Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
1.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322746

RESUMO

Germline alterations in many genes coding for proteins regulating DNA repair and DNA damage response (DDR) to DNA double-strand breaks (DDSB) have been recognized as pathogenic factors in hereditary cancer predisposition. The ATM-CHEK2-p53 axis has been documented as a backbone for DDR and hypothesized as a barrier against cancer initiation. However, although CHK2 kinase coded by the CHEK2 gene expedites the DDR signal, its function in activation of p53-dependent cell cycle arrest is dispensable. CHEK2 mutations rank among the most frequent germline alterations revealed by germline genetic testing for various hereditary cancer predispositions, but their interpretation is not trivial. From the perspective of interpretation of germline CHEK2 variants, we review the current knowledge related to the structure of the CHEK2 gene, the function of CHK2 kinase, and the clinical significance of CHEK2 germline mutations in patients with hereditary breast, prostate, kidney, thyroid, and colon cancers.

2.
Front Genet ; 11: 561054, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133147

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly growing family of genetic diseases with the phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2)-CDG being the most common form of CDG. Most of these monogenic diseases are autosomal recessive and have multi-systemic manifestations, mainly psychomotor retardation, facial dysmorphisms, characteristic distribution of the fat pads, and variable coagulation abnormalities. The association of fetal hydrops with CDG has been reported, and pericardial effusion was also rarely observed in patients with PMM2-CDG. Here we describe an infant boy with PMM2-CDG. The diagnosis was suspected based on inverted nipples, fat pads, and combined coagulopathy. However, the primary symptom was progressive pericardial effusion leading to patient death at the age of 3 months. Screening for CDG performed by the use of isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin showed a typical PMM2-CDG pattern. Exome sequencing revealed one common pathogenic variant (c.691G > A/p.Val231Met) and one novel variant (c.447 + 3dupA) in the PMM2 gene. Both PMM2 variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing in both the proband and the parents' DNA. The novel variant was predicted to result in loss of donor splice site, and the analysis at mRNA level confirmed that it leads to exon five skipping (r.348_447del) and causes premature termination of translation to the protein (p.G117Kfs∗4), therefore is classified as likely pathogenic. Although there is no curative therapy for the PMM2-CDG at the moment, the other supportive care options are available to be offered. The definite diagnosis of PMM2-CDG can also assist in the process of genetic counseling, family planning, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

3.
Biomedicines ; 8(10)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050356

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest skin malignity with a rising prevalence worldwide. Patients carrying germline mutations in melanoma-susceptibility genes face an increased risk of melanoma and other cancers. To assess the spectrum of germline variants, we analyzed 264 Czech melanoma patients indicated for testing due to early melanoma (at <25 years) or the presence of multiple primary melanoma/melanoma and other cancer in their personal and/or family history. All patients were analyzed by panel next-generation sequencing targeting 217 genes in four groups: high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes, low melanoma risk genes, cancer syndrome genes, and other genes with an uncertain melanoma risk. Population frequencies were assessed in 1479 population-matched controls. Selected POT1 and CHEK2 variants were characterized by functional assays. Mutations in clinically relevant genes were significantly more frequent in melanoma patients than in controls (31/264; 11.7% vs. 58/1479; 3.9%; p = 2.0 × 10-6). A total of 9 patients (3.4%) carried mutations in high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes (CDKN2A, POT1, ACD) and 22 (8.3%) patients in other cancer syndrome genes (NBN, BRCA1/2, CHEK2, ATM, WRN, RB1). Mutations in high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes (OR = 52.2; 95%CI 6.6-413.1; p = 3.2 × 10-7) and in other cancer syndrome genes (OR = 2.3; 95%CI 1.4-3.8; p = 0.003) were significantly associated with melanoma risk. We found an increased potential to carry these mutations (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 1.2-6.8) in patients with double primary melanoma, melanoma and other primary cancer, but not in patients with early age at onset. The analysis revealed affected genes in Czech melanoma patients and identified individuals who may benefit from genetic testing and future surveillance management of mutation carriers.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295079

