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1.
In Vivo ; 34(6): 3473-3481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We examined the prognostic value of intraprostatic gross tumour volume (GTV) as measured by multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) in patients with prostate cancer following (primary) external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective monocentric study, we analysed patients with prostate cancer (PCa) after EBRT. GTV was delineated in pre-treatment mpMRI (GTV-MRI) using T2-weighted images. Cox-regression analyses were performed considering biochemical failure recurrence-free survival (BRFS) as outcome variable. RESULTS: Among 131 patients, after a median follow-up of 57 months, biochemical failure occurred in 27 (21%). GTV-MRI was not correlated with % of positive biopsy cores, Gleason score and initial PSA (all r<0.2) and only moderately correlated with cT stage (r=0.32). In univariate analysis, cT stage, Gleason score and GTV-MRI were higher in subjects with shorter BRFS (p<0.05). GTV-MRI remained a significant predictor for BRFS in multivariate analyses, independent of Gleason score and cT stage. CONCLUSION: GTV, defined using mpMRI, provides incremental prognostic value for BRFS, independent of established risk factors. This supports the implementation of imaging-based GTV for risk-stratification, although further validation is needed.

2.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 242, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the applicability and estimate the radiobiological parameters of linear-quadratic Poisson tumour control probability (TCP) model for primary prostate cancer patients for two relevant target structures (prostate gland and GTV). The TCP describes the dose-response of prostate after definitive radiotherapy (RT). Also, to analyse and identify possible significant correlations between clinical and treatment factors such as planned dose to prostate gland, dose to GTV, volume of prostate and mpMRI-GTV based on multivariate logistic regression model. METHODS: The study included 129 intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer patients (cN0 and cM0), who were treated with image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) ± androgen deprivation therapy with a median follow-up period of 81.4 months (range 42.0-149.0) months. Tumour control was defined as biochemical relapse free survival according to the Phoenix definition (BRFS). MpMRI-GTV was delineated retrospectively based on a pre-treatment multi-parametric MR imaging (mpMRI), which was co-registered to the planning CT. The clinical treatment planning procedure was based on prostate gland, delineated on CT imaging modality. Furthermore, we also fitted the clinical data to TCP model for the two considered targets for the 5-year follow-up after radiation treatment, where our cohort was composed of a total number of 108 patients, of which 19 were biochemical relapse (BR) patients. RESULTS: For the median follow-up period of 81.4 months (range 42.0-149.0) months, our results indicated an appropriate α/ß = 1.3 Gy for prostate gland and α/ß = 2.9 Gy for mpMRI-GTV. Only for prostate gland, EQD2 and gEUD2Gy were significantly lower in the biochemical relapse (BR) group compared to the biochemical control (BC) group. Fitting results to the linear-quadratic Poisson TCP model for prostate gland and α/ß = 1.3 Gy were D50 = 66.8 Gy with 95% CI [64.6 Gy, 69.0 Gy], and γ = 3.8 with 95% CI [2.6, 5.2]. For mpMRI-GTV and α/ß = 2.9 Gy, D50 was 68.1 Gy with 95% CI [66.1 Gy, 70.0 Gy], and γ = 4.5 with 95% CI [3.0, 6.1]. Finally, for the 5-year follow-up after the radiation treatment, our results for the prostate gland were: D50 = 64.6 Gy [61.6 Gy, 67.4 Gy], γ = 3.1 [2.0, 4.4], α/ß = 2.2 Gy (95% CI was undefined). For the mpMRI-GTV, the optimizer was unable to deliver any reasonable results for the expected clinical D50 and α/ß. The results for the mpMRI-GTV were D50 = 50.1 Gy [44.6 Gy, 56.0 Gy], γ = 0.8 [0.5, 1.2], α/ß = 0.0 Gy (95% CI was undefined). For a follow-up time of 5 years and a fixed α/ß = 1.6 Gy, the TCP fitting results for prostate gland were D50 = 63.9 Gy [60.8 Gy, 67.0 Gy], γ = 2.9 [1.9, 4.1], and for mpMRI-GTV D50 = 56.3 Gy [51.6 Gy, 61.1 Gy], γ = 1.3 [0.8, 1.9]. CONCLUSION: The linear-quadratic Poisson TCP model was better fit when the prostate gland was considered as responsible target than with mpMRI-GTV. This is compatible with the results of the comparison of the dose distributions among BR and BC groups and with the results achieved with the multivariate logistic model regarding gEUD2Gy. Probably limitations of mpMRI in defining the GTV explain these results. Another explanation could be the relatively homogeneous dose prescription and the relatively low number of recurrences. The failure to identify any benefit for considering mpMRI-GTV as the target responsible for the clinical response is confirmed when considering a fixed α/ß = 1.6 Gy, a fixed follow-up time for biochemical response at 5 years or Gleason score differentiation.

