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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mutations in the tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A gene (TTC7A) cause intestinal epithelial and immune defects. Patients can become immune deficient and develop apoptotic enterocolitis, multiple intestinal atresia, and recurrent intestinal stenosis. The intestinal disease in patients with TTC7A deficiency is severe, untreatable, and recurs despite resection or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. We screened drugs for those that prevent apoptosis of in cells with TTC7A deficiency and tested their effects in an animal model of the disease. METHODS: We developed a high-throughput screen to identify compounds approved by the Food and Drug Administration that reduce activity of caspases 3 and 7 in TTC7A-knockout HAP1 (human haploid) cells and reduce the susceptibility to apoptosis. We validated the effects of identified agents in HeLa cells that stably express TTC7A with point mutations found in patients. Signaling pathways in cells were analyzed by immunoblots. We tested the effects of identified agents in zebrafish with disruption of ttc7a, which develop intestinal defects, and colonoids derived from biopsies of patients with and without mutations in TTC7A. We performed real-time imaging of intestinal peristalsis in zebrafish and histologic analyses of intestinal tissues from patients and zebrafish. Colonoids were analyzed by immunofluorescence and for ion transport. RESULTS: TTC7A-knockout HAP1 cells have abnormal morphology and undergo apoptosis, due to increased levels of active caspases 3 and 7. We identified drugs that increased cell viability; leflunomide (used to treat patients with inflammatory conditions) reduced caspase 3 and 7 activity in cells by 96%. TTC7A-knockout cells contained cleaved caspase 3 and had reduced levels of phosphorylated AKT and XIAP; incubation of these cells with leflunomide increased levels of phosphorylated AKT and XIAP and reduced levels of cleaved caspase 3. Administration of leflunomide to ttc7a-/- zebrafish increased gut motility, reduced intestinal tract narrowing, increased intestinal cell survival, increased sizes of intestinal luminal spaces, and restored villi and goblet cell morphology. Exposure of patient-derived colonoids to leflunomide increased cell survival, polarity, and transport function. CONCLUSIONS: In a drug screen, we identified leflunomide as an agent that reduces apoptosis and levels of caspase 3 and activates AKT signaling and in TTC7A-knockout cells. In zebrafish with disruption of ttc7a, leflunomide restores gut motility, reduces intestinal tract narrowing, and increases intestinal cell survival. This drug might be repurposed for treatment of TTC7A deficiency.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in neuroblastoma-amplified sequence (NBAS) cause an autosomal recessive disorder with a wide range of symptoms affecting liver, skeletal system, and brain, among others. There is a continuously growing number of patients but a lack of systematic and quantitative analysis. METHODS: Individuals with biallelic variants in NBAS were recruited within an international, multicenter study, including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed with log-linear models and visualized by mosaic plots; facial profiles were investigated via DeepGestalt. The structure of the NBAS protein was predicted using computational methods. RESULTS: One hundred ten individuals from 97 families with biallelic pathogenic NBAS variants were identified, including 26 novel patients with 19 previously unreported variants, giving a total number of 86 variants. Protein modeling redefined the ß-propeller domain of NBAS. Based on the localization of missense variants and in-frame deletions, three clinical subgroups arise that differ significantly regarding main clinical features and are directly related to the affected region of the NBAS protein: ß-propeller (combined phenotype), Sec39 (infantile liver failure syndrome type 2/ILFS2), and C-terminal (short stature, optic atrophy, and Pelger-Huët anomaly/SOPH). CONCLUSION: We define clinical subgroups of NBAS-associated disease that can guide patient management and point to domain-specific functions of NBAS.

