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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555482

RESUMO

One way to understand ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (pancreatic cancer) is to view it as unimaginably large numbers of evolving living organisms interacting with their environment. This "evolutionary view" creates both expected and surprising perspectives in all stages of neoplastic progression. Advances in the field will require greater attention to this critical evolutionary prospective.

2.
Cancer Lett ; 497: 221-228, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127389

RESUMO

Recent research on genomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has identified many potentially actionable alterations. However, the feasibility of using genomic profiling to guide routine clinical decision making for PDAC patients remains unclear. We retrospectively reviewed PDAC patients between October 2013 and December 2017, who underwent treatment at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and had clinical tumor next-generation sequencing (NGS) through commercial resources. Ninety-two patients with 93 tumors tested were included. Forty-eight (52%) patients had potentially curative surgeries. The median time from the tissue available to the NGS testing ordered was 229 days (interquartile range 62-415). A total of three (3%) patients had matched targeted therapies based on genomic profiling results. Genomic profiling guided personalized treatment for PDAC patients is feasible, but the percentage of patients who receive targeted therapy is low. The main challenges are ordering NGS testing early in the clinical course of the disease and the limited evidence of using a targeted approach in these patients. A real-time department level genomic testing ordering system in combination with an evidence-based flagging system for potentially actionable alterations could help address these shortcomings.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 856, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline copy number variants (CNVs) increase risk for many diseases, yet detection of CNVs and quantifying their contribution to disease risk in large-scale studies is challenging due to biological and technical sources of heterogeneity that vary across the genome within and between samples. METHODS: We developed an approach called CNPBayes to identify latent batch effects in genome-wide association studies involving copy number, to provide probabilistic estimates of integer copy number across the estimated batches, and to fully integrate the copy number uncertainty in the association model for disease. RESULTS: Applying a hidden Markov model (HMM) to identify CNVs in a large multi-site Pancreatic Cancer Case Control study (PanC4) of 7598 participants, we found CNV inference was highly sensitive to technical noise that varied appreciably among participants. Applying CNPBayes to this dataset, we found that the major sources of technical variation were linked to sample processing by the centralized laboratory and not the individual study sites. Modeling the latent batch effects at each CNV region hierarchically, we developed probabilistic estimates of copy number that were directly incorporated in a Bayesian regression model for pancreatic cancer risk. Candidate associations aided by this approach include deletions of 8q24 near regulatory elements of the tumor oncogene MYC and of Tumor Suppressor Candidate 3 (TUSC3). CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory effects may not account for the major sources of technical variation in genome-wide association studies. This study provides a robust Bayesian inferential framework for identifying latent batch effects, estimating copy number, and evaluating the role of copy number in heritable diseases.

4.
Hum Genet ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671597

RESUMO

Jews are estimated to be at increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared to non-Jews, but their observed 50-80% excess risk is not explained by known non-genetic or genetic risk factors. We conducted a GWAS in a case-control sample of American Jews, largely Ashkenazi, including 406 pancreatic cancer patients and 2332 controls, identified in the dbGaP, PanScan I/II, PanC4 and GERA data sets. We then examined resulting SNPs with P < 10-7 in an expanded sample set, of 539 full- or part-Jewish pancreatic cancer patients and 4117 full- or part-Jewish controls from the same data sets. Jewish ancestries were genetically determined using seeded FastPCA. Among the full Jews, a novel genome-wide significant association was detected on chromosome 19p12 (rs66562280, per-allele OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.33-1.81, P = 10-7.6). A suggestive relatively independent association was detected on chromosome 19p13.3 (rs2656937, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.31-1.78, P = 10-7.0). Similar associations were seen for these SNPs among the full and part Jews combined. This is the first GWAS conducted for pancreatic cancer in the increased-risk Jewish population. The SNPs rs66562280 and rs2656937 are located in introns of ZNF100-like and ARRDC5, respectively, and are known to alter regulatory motifs of genes that play integral roles in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

5.
Mod Pathol ; 33(12): 2544-2563, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704031

RESUMO

The publication of the "Pan-Cancer Atlas" by the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes Consortium, a partnership formed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), provides a wonderful opportunity to reflect on where we stand in our understanding of the genetics of pancreatic cancer, as well as on the opportunities to translate this understanding to patient care. From germline variants that predispose to the development of pancreatic cancer, to somatic mutations that are therapeutically targetable, genetics is now providing hope, where there once was no hope, for those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