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy with a substantial proportion of hereditary cases and a frequent association with breast cancer (BC). Genetic testing facilitates treatment and preventive strategies reducing OC mortality in mutation carriers. However, the prevalence of germline mutations varies among populations and many rarely mutated OC predisposition genes remain to be identified. We aimed to analyze 219 genes in 1333 Czech OC patients and 2278 population-matched controls using next-generation sequencing. We revealed germline mutations in 18 OC/BC predisposition genes in 32.0% of patients and in 2.5% of controls. Mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, RAD51C/RAD51D, BARD1, and mismatch repair genes conferred high OC risk (OR > 5). Mutations in BRIP1 and NBN were associated with moderate risk (both OR = 3.5). BRCA1/2 mutations dominated in almost all clinicopathological subgroups including sporadic borderline tumors of ovary (BTO). Analysis of remaining 201 genes revealed somatic mosaics in PPM1D and germline mutations in SHPRH and NAT1 associating with a high/moderate OC risk significantly; however, further studies are warranted to delineate their contribution to OC development in other populations. Our findings demonstrate the high proportion of patients with hereditary OC in Slavic population justifying genetic testing in all patients with OC, including BTO.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991861

RESUMO

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the FANCM gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of FANCM PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with FANCM PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different FANCM PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique FANCM PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of FANCM PTVs in European breast cancer cases.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

7.
Front Genet ; 10: 1139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803232

RESUMO

Introduction: Case-control analyses have shown BARD1 variants to be associated with up to >2-fold increase in risk of breast cancer, and potentially greater risk of triple negative breast cancer. BARD1 is included in several gene sequencing panels currently marketed for the prediction of risk of cancer, however there are no gene-specific guidelines for the classification of BARD1 variants. We present the most comprehensive assessment of BARD1 messenger RNA splicing, and demonstrate the application of these data for the classification of truncating and splice site variants according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines. Methods: Nanopore sequencing, short-read RNA-seq (whole transcriptome and targeted), and capillary electrophoresis analysis were performed by four laboratories to investigate alternative BARD1 splicing in blood, breast, and fimbriae/ovary related specimens from non-cancer affected tissues. Splicing data were also collated from published studies of nine different tissues. The impact of the findings for PVS1 annotation was assessed for truncating and splice site variants. Results: We identified 62 naturally occurring alternative spliced BARD1 splicing events, including 19 novel events found by next generation sequencing and/or reverse transcription PCR analysis performed for this study. Quantitative analysis showed that naturally occurring splicing events causing loss of clinically relevant domains or nonsense mediated decay can constitute up to 11.9% of overlapping natural junctions, suggesting that aberrant splicing can be tolerated up to this level. Nanopore sequencing of whole BARD1 transcripts characterized 16 alternative isoforms from healthy controls, revealing that the most complex transcripts combined only two alternative splicing events. Bioinformatic analysis of ClinVar submitted variants at or near BARD1 splice sites suggest that all consensus splice site variants in BARD1 should be considered likely pathogenic, with the possible exception of variants at the donor site of exon 5. Conclusions: No BARD1 candidate rescue transcripts were identified in this study, indicating that all premature translation-termination codons variants can be annotated as PVS1. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that all donor and acceptor (IVS+/-1,2) variants can be considered PVS1 or PVS1_strong, with the exception of variants targeting the exon 5 donor site, that we recommend considering as PVS1_moderate.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 818, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659152

RESUMO

Protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1 delta (PPM1D) terminates cell response to genotoxic stress by negatively regulating the tumor suppressor p53 and other targets at chromatin. Mutations in the exon 6 of the PPM1D result in production of a highly stable, C-terminally truncated PPM1D. These gain-of-function PPM1D mutations are present in various human cancers but their role in tumorigenesis remains unresolved. Here we show that truncated PPM1D impairs activation of the cell cycle checkpoints in human non-transformed RPE cells and allows proliferation in the presence of DNA damage. Next, we developed a mouse model by introducing a truncating mutation in the PPM1D locus and tested contribution of the oncogenic PPM1DT allele to colon tumorigenesis. We found that p53 pathway was suppressed in colon stem cells harboring PPM1DT resulting in proliferation advantage under genotoxic stress condition. In addition, truncated PPM1D promoted tumor growth in the colon in Apcmin mice and diminished survival. Moreover, tumor organoids derived from colon of the ApcminPpm1dT/+ mice were less sensitive to 5-fluorouracil when compared to ApcminPpm1d+/+and the sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was restored by inhibition of PPM1D. Finally, we screened colorectal cancer patients and identified recurrent somatic PPM1D mutations in a fraction of colon adenocarcinomas that are p53 proficient and show defects in mismatch DNA repair. In summary, we provide the first in vivo evidence that truncated PPM1D can promote tumor growth and modulate sensitivity to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Éxons/genética , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética
9.
Klin Onkol ; 32(Supplementum2): 6-13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409076

