as a relevant gene for del1p36 syndrome by co-expression analyses. Finally, we show that haploinsufficiency of SPEN is associated with a distinctive DNA methylation episignature of the X chromosome in affected females, providing further evidence of a specific contribution of the protein to the epigenetic control of this chromosome, and a paradigm of an X chromosome-specific episignature that classifies syndromic traits. We conclude that SPEN is required for multiple developmental processes and SPEN haploinsufficiency is a major contributor to a disorder associated with deletions centromeric to the previously established 1p36 critical regions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/fisiopatologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 219, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damaging variants in TRIO have been associated with moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disorders in humans. While recent work has delineated the positional effect of missense variation on the resulting phenotype, the clinical spectrum associated with loss-of-function variation has yet to be fully defined. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on two probands with novel loss-of-function variants in TRIO. Patient 1 presents with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder and macrocephaly. The TRIO variant is inherited from his affected mother. Patient 2 presents with moderate developmental delays, microcephaly, and cutis aplasia with a frameshift variant of unknown inheritance. CONCLUSIONS: We describe two patients with neurodevelopmental disorder, macro/microcephaly, and cutis aplasia in one patient. Both patients have loss-of-function variants, helping to further characterize how these types of variants affect the phenotypic spectrum associated with TRIO. We also present the third reported case of autosomal dominant inheritance of a damaging variant in TRIO.

7.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to delineate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of female and male individuals with X-linked, MSL3-related disorder (Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome). METHODS: Twenty-five individuals (15 males, 10 females) with causative variants in MSL3 were ascertained through exome or genome sequencing at ten different sequencing centers. RESULTS: We identified multiple variant types in MSL3 (ten nonsense, six frameshift, four splice site, three missense, one in-frame-deletion, one multi-exon deletion), most proven to be de novo, and clustering in the terminal eight exons suggesting that truncating variants in the first five exons might be compensated by an alternative MSL3 transcript. Three-dimensional modeling of missense and splice variants indicated that these have a deleterious effect. The main clinical findings comprised developmental delay and intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Autism spectrum disorder, muscle tone abnormalities, and macrocephaly were common as well as hearing impairment and gastrointestinal problems. Hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis emerged as a consistent magnetic resonance image (MRI) finding. Females and males were equally affected. Using facial analysis technology, a recognizable facial gestalt was determined. CONCLUSION: Our aggregated data illustrate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of X-linked, MSL3-related disorder (Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome). Our cohort improves the understanding of disease related morbidity and allows us to propose detailed surveillance guidelines for affected individuals.

8.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene NEXMIF (previously KIAA2022) are associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy. We aimed to delineate the female and male phenotypic spectrum of NEXMIF encephalopathy. METHODS: Through an international collaboration, we analyzed the phenotypes and genotypes of 87 patients with NEXMIF encephalopathy. RESULTS: Sixty-three females and 24 males (46 new patients) with NEXMIF encephalopathy were studied, with 30 novel variants. Phenotypic features included developmental delay/ID in 86/87 (99%), seizures in 71/86 (83%) and multiple comorbidities. Generalized seizures predominated including myoclonic seizures and absence seizures (both 46/70, 66%), absence with eyelid myoclonia (17/70, 24%), and atonic seizures (30/70, 43%). Males had more severe developmental impairment; females had epilepsy more frequently, and varied from unaffected to severely affected. All NEXMIF pathogenic variants led to a premature stop codon or were deleterious structural variants. Most arose de novo, although X-linked segregation occurred for both sexes. Somatic mosaicism occurred in two males and a family with suspected parental mosaicism. CONCLUSION: NEXMIF encephalopathy is an X-linked, generalized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by myoclonic-atonic epilepsy overlapping with eyelid myoclonia with absence. Some patients have developmental encephalopathy without epilepsy. Males have more severe developmental impairment. NEXMIF encephalopathy arises due to loss-of-function variants.

9.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing often identifies pathogenic genetic variants in patients with undiagnosed diseases. Nevertheless, frequent findings of variants of uncertain significance necessitate additional efforts to establish causality before reaching a conclusive diagnosis. To provide comprehensive genomic testing to patients with undiagnosed disease, we established an Individualized Medicine Clinic, which offered clinical exome testing and included a Translational Omics Program (TOP) that provided variant curation, research activities, or research exome sequencing. METHODS: From 2012 to 2018, 1101 unselected patients with undiagnosed diseases received exome testing. Outcomes were reviewed to assess impact of the TOP and patient characteristics on diagnostic rates through descriptive and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield was 24.9% (274 of 1101 patients), with 174 (15.8% of 1101) diagnosed on the basis of clinical exome sequencing alone. Four hundred twenty-three patients with nondiagnostic or without access to clinical exome sequencing were evaluated by the TOP, with 100 (9% of 1101) patients receiving a diagnosis, accounting for 36.5% of the diagnostic yield. The identification of a genetic diagnosis was influenced by the age at time of testing and the disease phenotype of the patient. CONCLUSION: Integration of translational research activities into clinical practice of a tertiary medical center can significantly increase the diagnostic yield of patients with undiagnosed disease.