3.
Blood ; 134(18): 1510-1516, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. We here investigated 4 patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified 4 distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced, or loss of, protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0216442, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430289

RESUMO

Gene expression analysis of rare or heterogeneous cell populations such as disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) requires a sensitive method allowing reliable analysis of single cells. Therefore, we developed and explored the feasibility of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to analyze single-cell cDNA pre-amplified using a previously established whole transcriptome amplification (WTA) protocol. We carefully selected and optimized multiple steps of the protocol, e.g. re-amplification of WTA products, quantification of amplified cDNA yields and final qPCR quantification, to identify the most reliable and accurate workflow for quantitation of gene expression of the ERBB2 gene in DCCs. We found that absolute quantification outperforms relative quantification. We then validated the performance of our method on single cells of established breast cancer cell lines displaying distinct levels of HER2 protein. The different protein levels were faithfully reflected by transcript expression across the tested cell lines thereby proving the accuracy of our approach. Finally, we applied our method to breast cancer DCCs of a patient undergoing anti-HER2-directed therapy. Here, we were able to measure ERBB2 expression levels in all HER2-protein-positive DCCs. In summary, we developed a reliable single-cell qPCR assay applicable to measure distinct levels of ERBB2 in DCCs.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379802

RESUMO

Introduction: The German PID-NET registry was founded in 2009, serving as the first national registry of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Germany. It is part of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry. The primary purpose of the registry is to gather data on the epidemiology, diagnostic delay, diagnosis, and treatment of PIDs. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data was collected from 2,453 patients from 36 German PID centres in an online registry. Data was analysed with the software Stata® and Excel. Results: The minimum prevalence of PID in Germany is 2.72 per 100,000 inhabitants. Among patients aged 1-25, there was a clear predominance of males. The median age of living patients ranged between 7 and 40 years, depending on the respective PID. Predominantly antibody disorders were the most prevalent group with 57% of all 2,453 PID patients (including 728 CVID patients). A gene defect was identified in 36% of patients. Familial cases were observed in 21% of patients. The age of onset for presenting symptoms ranged from birth to late adulthood (range 0-88 years). Presenting symptoms comprised infections (74%) and immune dysregulation (22%). Ninety-three patients were diagnosed without prior clinical symptoms. Regarding the general and clinical diagnostic delay, no PID had undergone a slight decrease within the last decade. However, both, SCID and hyper IgE- syndrome showed a substantial improvement in shortening the time between onset of symptoms and genetic diagnosis. Regarding treatment, 49% of all patients received immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution (70%-subcutaneous; 29%-intravenous; 1%-unknown). Three-hundred patients underwent at least one hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had gene therapy. Conclusion: The German PID-NET registry is a precious tool for physicians, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, and ultimately the patients, for whom the outcomes will eventually lead to a more timely diagnosis and better treatment.

6.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 37, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiency of interleukin-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA) is a life threatening monogenic autoinflammatory disease caused by loss of function mutations in the IL36RN gene. Affected patients develop recurrent episodes of generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) with systemic inflammation and fever. We here review and analyze the literature on pediatric DITRA patients who have been treated by biologicals targeting inflammatory cytokines. METHOD: A database research was performed to identify all relevant articles on pediatric DITRA patients treated with biologicals. According to defined response criteria therapeutic efficacy was analyzed. RESULTS: Our literature research revealed 12 pediatric patients with DITRA who have received treatment with biologicals and we add a further not yet reported patient. Out of these 13 patients 10 were homozygous including 6 with the p.Leu27Pro, 3 with the p.Arg10 Argfs* and 1 with the p.Thr123Met mutation. 3 patients were compound heterozygous. In total 28 flares were treated with biological agents- targeting IL-1, IL-17, IL-12/23 and TNF-α. Complete response was achieved in 16 flares (57%), a partial reponse was seen in 2 flares (7%), and no response was observed in 10 flares (36%). Response rates were heterogeneous among the different agents. While complete/partial/no response with inhibition of TNF-alpha could be achieved in 7 (58%)/1 (8%)/4 (33%), the inhibition of IL-17 and of IL-12/23 led in each 4 flares to a 100% complete response. IL-1 inhibition led to complete/partial response in each 1 (13%) and was not effective in 6 (76%) flares. Of note, the novel patient was successfully treated with weekly dosed adalimumab. CONCLUSIONS: DITRA is a rare disease that has to be considered in GPP with systemic inflammation and fever. It can be effectively treated with specific biological inhibition of TNF-alpha, IL-12/23 and IL- 17, while anti-IL-1 treatment seems less effective. Weekly dosed adalimumab appears to be a treatment option for pediatric patients. Further reports and studies of biological treated pediatric DITRA patients are warranted for evaluation of optimal treatment.