RESUMO

An inherited predisposition to breast cancer underlies 5-10% of breast tumors. High-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes result in an 85% lifetime risk of breast cancer and a 20-60% lifetime risk of ovarian cancer. Next-generation sequencing or massive parallel sequencing are now established testing methods that enable screening for many genes that predispose to heterogeneous hereditary cancer syndromes (22 genes are required by the health insurance companies). In addition to BRCA1 and BRCA2, inherited mutations in other genes predispose to breast and/or ovarian cancer. High-risk breast cancer genes include TP53, STK11, CDH1, PTEN, PALB2, and NF1, while moderate-risk (2-4 times increased risk) breast cancer genes include ATM, CHEK2, and NBN. Moderate risk is also suggested for Lynch syndrome, MUTYH, BRIP1, RAD51C, RAD51D, BARD1, FANCA, FANCC, FANCM, BLM, WRN genes. In heterozygotes for other recessive syndromes the risk of developing breast cancer is subject to current research. Low-risk genes are (mostly) irrelevant from a clinical perspective. Other genes that increase the risk of ovarian cancer include the genes for Lynch syndrome, the BRIP1, RAD51C and RAD51D genes. Preventive care should be proposed based on assumed cumulative breast cancer risk (see http: //www.mamo.cz): a risk of >20% for BRCA1/2, TP53, PTEN, STK11, CDH1, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, and NF1; and a risk of 10-20% for BRIP1, RAD51C, RAD51B, BARD1, FANCA, FANCC, FANCM, NBN, BLM, and WRN. The genetic risk should be assessed by a geneticist and be based on inherited mutations and empirical risk according to family history. Prophylactic mastectomy is considered for high-risk gene carriers but not for moderate-risk gene carriers; however, it may be considered if there is an underlying family history, a risk of parenchyma of the mammary gland, or other risk factors. Ovarian cancer risk increases significantly in carriers of the BRIP1, RAD51C, and RAD51D genes. For prevention of ovarian cancer, prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy is an important component of preventive care. In ovarian cancer families with no identified risk germline mutation, preventive salpingo-oophorectomy is not routinely recommended but may be considered as the only efficient method of prevention due to the increased empirical risk (4 times) of ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives. Supported by the grant project MH CZ - RVO (MMCI, 00209805), AZV 15-27695A and AZV 16-29959A. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 17. 5. 2019 Accepted: 31. 5. 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia Profilática , Fatores de Risco , Salpingo-Ooforectomia
10.
Klin Onkol ; 32(Supplementum2): 36-50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary mutations in the CHEK2 gene (which encodes CHK2 kinase) contribute to a moderately increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and other cancers. Large variations in the frequency of CHEK2 mutations and the occurrence of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS) complicate estimation of cancer risk in carriers of germline CHEK2 mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed mutation analysis of 1,526 high-risk Czech BC patients and 3,360 Czech controls. Functional analysis was performed for identified VUS using a model system based on a human RPE1-CHEK2-KO cell line harboring biallelic inactivation of endogenous CHEK2. RESULTS: The frequency of ten truncating CHEK2 variants differed markedly between BC patients (2.26%) and controls (0.11%; p = 4.1 × 1012). We also found 23 different missense variants in 4.5% patients and in 4.0% of controls. The most common was p.I157T, which was found in patients and controls with the same frequency. Functional analysis identified nine functionally deleterious VUS, another nine functionally neutral VUS, and four intermediate VUS (including p.I157T). We found that carriers of truncating CHEK2 mutations had a high BC risk (OR 8.19; 