11.
NPJ Genom Med ; 5: 47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110627

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has shown promise in becoming a first-tier diagnostic test for patients with rare genetic disorders; however, standards addressing the definition and deployment practice of a best-in-class test are lacking. To address these gaps, the Medical Genome Initiative, a consortium of leading healthcare and research organizations in the US and Canada, was formed to expand access to high-quality clinical WGS by publishing best practices. Here, we present consensus recommendations on clinical WGS analytical validation for the diagnosis of individuals with suspected germline disease with a focus on test development, upfront considerations for test design, test validation practices, and metrics to monitor test performance. This work also provides insight into the current state of WGS testing at each member institution, including the utilization of reference and other standards across sites. Importantly, members of this initiative strongly believe that clinical WGS is an appropriate first-tier test for patients with rare genetic disorders, and at minimum is ready to replace chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing. The recommendations presented here should reduce the burden on laboratories introducing WGS into clinical practice, and support safe and effective WGS testing for diagnosis of germline disease.

12.
Child Neurol Open ; 7: 2329048X20955003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117858

RESUMO

Variants in PURA have recently been associated with an autosomal dominant form of PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders. Using whole exome sequencing, patients with neurological phenotypes including hypotonia, developmental delay, learning disabilities, and seizures were identified to have de novo variants in PURA. We describe a proband with features similar to the previously described cases with PURA variants, but including additional features, such as short stature, delayed bone age, and delayed puberty. Exome sequencing revealed a novel pathogenic nonsense variant, c.190A>T (p.Lys64*; NM_005859), in PURA that was not inherited from the proband's mother. In the recent literature, a significant number of patients with variants in PURA have been described, but to our knowledge, none of these patients have the delayed bone age and growth plateau observed in the proband. It is therefore possible that the above PURA variant may be responsible for the novel features and thus expands the PURA-related phenotype spectrum.

13.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(11): e1477, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GNB1 encodes a subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex that transduces intracellular signaling cascades. Disruptions to the gene have previously been shown to be embryonic lethal in knockout mice and to cause complex neurodevelopmental disorders in humans. To date, the majority of variants associated with disease in humans have been missense variants in exons 5-7. METHODS: Genetic sequencing was performed on two patients presenting with complex neurological phenotypes including intellectual disability, hypotonia, and in one patient seizures. Reported variants were assessed using RNA sequencing and functional BRET/BiFC assays. RESULTS: A splice variant reported in patient 1 was confirmed to cause usage of a cryptic splice site leading to a truncated protein product. Patient 2 was reported to have a truncating variant. BRET and BiFC assays of both patient variants confirmed both were deficient in inducing GPCR-induced G protein activation due to lack of dimer formation with the Gγ subunit. CONCLUSION: Here, we report two patients with functionally confirmed loss of function variants in GNB1 and neurodevelopmental phenotypes including intellectual disability, hypotonia, and seizures in one patient. These results suggest haploinsufficiency of GNB1 is a mechanism for neurodevelopmental disorders in humans.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(10): 2442-2449, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815268

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a prototypic genetic condition related to imprinting. Causative mechanisms include paternal 15q11-q13 deletion, maternal chromosome 15 uniparental disomy (UPD15), Prader-Willi Syndrome/Angelman Syndrome (PWS/AS) critical region imprinting defects, and complex chromosomal rearrangements. Maternal UPD15-related PWS poses risks of concomitant autosomal recessive (AR) disorders when the mother carries a pathogenic variant in one of the genes on chromosome 15 associated with autosomal recessive inherited disease. Co-occurrence of autosomal recessive conditions in the setting of UPD leads to increased complexity of the clinical phenotype, and may delay the diagnosis of PWS. We report a patient with PWS and associated congenital ichthyosis due to maternal UPD15, and a homozygous novel pathogenic variant in ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3). We also review the literature of associated disorders reported in the setting of maternal UPD15-related PWS and provide a summary of the previously described CERS3 variants. This represents the second case of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) in the setting of PWS and UPD15. There needs to be a high index of suspicion of this genetic mechanism when there is unexpected phenotype or evolution of the clinical course in a patient with PWS.