6.
J Pathol ; 252(3): 252-262, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696980

RESUMO

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are commonly identified non-invasive cyst-forming pancreatic neoplasms with the potential to progress into invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. There are few in vitro models with which to study the biology of IPMNs and their progression to invasive carcinoma. Therefore, we generated a living biobank of organoids from seven normal pancreatic ducts and ten IPMNs. We characterized eight IPMN organoid samples using whole genome sequencing and characterized five IPMN organoids and seven normal pancreatic duct organoids using transcriptome sequencing. We identified an average of 11,344 somatic mutations in the genomes of organoids derived from IPMNs, with one sample harboring 61,537 somatic mutations enriched for T→C transitions and T→A transversions. Recurrent coding somatic mutations were identified in 15 genes, including KRAS, GNAS, RNF43, PHF3, and RBM10. The most frequently mutated genes were KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43, with somatic mutations identified in six (75%), four (50%), and three (37.5%) IPMN organoid samples, respectively. On average, we identified 36 structural variants in IPMN derived organoids, and none had an unstable phenotype (> 200 structural variants). Transcriptome sequencing identified 28 genes differentially expressed between normal pancreatic duct organoid and IPMN organoid samples. The most significantly upregulated and downregulated genes were CLDN18 and FOXA1. Immunohistochemical analysis of FOXA1 expression in 112 IPMNs, 113 mucinous cystic neoplasms, and 145 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas demonstrated statistically significant loss of expression in low-grade IPMNs (p < 0.0016), mucinous cystic neoplasms (p < 0.0001), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma of any histologic grade (p < 0.0001) compared to normal pancreatic ducts. These data indicate that FOXA1 loss of expression occurs early in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Our study highlights the utility of organoid culture to study the genetics and biology of normal pancreatic duct and IPMNs. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 999-1008, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and 80% of patients present with advanced, incurable disease. Risk markers for pancreatic cancer have been characterized, but combined models are not used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for the disease. METHODS: Within a nested case-control study of 500 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 1,091 matched controls enrolled in four U.S. prospective cohorts, we characterized absolute risk models that included clinical factors (e.g., body mass index, history of diabetes), germline genetic polymorphisms, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Model discrimination showed an area under ROC curve of 0.62 via cross-validation. Our final integrated model identified 3.7% of men and 2.6% of women who had at least 3 times greater than average risk in the ensuing 10 years. Individuals within the top risk percentile had a 4% risk of developing pancreatic cancer by age 80 years and 2% 10-year risk at age 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Risk models that include established clinical, genetic, and circulating factors improved disease discrimination over models using clinical factors alone. IMPACT: Absolute risk models for pancreatic cancer may help identify individuals in the general population appropriate for disease interception.

9.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(6): 748-756, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205290

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) measurements can be used to estimate tumor burden, but avoiding false-positive results is challenging. Herein, digital next-generation sequencing (NGS) is evaluated as a ctDNA detection method. Plasma KRAS and GNAS hotspot mutation levels were measured in 140 subjects, including 67 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 73 healthy and disease controls. To limit chemical modifications of DNA that yield false-positive mutation calls, plasma DNA was enzymatically pretreated, after which DNA was aliquoted for digital detection of mutations (up to 384 aliquots/sample) by PCR and NGS. A digital NGS score of two SDs above the mean in controls was considered positive. Thirty-seven percent of patients with pancreatic cancer, including 31% of patients with stages I/II disease, had positive KRAS codon 12 ctDNA scores; only one patient had a positive GNAS mutation score. Two disease control patients had positive ctDNA scores. Low-normal-range digital NGS scores at mutation hotspots were found at similar levels in healthy and disease controls, usually at sites of cytosine deamination, and were likely the result of chemical modification of plasma DNA and NGS error rather than true mutations. Digital NGS detects mutated ctDNA in patients with pancreatic cancer with similar yield to other methods. Detection of low-level, true-positive ctDNA is limited by frequent low-level detection of false-positive mutation calls in plasma DNA from controls.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(11): 1162-1169, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to pancreatic imaging and regular pancreatic surveillance may help identify stage I pancreatic cancer. We investigated recent trends in the stage of newly diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDACs), age at diagnosis, and survival. METHODS: Trends in age-adjusted incidence of stage IA PDAC between 2004 and 2016 were determined from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. All tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The incidence of stage IA PDAC cases diagnosed increased statistically significantly from 2004 to 2016 (annual percent change = 14.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.4 to 17.7; P < .001). During the study period, average age at diagnosis for stage IA and IB casesAQ3 declined by 3.5 years (95% CI = 1.2 to 5.9; P = .004) and 5.5 years (95% CI = 3.4 to 7.6; P < .001), whereas average age increased for higher-stage cases (by 0.6 to 1.4 years). Among stage IA cases, the proportion of blacks was smaller (10.2% vs 12.5%), and the proportion of other non-Caucasians was higher compared with higher-stage cases (11.9% vs 8.4%; P < .001). Stage IA cases were more likely to carry insurance (vs Medicaid or none) than higher-stage cases (cases aged younger than 65 years; odds ratio = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.96 to 3.06; P < .001). The 5-year overall survival for stage IA PDAC improved from 44.7% (95% CI = 31.4 to 63.7) in 2004 to 83.7% (95% CI = 78.6% to 89.2%) in 2012; 10-year survival improved from 36.7% (95% CI = 24.1 to 55.8) in 2004 to 49.0% (95% CI = 37.2% to 64.6%) in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, the proportion of patients diagnosed with stage IA PDAC has increased, their average age at diagnosis has decreased, and their overall survival has improved. These trends may be the result of improved early diagnosis and early detection.