95% CI 4.11-17.75), and that carriers of functionally deleterious missense variants had a moderate risk (OR 4.06; 95% CI, 1.37-13.39). Carriers of these mutations developed BC at 44.4 and 50.7 years, respectively. Functionally neutral and functionally intermediate missense variants did not increase the BC risk. BC in CHEK2 mutation carriers was frequently ER-positive and of higher grade. Notably, carriers of CHEK2 mutations developed second cancers more frequently than BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2/p53 or mutation non-carriers. CONCLUSION: Hereditary CHEK2 mutations contribute to the development of hereditary BC. The associated cancer risk in mutation carriers increases with the number of affected individuals in a family. Annual follow-up with breast ultrasound, mammography, or magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for asymptomatic mutation carriers from the age of 40. Surgical prevention and specific follow-up of other tumors should be considered based on family cancer history. The work was supported by grants from the Czech Health Research Council of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic NR 15-28830A, 16-29959A, NV19-03-00279, projects of the PROGRES Q28/LF1, GAUK 762216, SVV2019 / 260367, PRIMUS/17/MED/9, UNCE/MED/016, Progress Q26, LQ1604 NPU II and project AVČR Qualitas. The analysis of a set of unselected controls was made possible by the existence and support of the scientific infrastructure of the National Center for Medical Genomics (LM2015091) and its project aimed at creating a reference database of genetic variants of the Czech Republic (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001634). The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 2. 4. 2019 Accepted: 14. 5. 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linhagem Celular , República Tcheca , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Klin Onkol ; 32(Supplementum2): 72-78, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is a disease with high mortality. Approximately 1,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the Czech Republic annually. Women harboring a mutation in cancer-predisposing genes face an increased risk of tumor development. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, and Lynch syndrome genes (RAD51C, RAD51D, and STK11) are associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer, and mutations in ATM, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, and BARD1 appear to increase the risk. Our aim was to examine the frequency of mutations in cancer-predisposing genes in the Czech Republic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 1,057 individuals including ovarian cancer patients and 617 non-cancer controls using CZECANCA panel next-generation sequencing on the Illumina platform. Pathogenic mutations in high-risk genes, including CNVs, were detected in 30.6% of patients. The mutation frequency reached 25.0% and 18.2% in subgroups of unselected ovarian cancer patients and patients with a negative family cancer history, respectively. The most frequently mutated genes were BRCA1 and BRCA2. The overall frequency of mutations in non-BRCA genes was comparable to that in BRCA2. The mutation frequency in ovarian cancer patients aged >70 years was three times higher than that in patients diagnosed before the age of 30. CONCLUSION: Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a high proportion of hereditary cases. The lack of efficient screening for early diagnosis emphasizes the importance of identifying carriers of mutations in ovarian cancer-predisposing genes; this is because proper follow-up and prevention strategies can reduce overall ovarian cancer-related mortality. This work was supported by grants AZV 15-27695A, SVV2019/260367, PROGRES Q28/LF1. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 7. 3. 2019 Accepted: 24. 4. 2019.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , República Tcheca , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141992