15.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 341, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic changes in the LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 beta (LMX1B) have been associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) without the extra-renal or ultrastructural manifestations of Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) known as Nail-patella-like renal disease (NPLRD). Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal disease caused by the deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. The classic form of the disease is characterized by acroparesthesia, angiokeratomas, cornea verticillata, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, strokes, and chronic kidney disease. Podocyte myelin bodies on ultrastructural examination of kidney tissue are very characteristic of FD; however some medications and other conditions may mimic this finding. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report on a female patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD), positive family history for kidney disease and kidney biopsy showing a FSGS lesion and presence of focal myelin figures within podocytes concerning for FD. However, genetic testing for FD was negative. After comprehensive clinical, biochemical, and genetic evaluation, including whole exome and RNA sequencing, she was ultimately diagnosed with NPLRD. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the difficulties of diagnosing atypical forms of rare Mendelian kidney diseases and the role of a multidisciplinary team in an individualized medicine clinic setting in combination with state-of-the-art sequencing technologies to reach a definitive diagnosis.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843428

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the XPC complex subunit, DNA damage recognition, and repair factor (XPC) are the cause of xeroderma pigmentosum, group C (MIM: 278720). Xeroderma pigmentosum is an inherited condition characterized by hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and increased risk of skin cancer due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here we describe an individual with a novel missense variant and deletion of exons 14-15 in XPC presenting with a history of recurrent melanomas. The proband is a 39-yr-old female evaluated through the Mayo Clinic Department of Clinical Genomics. Prior to age 36, she had more than 60 skin biopsies that showed dysplastic nevi, many of which had atypia. At age 36 she presented with her first melanoma in situ, and since then has had more than 10 melanomas. The proband underwent research whole-exome sequencing (WES) through the Mayo Clinic's Center for Individualized Medicine and a novel heterozygous variant of uncertain significance (VUS) in XPC (c.1709T > G, p.Val570Gly) was identified. Clinical confirmation pursued via XPC gene sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis of XPC revealed a pathogenic heterozygous deletion of ∼1 kb within XPC, including exons 14 and 15. Research studies determined the alterations to be in trans Although variants in XPC generally result in early-onset skin cancer in childhood, the proband is atypical in that she did not present with her first melanoma until age 36. Review of the patient's clinical, pathological, and genetic findings points to a diagnosis of delayed presentation of xeroderma pigmentosum.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623598

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Describe CYP2C19 sequencing results in the largest series of clopidogrel-treated cases with stent thrombosis (ST), the closest clinical phenotype to clopidogrel resistance. Evaluate the impact of CYP2C19 genetic variation detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) with comprehensive annotation and functional studies. METHODS: Seventy ST cases on clopidogrel identified from the PLATO trial (n = 58) and Mayo Clinic biorepository (n = 12) were matched 1:1 with controls for age, race, sex, diabetes mellitus, presentation, and stent type. NGS was performed to cover the entire CYP2C19 gene. Assessment of exonic variants involved measuring in vitro protein expression levels. Intronic variants were evaluated for potential splicing motif variations. RESULTS: Poor metabolizers (n = 4) and rare CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*15, and CYP2C19*11 alleles were identified only in ST cases. CYP2C19*17 heterozygote carriers were observed more frequently in cases (n = 29) than controls (n = 18). Functional studies of CYP2C19 exonic variants (n = 11) revealed 3 cases and only 1 control carrying a deleterious variant as determined by in vitro protein expression studies. Greater intronic variation unique to ST cases (n = 169) compared with controls (n = 84) was observed with predictions revealing 13 allele candidates that may lead to a potential disruption of splicing and a loss-of-function effect of CYP2C19 in ST cases. CONCLUSION: NGS detected CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and paradoxically greater number of so-called rapid metabolizers in ST cases. Rare deleterious exonic variation occurs in 4%, and potentially disruptive intronic alleles occur in 16% of ST cases. Additional studies are required to evaluate the role of these variants in platelet aggregation and clopidogrel metabolism.

19.
Nature ; 586(7827): 80-86, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717741

RESUMO

Tandem DNA repeats vary in the size and sequence of each unit (motif). When expanded, these tandem DNA repeats have been associated with more than 40 monogenic disorders1. Their involvement in disorders with complex genetics is largely unknown, as is the extent of their heterogeneity. Here we investigated the genome-wide characteristics of tandem repeats that had motifs with a length of 2-20 base pairs in 17,231 genomes of families containing individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)2,3 and population control individuals4. We found extensive polymorphism in the size and sequence of motifs. Many of the tandem repeat loci that we detected correlated with cytogenetic fragile sites. At 2,588 loci, gene-associated expansions of tandem repeats that were rare among population control individuals were significantly more prevalent among individuals with ASD than their siblings without ASD, particularly in exons and near splice junctions, and in genes related to the development of the nervous system and cardiovascular system or muscle. Rare tandem repeat expansions had a prevalence of 23.3% in children with ASD compared with 20.7% in children without ASD, which suggests that tandem repeat expansions make a collective contribution to the risk of ASD of 2.6%. These rare tandem repeat expansions included previously undescribed ASD-linked expansions in DMPK and FXN, which are associated with neuromuscular conditions, and in previously unknown loci such as FGF14 and CACNB1. Rare tandem repeat expansions were associated with lower IQ and adaptive ability. Our results show that tandem DNA repeat expansions contribute strongly to the genetic aetiology and phenotypic complexity of ASD.

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