11.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 24(5): 1101-1110, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening high-risk individuals (HRI) can detect potentially curable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its precursors. We describe the outcomes of high-risk individuals (HRI) after pancreatic resection of screen-detected neoplasms. METHODS: Asymptomatic HRI enrolled in the prospective Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) studies from 1998 to 2014 based on family history or germline mutations undergoing surveillance for at least 6 months were included. Pathologic diagnoses, hospital length of stay, incidence of diabetes mellitus, operative morbidity, need for repeat operation, and disease-specific mortality were determined. RESULTS: Among 354 HRI, 48 (13.6%) had 57 operations (distal pancreatectomy (31), Whipple (20), and total pancreatectomy (6)) for suspected pancreatic neoplasms presenting as a solid mass (22), cystic lesion(s) (25), or duct stricture (1). The median length of stay was 7 days (IQR 5-11). Nine of the 42 HRI underwent completion pancreatectomy for a new lesion after a median of 3.8 years (IQR 2.5-7.6). Postoperative complications developed in 17 HRI (35%); there were no perioperative deaths. New-onset diabetes mellitus after partial resection developed in 20% of HRI. Fourteen PDACs were diagnosed, 11 were screen-detected, 10 were resectable, and 9 had an R0 resection. Metachronous PDAC developed in remnant pancreata of 2 HRI. PDAC-related mortality was 4/10 (40%), with 90% 1-year survival and 60% 5-year survival, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Screening HRI can detect PDAC with a high resectability rate. Surgical treatment is associated with a relatively short length of stay and low readmission rate, acceptable morbidity, zero 90-day mortality, and significant long-term survival. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT2000089.

12.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(5): 1161-1169.e5, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) in blood are used as markers to determine the response of patients with cancer to therapy, but are not used to identify patients with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We obtained blood samples from 504 patients undergoing pancreatic surveillance from 2002 through 2018 who did not develop pancreatic cancer and measured levels of the tumor markers CA19-9, CEA, CA-125, and thrombospondin-2. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FUT3, FUT2, ABO, and GAL3ST2 that have been associated with levels of tumor markers were used to establish SNP-defined ranges for each tumor marker. We also tested the association between additional SNPs (in FUT6, MUC16, B3GNT3, FAM3B, and THBS2) with levels of tumor markers. To calculate the diagnostic specificity of each SNP-defined range, we assigned the patients under surveillance into training and validation sets. After determining the SNP-defined ranges, we determined the sensitivity of SNP-adjusted tests for the tumor markers, measuring levels in blood samples from 245 patients who underwent resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from 2010 through 2017. RESULTS: A level of CA19-9 that identified patients with PDAC with 99% specificity had 52.7% sensitivity. When we set the cut-off levels of CA19-9 based on each SNP, the test for CA19-9 identified patients with PDAC with 60.8% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity. Among patients with FUT3 alleles that encode a functional protein, levels of CA19-9 greater than the SNP-determined cut-off values identified 66.4% of patients with PDAC, with 99.3% specificity. In the validation set, levels of CEA varied among patients with vs without SNP in FUT2, by blood group, and among smokers vs nonsmokers; levels of CA-125 varied among patients with vs without the SNP in GAL3ST2. The use of the SNPs to define the ranges of CEA and CA-125 did not significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy of the assays for these proteins. Combining data on levels of CA19-9 and CEA, CA19-9 and CA-125, or CA19-9 and thrombospondin-2 increased the sensitivity of detection of PDAC, but slightly reduced specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Including information on SNPs associated with levels of CA19-9, CEA, and CA-125 can improve the diagnostic accuracy of assays for these tumor markers in the identification of patients with PDAC. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02000089.