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) prognosis in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been reported contradictorily, and the significance of variables influencing prognosis in sporadic BC is not established in BC patients with hereditary BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the effect of clinicopathological characteristics on BC prognosis (disease-free survival [DFS] and disease-specific survival [DSS]) in hereditary BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. We enrolled 234 BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and 899 non-carriers, of whom 191 carriers and 680 non-carriers, with complete data, were available for survival analyses. We found that patients with ER-positive tumors developed disease recurrence 2.3-times more likely when they carried a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (23/60; 38.3% ER-positive carriers vs. 74/445; 16.6% ER-positive non-carriers; p < 0.001). ER-positive mutation carriers also had a 3.4-times higher risk of death due to BC compared with ER-positive non-carriers (13/60; 21.7% vs. 28/445; 6.3%; p < 0.001). Moreover, prognosis in ER-negative BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers was comparable with that in ER-positive non-carriers. Our study demonstrates that ER-positivity worsens BC prognosis in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers, while prognosis for carriers with ER-negative tumors (including early-onset) is significantly better and comparable with that in ER-positive, older BC non-carriers. These observations indicate that BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers with ER-positive BC represent high-risk patients.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 145(7): 1782-1797, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050813

RESUMO

Germline mutations in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), a multiple cancer-predisposing gene, increase breast cancer (BC) risk; however, risk estimates differ substantially in published studies. We analyzed germline CHEK2 variants in 1,928 high-risk Czech breast/ovarian cancer (BC/OC) patients and 3,360 population-matched controls (PMCs). For a functional classification of VUS, we developed a complementation assay in human nontransformed RPE1-CHEK2-knockout cells quantifying CHK2-specific phosphorylation of endogenous protein KAP1. We identified 10 truncations in 46 (2.39%) patients and in 11 (0.33%) PMC (p = 1.1 × 10-14 ). Two types of large intragenic rearrangements (LGR) were found in 20/46 mutation carriers. Truncations significantly increased unilateral BC risk (OR = 7.94; 95%CI 3.90-17.47; p = 1.1 × 10-14 ) and were more frequent in patients with bilateral BC (4/149; 2.68%; p = 0.003), double primary BC/OC (3/79; 3.80%; p = 0.004), male BC (3/48; 6.25%; p = 8.6 × 10-4 ), but not with OC (3/354; 0.85%; p = 0.14). Additionally, we found 26 missense VUS in 88 (4.56%) patients and 131 (3.90%) PMC (p = 0.22). Using our functional assay, 11 variants identified in 15 (0.78%) patients and 6 (0.18%) PMC were scored deleterious (p = 0.002). Frequencies of functionally intermediate and neutral variants did not differ between patients and PMC. Functionally deleterious CHEK2 missense variants significantly increased BC risk (OR = 3.90; 95%CI 1.24-13.35; p = 0.009) and marginally OC risk (OR = 4.77; 95%CI 0.77-22.47; p = 0.047); however, carriers low frequency will require evaluation in larger studies. Our study highlights importance of LGR detection for CHEK2 analysis, careful consideration of ethnicity in both cases and controls for risk estimates, and demonstrates promising potential of newly developed human nontransformed cell line assay for functional CHEK2 VUS classification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , República Tcheca , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195761, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carriers of mutations in hereditary cancer predisposition genes represent a small but clinically important subgroup of oncology patients. The identification of causal germline mutations determines follow-up management, treatment options and genetic counselling in patients' families. Targeted next-generation sequencing-based analyses using cancer-specific panels in high-risk individuals have been rapidly adopted by diagnostic laboratories. While the use of diagnosis-specific panels is straightforward in typical cases, individuals with unusual phenotypes from families with overlapping criteria require multiple panel testing. Moreover, narrow gene panels are limited by our currently incomplete knowledge about possible genetic dispositions. METHODS: We have designed a multi-gene panel called CZECANCA (CZEch CAncer paNel for Clinical Application) for a sequencing analysis of 219 cancer-susceptibility and candidate predisposition genes associated with frequent hereditary cancers. RESULTS: The bioanalytical and bioinformatics pipeline was validated on a set of internal and commercially available DNA controls showing high coverage uniformity, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The panel demonstrates a reliable detection of both single nucleotide and copy number variants. Inter-laboratory, intra- and inter-run replicates confirmed the robustness of our approach. CONCLUSION: The objective of CZECANCA is a nationwide consolidation of cancer-predisposition genetic testing across various clinical indications with savings in costs, human labor and turnaround time. Moreover, the unified diagnostics will enable the integration and analysis of genotypes with associated phenotypes in a national database improving the clinical interpretation of variants.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517176

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe a snapshot of international genetic testing practices, specifically regarding the use of multigene panels, for hereditary breast/ovarian cancers. We conducted a survey through the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium, covering questions about 16 non-BRCA1/2 genes. Methods: Data were collected via in-person and paper/electronic surveys. ENIGMA members from around the world were invited to participate. Additional information was collected via country networks in the United Kingdom and in Italy. Results: Responses from 61 cancer genetics practices across 20 countries showed that 16 genes were tested by > 50% of the centers, but only six (PALB2, TP53, PTEN, CHEK2, ATM, and BRIP1) were tested regularly. US centers tested the genes most often, whereas United Kingdom and Italian centers with no direct ENIGMA affiliation at the time of the survey were the least likely to regularly test them. Most centers tested the 16 genes through multigene panels; some centers tested TP53, PTEN, and other cancer syndrome-associated genes individually. Most centers reported (likely) pathogenic variants to patients and would test family members for such variants. Gene-specific guidelines for breast and ovarian cancer risk management were limited and differed among countries, especially with regard to starting age and type of imaging and risk-reducing surgery recommendations. Conclusion: Currently, a small number of genes beyond BRCA1/2 are routinely analyzed worldwide, and management guidelines are limited and largely based on expert opinion. To attain clinical implementation of multigene panel testing through evidence-based management practices, it is paramount that clinicians (and patients) participate in international initiatives that share panel testing data, interpret sequence variants, and collect prospective data to underpin risk estimates and evaluate the outcome of risk intervention strategies.