7.
Pediatr Res ; 86(5): 603-607, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infantile cortical hyperostosis (ICH)/Caffey disease is an inflammatory collagenopathy of infancy, manifested by subperiosteal bone hyperplasia. Genetically, ICH was linked with heterozygosity for an R836C mutation in the COL1A1 gene. Although an autosomal-recessive trait is also suspected, it has not been proven thus far. METHODS: A case of an infant male born to consanguineous parents is reported, presenting with classical findings, course, and clinical outcome of ICH. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in order to identify a possible underlying genetic defect. RESULTS: WES analysis revealed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in lysine 2 of fetuin-A, encoded by the ALPHA-2-HS-GLYCOPROTEIN (AHSG) gene (c.A4T; p.K2X). Fetuin-A is an important regulator of bone remodeling and an inhibitor of ectopic mineralization. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we show a complete deficiency of this protein in the patient's serum, compared to controls. CONCLUSION: A novel homozygous nonsense mutation in AHSG gene has been found in ICH patient with a typical phenotype, resulting in fetuin-A deficiency. This finding postulates an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance in ICH, which, unlike the autosomal-dominant inheritance associated with COL1A1, is associated with AHSG and fetuin-A deficiency.

8.
Bioinformatics ; 35(22): 4834-4836, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228198

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Despite their fundamental role in various biological processes, the analysis of small RNA sequencing data remains a challenging task. Major obstacles arise when short RNA sequences map to multiple locations in the genome, align to regions that are not annotated or underwent post-transcriptional changes which hamper accurate mapping. In order to tackle these issues, we present a novel profiling strategy that circumvents the need for read mapping to a reference genome by utilizing the actual read sequences to determine expression intensities. After differential expression analysis of individual sequence counts, significant sequences are annotated against user defined feature databases and clustered by sequence similarity. This strategy enables a more comprehensive and concise representation of small RNA populations without any data loss or data distortion. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Code and documentation of our R package at http://ibis.helmholtz-muenchen.de/deus/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

9.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 25(11): 1788-1795, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with very early onset inflammatory bowel diseases (VEO-IBD) often have a refractory and severe disease course. A significant number of described VEO-IBD-causing monogenic disorders can be attributed to defects in immune-related genes. The diagnosis of the underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID) often has critical implications for the treatment of patients with IBD-like phenotypes. METHODS: To identify the molecular etiology in 5 patients from 3 unrelated kindred with IBD-like symptoms, we conducted whole exome sequencing. Immune workup confirmed an underlying PID. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing revealed 3 novel CARMIL2 loss-of-function mutations in our patients. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed reduction of regulatory and effector memory T cells and impaired B cell class switching. The T cell proliferation and activation assays confirmed defective responses to CD28 costimulation, consistent with CARMIL2 deficiency. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that human CARMIL2 deficiency can manifest with IBD-like symptoms. This example illustrates that early diagnosis of underlying PID is crucial for the treatment and prognosis of children with VEO-IBD.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 497, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936881

RESUMO

B-cell development and function depend on stage-specific signaling through the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). Signaling and intracellular trafficking of the BCR are connected, but the molecular mechanisms of this link are incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of the endosomal adaptor protein and member of the LAMTOR/Ragulator complex LAMTOR2 (p14) in B-cell development. Efficient conditional deletion of LAMTOR2 at the pre-B1 stage using mb1-Cre mice resulted in complete developmental arrest. Deletion of LAMTOR2 using Cd19-Cre mice permitted analysis of residual B cells at later developmental stages, revealing that LAMTOR2 was critical for the generation and activation of mature B lymphocytes. Loss of LAMTOR2 resulted in aberrant BCR signaling due to delayed receptor internalization and endosomal trafficking. In conclusion, we identify LAMTOR2 as critical regulator of BCR trafficking and signaling that is essential for early B-cell development in mice.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033788

RESUMO

Gain of function mutations in the p110δ catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PIK3CD) classified as activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) are the cause of a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and lymphoproliferation. Previously, autoimmunity and Epstein-Barr virus-related B-cell lymphoma have been documented for patients with APDS; here, we present a case that extends the picture, as the patient shows the full diagnostic criteria of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis at 6 months of age. He experienced Hodgkin lymphoma as a 2.5-year-old baby. Next-generation sequencing returned a de novo heterozygous missense variant in PIK3CD (LRG_191t1: c.3061G>A; p.Glu1021Lys), confirming the primary immunodeficiency. After 2 courses of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide combined with brentuximab, the patient successfully underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from his HLA full matched sister, and he has been well for 18 months after that. The hematologist treating Hodgkin lymphoma and/or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be vigilant about the possible underlying immune deficiency, and they should consider APDS in their differential diagnosis.

12.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 391-400, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025232

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Interleukin-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) is an important mediator of T cell receptor signaling. Loss of function mutations in ITK results in hypogammaglobulinemia and CD4+ T cell loss in humans, and the patients often present with EBV-associated B cell lymphoproliferative syndrome. Itk-deficient mice show loss of T cell naivety, impaired cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells, and defects in CD4+ T cell lineage choice decisions. In mice, Itk mutations were shown to affect Th17-Treg lineage choice in favor of the latter. In this study, we explored whether human ITK reciprocally regulates Th17-Treg balance as its murine ortholog. METHODS: Whole Exome Sequencing was used to identify the mutation. ITK-deficient peripheral blood lymphocytes were characterized by FACSAria III-based flow cytometric assays with respect to proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) frequency. Sorted T cells from healthy donors were exposed to ibrutinib, an irreversible ITK inhibitor, to assess ITK's contribution to Th17 and Treg cell generation and functions. RESULTS: In this study, we report a child with a novel ITK mutation who showed impaired CD3/CD28 induced proliferation in T cells. ITK-mutant cells were more apoptotic irrespective of TCR activation. More importantly, T cells produced less Th17-associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-22, and GM-CSF. Conversely, Th1-associated IFN-γ production was increased. An irreversible inhibitor of ITK, ibrutinib, blocked ex vivo Th17 generation and IL-17A production, conversely augmented FOXP3 expression only at low doses in Treg cultures. Finally, we analyzed peripheral ILC populations and observed a relative decrease in ILC2 and ILC3 frequency in our ITK-deficient patient. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that both genetic and chemical inhibition of ITK result in reduced Th17 generation and function in humans. We also report, for the first time, a reduction in ILC2 and ILC3 populations in an ITK-deficient human patient.

13.
Chemistry ; 25(37): 8820-8828, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017706

RESUMO

Pulsed EPR dipolar spectroscopy (PDS) offers several methods for measuring dipolar coupling and thus the distance between electron-spin centers. To date, PDS measurements to metal centers were limited to ions that adhere to the high-field approximation. Here, the PDS methodology is extended to cases where the high-field approximation breaks down on the example of the high-spin Fe3+ /nitroxide spin-pair. First, the theory developed by Maryasov et al. (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2006, 30, 683-702) was adapted to derive equations for the dipolar coupling constant, which revealed that the dipolar spectrum does not only depend on the length and orientation of the interspin distance vector with respect to the applied magnetic field but also on its orientation to the effective g-tensor of the Fe3+ ion. Then, it is shown on a model system and a heme protein that a PDS method called relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) is well-suited to measuring such spectra and that the experimentally obtained dipolar spectra are in full agreement with the derived equations. Finally, a RIDME data analysis procedure was developed, which facilitates the determination of distance and angular distributions from the RIDME data. Thus, this study enables the application of PDS to for example, the highly relevant class of high-spin Fe3+ heme proteins.

14.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 207-215, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903457

RESUMO

Inborn errors in interleukin 2 receptor, gamma (IL2RG) perturb signaling of the common gamma chain family cytokines and cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Here, we report two brothers suffering from chronic cryptosporidiosis, severe diarrhea, and cholangitis. Pan T, B, and NK cell numbers were normal, but immunophenotyping revealed defective B cell differentiation. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a base pair deletion in the first exon of IL2RG predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop. However, flow cytometry revealed normal surface expression of the IL-2Rγ chain. While IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 signaling showed only mild defects of STAT5 phosphorylation in response to the respective cytokines, IL-4- and IL-21-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT6 was markedly reduced. Examination of RNA isoforms detected alternative splicing downstream of IL2RG exon 1 in both patients resulting in resolution of the predicted frameshift and 16 mutated amino acids. In silico modeling suggested that the IL-2Rγ mutation reduces the stabilization of IL-4 and IL-21 cytokine binding by affecting the N-terminal domain of the IL-2Rγ. Thus, our study shows that IL2RG deficiency can be associated with differential signaling defects. Confounding effects of alternative splicing may partially rescue genetic defects and should be considered in patients with inborn errors of immunity.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2054, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765850