15.
PLoS Genet ; 15(8): e1008344, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469826

RESUMO

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) is a lethal malignancy that is familial or associated with genetic syndromes in 10% of cases. Gene-based surveillance strategies for at-risk individuals may improve clinical outcomes. However, familial PC (FPC) is plagued by genetic heterogeneity and the genetic basis for the majority of FPC remains elusive, hampering the development of gene-based surveillance programs. The study was powered to identify genes with a cumulative pathogenic variant prevalence of at least 3%, which includes the most prevalent PC susceptibility gene, BRCA2. Since the majority of known PC susceptibility genes are involved in DNA repair, we focused on genes implicated in these pathways. We performed a region-based association study using the Mixed-Effects Score Test, followed by leave-one-out characterization of PC-associated gene regions and variants to identify the genes and variants driving risk associations. We evaluated 398 cases from two case series and 987 controls without a personal history of cancer. The first case series consisted of 109 patients with either FPC (n = 101) or PC at ≤50 years of age (n = 8). The second case series was composed of 289 unselected PC cases. We validated this discovery strategy by identifying known pathogenic BRCA2 variants, and also identified SMG1, encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase, to be significantly associated with PC following correction for multiple testing (p = 3.22x10-7). The SMG1 association was validated in a second independent series of 532 FPC cases and 753 controls (p<0.0062, OR = 1.88, 95%CI 1.17-3.03). We showed segregation of the c.4249A>G SMG1 variant in 3 affected relatives in a FPC kindred, and we found c.103G>A to be a recurrent SMG1 variant associating with PC in both the discovery and validation series. These results suggest that SMG1 is a novel PC susceptibility gene, and we identified specific SMG1 gene variants associated with PC risk.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adulto , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
16.
Mod Pathol ; 32(12): 1806-1813, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285527

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the ATM serine/threonine kinase (ATM) gene are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is important to identify germline ATM pathogenic variants in pancreatic cancer patients because these alterations are potentially targetable with chemotherapeutic drugs and/or radiation and have implications for other family members. As germline pathogenic variants in other genes have been associated with distinct histologic subtypes of pancreatic cancer, we studied the histomorphology of pancreatic cancer in 23 patients with germline ATM pathogenic variants. The histologic subtype was ductal adenocarcinoma in 19/23 (83%) of the patients, adenosquamous carcinoma in 1/23 (4%), and colloid (mucinous non-cystic) carcinoma in 3/23 (13%). The percentage of colloid (mucinous non-cystic) carcinomas is higher than we have previously observed in patients with familial and sporadic pancreatic cancer (1 and 2% in prior reports, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). Three carcinomas (2 colloid carcinomas, 1 ductal adenocarcinoma) arose in association with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Among the resected pancreata, non-invasive precursor lesions, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and incipient intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, were identified in 83%. We conclude that pancreatic cancers in patients with germline ATM pathogenic variants are more frequently of colloid (mucinous non-cystic) morphology but are overall morphologically diverse supporting the utility of universal germline genetic testing for patients with pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1238-1245, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. The currently identified common susceptibility loci account for a small fraction of estimated heritability. We sought to estimate overall heritability of pancreatic cancer and partition the heritability by variant frequencies and functional annotations. METHODS: Analysis using the genome-based restricted maximum likelihood method (GREML) was conducted on Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from 3,568 pancreatic cancer cases and 3,363 controls of European Ancestry. RESULTS: Applying linkage disequilibrium- and minor allele frequency-stratified GREML (GREML-LDMS) method to imputed GWAS data, we estimated the overall heritability of pancreatic cancer to be 21.2% (SE = 4.8%). Across the functional groups (intronic, intergenic, coding, and regulatory variants), intronic variants account for most of the estimated heritability (12.4%). Previously identified GWAS loci explained 4.1% of the total phenotypic variation of pancreatic cancer. Mutations in hereditary pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes are present in 4% to 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer, yet our GREML-LDMS results suggested these regions explain only 0.4% of total phenotypic variance for pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Although higher than previous studies, our estimated 21.2% overall heritability may still be downwardly biased due to the inherent limitation that the contribution of rare variants in genes with a substantive overall impact on disease are not captured when applying these commonly used methods to imputed GWAS data. IMPACT: Our work demonstrated the importance of rare and common variants in pancreatic cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(13): 1070-1080, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the risk of neoplastic progression by germline mutation status versus family history without a known germline mutation (familial risk) among individuals with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer who are undergoing surveillance. METHODS: Of 464 high-risk individuals in the Cancer of the Pancreas Screening program at Johns Hopkins Hospital who were undergoing pancreatic surveillance, 119 had a known deleterious germline mutation in a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene; 345 met family history criteria for pancreatic surveillance but were not known to harbor a germline mutation. We used next-generation sequencing to identify previously unrecognized germline mutations among these 345 individuals. We compared the development of pancreatic cancer, high-grade dysplasia, or clinically worrisome features, adjusting for competing mortality, among all germline mutation carriers with the risk of progression in a cohort without a known germline mutation. RESULTS: Fifteen (4.3%) of 345 individuals classified as having familial risk had a previously unrecognized pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene mutation (nine that involved ATM, two BRCA2, one BRCA1, one PALB2, one TP53, and one CPA1). The cumulative incidence of pancreatic cancer, high-grade dysplasia, or worrisome features on pancreatic imaging was significantly higher in the germline mutation risk group (n = 134) than in the familial risk group (n = 330 [for pancreatic cancer, hazard ratio, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.0 to 8.18; P = .05]). CONCLUSION: The cumulative incidence of pancreatic cancer is significantly higher among individuals with an identifiable deleterious germline mutation in a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene than it is among individuals with a strong family history but no identified mutation. Gene testing of individuals who meet criteria for pancreatic surveillance on the basis of their family history may better define those most at risk for neoplastic progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Idoso , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(3): 427-436, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872187

RESUMO

We developed a novel phasing approach, based solely on molecules and genotype frequency, that does not rely on inference of new alleles. We initiated the project because of errors that were detected in the phased 1000 Genomes Project data. The algorithm first combined identical genotypes into clusters and ranked them by descending frequency. Using alleles defined in homozygotes, it combined them to produce expected genotypes that were dismissed and subtracted them from remaining genotypes to define additional new putative alleles. Putative alleles had to be confirmed by identifying them in independent genotypes, and the process was iterated until all alleles were identified. The new approach was validated using single-molecule sequencing of eight loci, 145 (8 to 35 per locus) alleles were identified, and an average 98.2% (range, 95.0% to 99.9%) of 1000 genome individuals at these loci were explained. The accuracy of the new method was compared with that from PHASE and SHAPEIT2 to the experimentally determined genotypes based on single-molecule sequencing. Our method was comparable to PHASE and SHAPEIT2 in accuracy but was, on average, 14.6- and 10.8-fold faster, respectively.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Loci Gênicos , Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Gastroenterology ; 156(6): 1905-1913, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma carry germline mutations associated with increased risk of cancer. It is not clear whether patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), which are precursors to some pancreatic cancers, also carry these mutations. We assessed the prevalence of germline mutations associated with cancer risk in patients with histologically confirmed IPMN. METHODS: We obtained nontumor tissue samples from 315 patients with surgically resected IPMNs from 1997 through 2017, and we sequenced 94 genes with variants associated with cancer risk. Mutations associated with increased risk of cancer were identified and compared with individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium. RESULTS: We identified 23 patients with a germline mutation associated with cancer risk (7.3%; 95% confidence interval, 4.9-10.8). Nine patients had a germline mutation associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility (2.9%; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.4). More patients with IPMNs carried germline mutations in ATM (P < .0001), PTCH1 (P < .0001), and SUFU (P < .0001) compared with controls. Patients with IPMNs and germline mutations associated with pancreatic cancer were more like to have concurrent invasive pancreatic carcinoma compared with patients with IPMNs without these mutations (P < .0320). CONCLUSIONS: In sequence analyses of 315 patients with surgically resected IPMNs, we found that almost 3% to carry mutations associated with pancreatic cancer risk. More patients with IPMNs and germline mutations associated with pancreatic cancer had concurrent invasive pancreatic carcinoma compared with patients with IPMNs without these mutations. Genetic analysis of patients with IPMNs might identify those at greatest risk for cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptor Patched-1/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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