16.
Gene ; 637: 41-49, 2017 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919163

RESUMO

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing increases transcriptome plasticity by forming naturally-occurring alternative splicing variants (ASVs). Alterations of splicing processes, caused by DNA mutations, result in aberrant splicing and the formation of aberrant mRNA isoforms. Analyses of hereditary cancer predisposition genes reveal many DNA variants with unknown clinical significance (VUS) that potentially affect pre-mRNA splicing. Therefore, a comprehensive description of ASVs is an essential prerequisite for the interpretation of germline VUS in high-risk individuals. To identify ASVs in a gene of interest, we have proposed an approach based on multiplex PCR (mPCR) amplification of all theoretically possible exon-exon junctions and subsequent characterization of size-selected and pooled mPCR products by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The efficiency of this method is illustrated by a comprehensive analysis of BRCA1 ASVs in human leukocytes, normal mammary, and adipose tissues and stable cell lines. We revealed 94 BRCA1 ASVs, including 29 variants present in all tested samples. While differences in the qualitative expression of BRCA1 ASVs among the analyzed human tissues were minor, larger differences were detected between tissue and cell line samples. Compared with other ASV analysis methods, this approach represents a highly sensitive and rapid alternative for the identification of ASVs in any gene of interest.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Mutação , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Isoformas de RNA
17.
Gene ; 587(2): 169-72, 2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27150568

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the sixth most frequent cancer type in the Czech Republic with a poor prognosis that could be improved by an early detection and subsequent surgical treatment combined with chemotherapy. Genetic factors play an important role in PDAC risk. We previously identified one PDAC patient harboring the Slavic founder deleterious mutation c.657del5 in the NBN gene, using a panel next-generation sequencing (NGS). A subsequent analysis of 241 unselected PDAC patients revealed other mutation carriers. The overall frequency of c.657del5 in unselected PDAC patients (5/241; 2.07%) significantly differed from that in non-cancer controls (2/915; 0.2%; P=0.006). The result indicates that the NBN c.657del5 variant represents a novel PDAC-susceptibility allele increasing PDAC risk (OR=9.7; 95% CI: 1.9 to 50.2). The increased risk of PDAC in follow-up recommendations for NBN mutation carriers should be considered if other studies also confirm an increased frequency of c.657del5 carriers in PDAC patients from other populations.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Tchecoslováquia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
18.
Oncotarget ; 7(12): 14458-75, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883108

RESUMO

PP2C family serine/threonine phosphatase WIP1 acts as a negative regulator of the tumor suppressor p53 and is implicated in silencing of cellular responses to genotoxic stress. Chromosomal locus 17q23 carrying the PPM1D (coding for WIP1) is commonly amplified in breast carcinomas and WIP1 was proposed as potential pharmacological target. Here we employed a cellular model with knocked out PPM1D to validate the specificity and efficiency of GSK2830371, novel small molecule inhibitor of WIP1. We have found that GSK2830371 increased activation of the DNA damage response pathway to a comparable level as the loss of PPM1D. In addition, GSK2830371 did not affect proliferation of cells lacking PPM1D but significantly supressed proliferation of breast cancer cells with amplified PPM1D. Over time cells treated with GSK2830371 accumulated in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle in a p21-dependent manner and were prone to induction of senescence by a low dose of MDM2 antagonist nutlin-3. In addition, combined treatment with GSK2830371 and doxorubicin or nutlin-3 potentiated cell death through a strong induction of p53 pathway and activation of caspase 9. We conclude that efficient inhibition of WIP1 by GSK2830371 sensitizes breast cancer cells with amplified PPM1D and wild type p53 to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
19.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 22(3): 523-30, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26685938