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by highly invasive behavior allowing dissemination and progression. A conclusive image of the invasive process is not available. The aim of this work was to study invasion dynamics in GBM using an innovative in vivo imaging approach. Primary brain tumor initiating cell lines from IDH-wild type GBM stably expressing H2B-Dendra2 were implanted orthotopically in the brains of SCID mice. Using high-resolution time-lapse intravital imaging, tumor cell migration in the tumor core, border and invasive front was recorded. Tumor cell dynamics at different border configurations were analyzed and multivariate linear modelling of tumor cell spreading was performed. We found tumor border configurations, recapitulating human tumor border morphologies. Not only tumor borders but also the tumor core was composed of highly dynamic cells, with no clear correlation to the ability to spread into the brain. Two types of border configurations contributed to tumor cell spreading through distinct invasion patterns: an invasive margin that executes slow but directed invasion, and a diffuse infiltration margin with fast but less directed movement. By providing a more detailed view on glioma invasion patterns, our study may improve accuracy of prognosis and serve as a basis for personalized therapeutic approaches.

17.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(2): 117-119, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664787

Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos
18.
Surg Technol Int ; 34: 313-320, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664224

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has dramatically changed the treatment of valvular heart disease over the past decade. At the same time, the indications for bioprosthesis implantation have been continuously extended toward younger patients, driven by excellent clinical results and improved durability. While the omission of oral anticoagulation reduces the risk of severe bleeding complications, the long-term durability of bioprostheses is still limited. In light of the growing number of elderly transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) patients, the prevalence of patients with failed bioprostheses and advanced comorbidities is expected to rise. Currently, transcatheter valve-in-valve (ViV) and valve-in-ring (ViR) interventions represent a valuable alternative treatment option for patients with a high risk for surgical reoperation. Several reports have described a high procedural success rate and low postprocedural morbidity and mortality during mid-term follow-up. We are still facing valve-specific and procedure-related challenges in all types of procedures, but especially in transcatheter ViR interventions. Considering the high technical demand of these interventions, a strong and highly specialized heart team in heart valve centers is the cornerstone of successful patient treatment. This review focuses on individualized patient selection, procedure-specific risk factors and technical aspects of transcatheter ViV/R interventions, and explores the currently available literature on postinterventional outcome.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(4): 760-772, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630937

RESUMO

Neutrophil granulocytes are critical mediators of innate immunity and tissue regeneration. Rare diseases of neutrophil granulocytes may affect their differentiation and/or functions. However, there are very few validated diagnostic tests assessing the functions of neutrophil granulocytes in these diseases. Here, we set out to probe omics analysis as a novel diagnostic platform for patients with defective differentiation and function of neutrophil granulocytes. We analyzed highly purified neutrophil granulocytes from 68 healthy individuals and 16 patients with rare monogenic diseases. Cells were isolated from fresh venous blood (purity >99%) and used to create a spectral library covering almost 8000 proteins using strong cation exchange fractionation. Patient neutrophil samples were then analyzed by data-independent acquisition proteomics, quantifying 4154 proteins in each sample. Neutrophils with mutations in the neutrophil elastase gene ELANE showed large proteome changes that suggest these mutations may affect maturation of neutrophil granulocytes and initiate misfolded protein response and cellular stress mechanisms. In contrast, only few proteins changed in patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Strikingly, neutrophil transcriptome analysis showed no correlation with its proteome. In case of two patients with undetermined genetic causes, proteome analysis guided the targeted genetic diagnostics and uncovered the underlying genomic mutations. Data-independent acquisition proteomics may help to define novel pathomechanisms in neutrophil diseases and provide a clinically useful diagnostic dimension.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/virologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Adolescente , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/genética , Cabelo/anormalidades , Cabelo/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/virologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
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