3.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021008

RESUMO

The management of a kidney transplant program has evolved significantly in the last decades to become a highly specialized, multidisciplinary standard of care for end-stage kidney disease. Transplant center job descriptions have similarly morphed with increasing responsibilities to address a more complex patient mix, increasing medical and surgical therapeutic options, and increasing regulatory burden in the face of an ever-increasing organ shortage. Within this evolution, the role of the Kidney Transplant Medical Director (KTMD) has expanded beyond the basic requirements described in the United Network for Organ Sharing bylaws. Without a clear job description, transplant nephrology trainees may be inadequately trained and practicing transplant nephrologists may face opaque expectations for the roles and responsibilities of Medical Director. To address this gap and clarify the key areas in which the KTMD interfaces with the kidney transplant program, American Society of Transplantation (AST) formed a Task Force of 14 AST KTMDs to review and define the role of the KTMD in key aspects of administrative, regulatory, budgetary, and educational oversight of a kidney transplant program.

4.
Hepatology ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926749

RESUMO

Organs from HCV-viremic donors have been used in HCV-uninfected recipients (D+/R-) but the optimal treatment approach has not been defined. We evaluated the kinetics of HCV infection post-transplant in D+/R- kidney (KT) and liver transplant (LT) recipients when a preemptive antiviral strategy was used. Six U.S. transplant programs prospectively treated D+/R- primary LT and KT recipients with sofosbuvir-velpastasvir for 12 weeks starting once viremia was confirmed post-transplant and the patient judged to be clinically stable including eGFR >30 ml/min. Primary endpoints were sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-transplant (SVR12) and safety (assessed by proportion of treatment-related adverse and serious adverse events). Of 24 patients transplanted (13 liver of whom 2 had prior treated HCV infection, 11 kidney), 23 became viremic post-transplant. The median (IQR) time from transplant to start of antiviral therapy was 7.0 (6.0,12.0) vs. 16.5 (9.8,24.5) days and the median (IQR) HCV RNA level 3 days after transplant was 6.5 (3.9,7.1) vs. 3.6 (2.9,4.0) log10 IU/mL in LT vs. KT recipients, respectively. By week four of treatment, 10/13 (77%) LT, but only 2/10 (20%) KT had undetectable HCV RNA (p=0.01). At the end of treatment, all LT recipients were HCV RNA undetectable, while three (30%) of the kidney recipients still had detectable, but not quantifiable, viremia. All achieved SVR12 (lower 95% CI bound 85%). Serious adverse events considered possibly related to treatment were antibody-mediated rejection, biliary sclerosis, cardiomyopathy and graft-versus-host-disease, with the latter associated with multiorgan failure, premature treatment discontinuation and death. We conclude that despite differing kinetics of early HCV infection in liver versus non-liver recipients, a preemptive antiviral strategy is effective. Vigilance for adverse immunologic events is warranted.

5.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(7): 465-469, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614262

RESUMO

Objectives: Despite attentional deficits being a prominent feature of bipolar disorder, there are limited data on the effects of common treatments for bipolar disorder on attention. Thus, we sought to compare the effects of lithium versus quetiapine on attention in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods: Adolescents ages 10-17 with bipolar disorder, type I, who were experiencing a manic or mixed episode, were recruited from outpatient settings and the inpatient psychiatric units at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center during their first manic episode. Healthy comparison subjects were recruited from outreach programs in the community. Patients were randomized to lithium or quetiapine, administered in a double-dummy, double-blinded manner for 6 weeks. Attentional deficits were assessed in all groups using the Identical Pairs Continuous Performance Task at baseline and at week 6. Results: Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 79) had impaired attention relative to the healthy group (n = 57) at both baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. The lithium-treated group (n = 30) had poorer attentional performance than the healthy group at week 6. There was a difference in change in performance between lithium- and quetiapine-treated (n = 49) groups. Conclusion: Youth with bipolar disorder may have impaired attention relative to their healthy peers. Conclusions are limited by the high dropout rate in the lithium-treated group.

6.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(6): 376-380, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423240

RESUMO

Objectives: The objective of this research was to understand physician, patient, and parent perspectives on barriers to second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication adherence in youth with bipolar spectrum disorders, and attitudes toward treatment of SGA-related weight gain. Methods: Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder before age 18, parents of children diagnosed before 18, and clinicians with experience prescribing SGAs for these patients completed surveys regarding SGA-related side effects, adherence barriers, and acceptability of weight management strategies. Results: Patients (n = 225), parents (n = 128), and clinicians (n = 54) reported weight gain as the most concerning SGA-related side effect (45.6%, 38.9%, and 70.4%, respectively). Weight gain was also the top adherence barrier for patients (35.9%), but was ranked fourth (41.8%) by parents. Patients (61.5%) were more likely "definitely" willing to co-initiate another medication to manage weight gain upon SGA initiation than parents (20.1%) or clinicians (1.9%). Conversely, parents (54.9%) and clinicians (84.9%) were "definitely" willing to accept/prescribe a second medication aiming to reverse weight gain of ≥10 lbs., and patients (61.1%) were willing to add another medication to reverse any weight gain. Conclusion: SGA-related weight gain impairs medication adherence in young patients with bipolar disorder. Many young patients would start pharmacologic treatment to mitigate SGA-related weight gain at treatment initiation, parents and clinicians are more hesitant. This research informs patient-centered perspectives on SGA adherence barriers and strategies to minimize potential side effects, which may improve adherence in this vulnerable patient population.

7.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(2): 119-122, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851522

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine metabolic monitoring rates in commercially insured children and adolescents treated with a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) during calendar years (CYs) 2016 and 2017. Methods: In this retrospective study, data were collected from a large national commercial health plan for the period covering January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. Commercially insured children and adolescents, aged 8-19 years with ≥2 SGA prescription claims during the CY, were identified for the CY2016 and CY2017 cohorts. The primary outcome of interest was the percentage of subjects with any glucose or lipid metabolism parameter monitoring. Other calculated metabolic testing rates included glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), other cholesterol (including triglycerides), and combined glucose and lipid metabolism testing (≥1 test for blood glucose or HbA1c and ≥1 test for LDL-C or other cholesterol). Results: In CY2016 and CY2017, 1502 and 1239 subjects, respectively, were identified for this study. The most common psychiatric diagnoses in CY2016 and CY2017 were major depressive disorder (57.1%, 56.5%, respectively), anxiety disorders (42.9%, 47.5%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (41.6%, 45.8%), and bipolar disorder (24.1%, 25.9%). The rate of any metabolic testing was 53.5% in CY2016 and 51.3% in CY2017. Glucose testing (50.3%, 46.9%, respectively) was most common in both CYs, followed by LDL-C testing (31.2%, 28.5%). Rates of combined glucose and lipid metabolism testing were 30.7% in CY2016 and 26.9% in CY2017. Conclusions: Given the known potential for adverse cardiometabolic effects, rates of metabolic monitoring associated with SGA use in children and adolescents urgently need to be improved. There is a critical need for understanding barriers to routine monitoring, particularly of lipids, and developing interventions to enhance metabolic monitoring.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 281: 112544, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499341

RESUMO

Even though lithium is widely used as treatment for mood disorders, the exact mechanisms of lithium in the brain remain unknown. A potential mechanism affects the downstream target of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, specifically glutamine synthetase (GS). Here, we investigate the effect of lithium on GS-promoter activity in the brain. Over seven days, B6C3H-Glultm(T2A-LacZ) mice that carry LacZ as a reporter gene fused to the GS-promotor received either daily intraperitoneal injections of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg) or NaCl, or no treatment. Following histochemical staining of ß-galactosidase relative GS-promotor activity was measured by analyzing the intensity of the staining. Furthermore cell counts were conducted. GS-promotor activity was significantly decreased in female compared to male mice. Treatment group differences were only found in male hippocampi, with increased activity after NaCl treatment compared to both the lithium treatment and no treatment. Lithium treatment increased the overall number of cells in the CA1 region in males. Daily injections of NaCl might have been sufficient to induce stress-related GS-promotor activity changes in male mice; however, lithium was able to reverse the effect. Taken together, the current study indicates that lithium acts to prevent stress, rather affecting general GS-promoter activity.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , beta Catenina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 98(9): 835-838, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973517

RESUMO

Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation, or "cough assist," is a commonly used method of clearing tracheal and pulmonary secretions in patients with respiratory insufficiency secondary to spinal cord injury. This report presents a novel technique termed the pharyngeal clearance maneuver, which uses a modified application of the mechanical insufflation-exsufflation device to mobilize "secretion burden" at the portion of the trachea above the tracheostomy cuff during cuff deflation. Utilization of this strategy may reduce the risk of aspiration, infection, and respiratory compromise for patients with high cervical spinal cord injury in the acute rehabilitation setting. It is of particular benefit for those whose cuffs are being deflated for the first time and who may have large secretion volumes above the cuff. It can be further used as needed before speaking trials and swallow therapies. We anticipate that the pharyngeal clearance maneuver may be used in other populations with impaired cough and need for invasive ventilator support because of ventilator pump failure (eg, spinal muscular atrophy, congenital myopathies, obesity hypoventilation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy).


Assuntos
Tosse , Insuflação/métodos , Quadriplegia/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Sucção/métodos , Traqueostomia/métodos , Humanos , Quadriplegia/terapia , Sucção/instrumentação , Traqueostomia/instrumentação , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia
10.
Surg Clin North Am ; 99(1): 49-64, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471741

RESUMO

Posttransplant malignancy is a leading cause of death after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Recipients of SOT are at significantly higher risk of multiple cancers compared with the general population, most notably nonmelanoma skin cancer and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Risk factors for posttransplant malignancy include history of malignancy, immunosuppression, oncogenic viral infections, sun exposure, and disease-specific associations. Early detection and treatment of malignancies can improve survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/etiologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Affect Disord ; 242: 1-4, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying correlates of capacity to provide informed consent among individuals with bipolar disorder is essential for patient protection. As part of a clinical trial involving approved, standard treatments, we investigated relationships between clinical characteristics and capacity to provide informed consent in adults with bipolar disorder using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR). After administering the MacCAT-CR, continuing participants in the trial were capable of and provided informed consent. METHODS: Trained, board-certified psychiatrists administered the MacCAT-CR to potential study participants (N = 50) after they provided informed consent, but prior to initiation of study procedures. RESULTS: Higher Schedule for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) scores were significantly correlated with worse MacCAT-CR Understanding and Appreciation (p < 0.04) subscale scores; lower Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores and higher Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores were significantly correlated with worse Reasoning and Understanding subscale scores (p < 0.03); and patients with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) had better Appreciation and Reasoning subscale scores (p < 0.05). LIMITATIONS: The MacCAT-CR identifies areas where participants need explanation. However, there is not a predetermined score to indicate understanding of study procedures and therefore input from a trained clinician is needed to determine capacity to provide informed consent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that certain measures of illness severity are associated with lower levels of capacity to provide informed consent among adults with bipolar disorder. This study provides important information for clinicians and researchers to consider when obtaining informed consent in this population.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Competência Mental/psicologia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 2): 2323-2333, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332665

RESUMO

The quality standards for surface waters increase steadily bearing new challenges for water policy. Precise knowledge of the sources and transport pathway of various impacts in a catchment area is of particular importance for any management activities. Online measurements with high temporal resolution are particularly suited for this purpose especially in small and middle scale catchments. In this paper we present an approach applying mobile measuring stations in which commercial available sensors and wet chemical analysers are combined in a new set to enable real-time monitoring of various parameters. The resulting data and the interpretation of their relationships allow the identification of diverse pollution situations in a river. In this paper some examples of impacts from diffuse and point sources are given to illustrate the high information density obtained through the use of this system.

13.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 43(11): 2256-2263, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946107

RESUMO

The need for treatment response predictive biomarkers is being increasingly recognized in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Structural gray matter abnormalities as a predictor of treatment outcome in pediatric bipolar disorder have not been systematically investigated, especially early in the illness course. With a prospective longitudinal study design, the present study enrolled 52 bipolar adolescents with no history of treatment with mood stabilizers or a therapeutic dose of antipsychotic drugs and 31 healthy controls. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with quetiapine or lithium after pretreatment data collection. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using pretreatment cortical thickness data that identified two discrete patient subgroups. Compared to healthy subjects, patients in subgroup 1 (n = 16) showed widespread greater cortical thickness mainly across heteromodal cortex but also involving some regions of unimodal cortex, while those in subgroup 2 (n = 36) showed regional cortical thinning mainly in superior temporal and superior parietal regions. Patients within subgroup 1 showed a significantly higher response rate to quetiapine than those in subgroup 2 (100% vs 53%). No statistically significant difference was found in lithium response rate between the patient subgroups (63% vs 53%). Pretreatment clinical ratings and neuropsychological data did not differ across subgroups. Our findings suggest the existence of distinct and clinically relevant subgroups of pediatric bipolar patients, as defined by pattern of cortical thickness. These groups appear to differentially respond to antipsychotic treatment-notably with greater cortical thickness relative to controls predicting better treatment response.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Carbonato de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Carbonato de Lítio/farmacologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fumarato de Quetiapina/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Vaccine ; 36(44): 6546-6552, 2018 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annual vaccination is the most effective way to prevent and control the health and economic burden caused by seasonal influenza. Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a crucial role in vaccine acceptance and advocacy for their patients. This study explored the drivers of HCWs' vaccine acceptance and advocacy in six European countries. METHODS: Healthcare workers (mainly general practitioners, specialist physicians, and nurses) voluntarily completed a questionnaire in Bulgaria (N = 485), Czech Republic (N = 518), Kosovo (N = 466), Poland (N = 772), Romania (N = 155), and the United Kingdom (N = 80). Twelve-item scales were used to analyse sentiment clusters for influenza vaccination acceptance and engagement with vaccination advocacy. Past vaccination behaviour and patient recommendation were also evaluated. All data were included in a single analysis. RESULTS: For vaccination acceptance, the main cluster (engaged sentiment: 68%) showed strong positive attitudes for influenza vaccination. A second cluster (hesitant sentiment: 32%) showed more neutral attitudes. Cluster membership was predicted by country of origin and age. The odds ratio for past vaccination in the engaged cluster was 39.6 (95% CI 12.21-128.56) although this varied between countries. For vaccination advocacy, the main cluster (confident sentiment: 73%) showed strong positive attitudes towards advocacy; a second cluster (diffident sentiment: 27%) showed neutral attitudes. Cluster membership was predicted by country of origin, age and profession, with specialist physicians being the least likely to belong to the confident sentiment cluster. HCWs characterised by confident advocacy sentiments were also more likely recommend flu vaccination. Again, this association was moderated by country of origin. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that there is room to improve both vaccination acceptance and advocacy rates in European HCWs, which would be expected to lead to higher rates of HCW vaccination. Benefits that could be expected from such an outcome are improved advocacy and better control of morbidity and mortality related to seasonal influenza infection.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Defesa do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 22(11)2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27767010

RESUMO

Babesia microti, an intraerythrocytic parasite, is tickborne in nature. In contrast to transmission by blood transfusion, which has been well documented, transmission associated with solid organ transplantation has not been reported. We describe parasitologically confirmed cases of babesiosis diagnosed ≈8 weeks posttransplantation in 2 recipients of renal allografts from an organ donor who was multiply transfused on the day he died from traumatic injuries. The organ donor and recipients had no identified risk factors for tickborne infection. Antibodies against B. microti parasites were not detected by serologic testing of archived pretransplant specimens. However, 1 of the organ donor's blood donors was seropositive when tested postdonation and had risk factors for tick exposure. The organ donor probably served as a conduit of Babesia parasites from the seropositive blood donor to both kidney recipients. Babesiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever and hemolytic anemia after blood transfusion or organ transplantation.


Assuntos
Babesia microti , Babesiose/parasitologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Babesia microti/genética , Babesia microti/imunologia , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Transfusão de Sangue , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Doadores de Tecidos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Transplante Homólogo
18.
Bipolar Disord ; 18(6): 490-501, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that, with treatment, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) regional brain activation in first-episode mania would normalize - i.e., that differences from healthy subjects would diminish over time, and would be associated with clinical remission status, potentially identifying neuroanatomic treatment response markers. METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar I disorder were recruited during their first manic episode, pseudo-randomized to open-label lithium or quetiapine, and followed for 8 weeks. fMRI scans were obtained at baseline and then after 1 and 8 weeks of treatment, while participants performed a continuous performance task with emotional distracters. Healthy participants received fMRI scans at these same intervals. Specific region-of-interest (ROI) activations within prefrontal emotional networks were assessed as potential measures of treatment response. RESULTS: ROI data were reduced using exploratory factor analysis, which identified five factors that were organizationally consistent with functional anatomic models of human emotion modulation. Half of the participants with bipolar disorder achieved remission by Week 8 and were contrasted with the other half that did not. Analyses demonstrated that, in the bipolar disorder group in general, treatment led to decreases in activation across brain regions toward healthy subject values. However, differences in activation changes were observed between subjects with bipolar disorder who did or did not achieve remission in subcortical and amygdala factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence for potential neuroanatomic treatment response markers in first-episode bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Transtorno Bipolar , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Emoções/fisiologia , Cuidado Periódico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Pharmacotherapy ; 35(12): 1109-16, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26616582

RESUMO

Tacrolimus-induced cardiomyopathy (TICM) is a rare but serious adverse effect of tacrolimus, which has been described primarily in pediatric non-renal transplant recipients. We describe a case of TICM in an adult renal transplant recipient that resulted in allograft dysfunction and multiple hospital admissions for heart failure exacerbation. Prompt and complete reversal of TICM occurred after tacrolimus discontinuation. Although tacrolimus-induced cardiomyopathy is reversible, availability of alternative immunosuppressants is limited, particularly in the setting of renal dysfunction. Available studies and patient-specific factors must be considered when determining an alternative maintenance immunosuppression regimen. We chose to use belatacept as alternative immunosuppression in this patient with TICM. Over the next 3 years, the patient remained free of hospital admissions and acute rejection, and demonstrated superior renal allograft function than was observed before her first heart failure admission. We believe that belatacept is an acceptable alternative to tacrolimus therapy for resolution of TICM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia
20.
Transpl Int ; 28(9): 1121-5, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25864519

RESUMO

De novo thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after renal transplant is rare. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related post-transplant TMA has only been reported in 6 cases. We report an unusual case of a 75-year-old woman who developed de novo TMA in association with CMV viremia. The recurrence of TMA with CMV viremia, the resolution with treatment for CMV, and the lack of correlation with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) in our case support CMV as the cause of the TMA. What is unique is that the use of eculizumab without plasmapheresis led to prompt improvement in renal function. After a failure to identify a genetic cause for TMA and the clear association with CMV, eculizumab was discontinued. This case provides insight into the pathogenesis and novel treatment of de novo TMA, highlights the beneficial effects of complement inhibitors in this disease, and shows that they can be safely discontinued once the inciting etiology is addressed.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/complicações , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Citomegalovirus , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Recidiva , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/virologia
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