RESUMO

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF-1-beta) is a transcription factor involved in cancerogenesis of various tumors, including endometrioid carcinoma. We performed comprehensive analysis of HNF-1-beta in lesions of the endometrium, including protein expression and genetic and epigenetic changes. Expression of HNF-1-beta was analyzed immunohistochemically in 320 cases including both tumor and non-tumor endometrial lesions. Promoter methylation and genetic variants were evaluated, using bisulphite and direct sequencing, in 30 (18 fresh frozen, 12 FFPE tumors) endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) and 15 ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCCs) as a control group. We detected expression of HNF-1-beta in 28 % of ECs (51/180 cases), 26 % of serous carcinoma (7/27 cases), 83 % of endometrial clear cell carcinoma (15/18 cases), 93 % of hyperplastic polyps with atypias (13/14 cases), 100 % of hyperplastic polyps without atypias (16/16 cases), 88 % of hyperplasias with atypias (14/16 cases), 91 % of hyperplasias without atypias (10/11 cases), and in ≥80 % of different normal endometrium samples. The control group of OCCCs showed HNF-1-beta expression in 95 % (18/19 cases). Methylation in promoter region was detected in 13.3 % (4/30) of ECs, but not in corresponding normal tissue where available, nor in OCCCs (0/15 cases). Mutation analysis revealed truncating variant c.454C > T (p.Gln152X) in one EC and missense variant c.848C > T (p.Ala283Val) was detected in one OCCC. In conclusion, expression of HNF-1-beta was detected in various extents in all types of lesions analyzed, nevertheless its strong expression was mostly limited to clear cell carcinomas. Biological significance of genetic and epigenetic changes needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 16(16): 1639-50, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The best-known cause of intolerance to fluoropyrimidines is dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency, which can result from deleterious polymorphisms in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD), including DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T. Three other variants-DPYD c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A-have been associated with DPD deficiency, but no definitive evidence for the clinical validity of these variants is available. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the clinical validity of c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A as predictors of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. METHODS: We did a systematic review of the literature published before Dec 17, 2014, to identify cohort studies investigating associations between DPYD c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A and severe (grade ≥3) fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity in patients treated with fluoropyrimidines (fluorouracil, capecitabine, or tegafur-uracil as single agents, in combination with other anticancer drugs, or with radiotherapy). Individual patient data were retrieved and analysed in a multivariable analysis to obtain an adjusted relative risk (RR). Effect estimates were pooled by use of a random-effects meta-analysis. The threshold for significance was set at a p value of less than 0·0167 (Bonferroni correction). FINDINGS: 7365 patients from eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. DPYD c.1679T>G was significantly associated with fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity (adjusted RR 4·40, 95% CI 2·08-9·30, p<0·0001), as was c.1236G>A/HapB3 (1·59, 1·29-1·97, p<0·0001). The association between c.1601G>A and fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity was not significant (adjusted RR 1·52, 95% CI 0·86-2·70, p=0·15). Analysis of individual types of toxicity showed consistent associations of c.1679T>G and c.1236G>A/HapB3 with gastrointestinal toxicity (adjusted RR 5·72, 95% CI 1·40-23·33, p=0·015; and 2·04, 1·49-2·78, p<0·0001, respectively) and haematological toxicity (adjusted RR 9·76, 95% CI 3·03-31·48, p=0·00014; and 2·07, 1·17-3·68, p=0·013, respectively), but not with hand-foot syndrome. DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T were also significantly associated with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity (adjusted RR 2·85, 95% CI 1·75-4·62, p<0·0001; and 3·02, 2·22-4·10, p<0·0001, respectively). INTERPRETATION: DPYD variants c.1679T>G and c.1236G>A/HapB3 are clinically relevant predictors of fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. Upfront screening for these variants, in addition to the established variants DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T, is recommended to improve the safety of patients with cancer treated with fluoropyrimidines. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo Genético , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/farmacocinética , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/metabolismo , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/farmacocinética , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Razão de Chances , Farmacogenética , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tegafur/efeitos adversos , Tegafur/farmacocinética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA