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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annual United States (US) estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children typically measure protection against outpatient medically attended influenza illness, with limited data evaluating VE against influenza hospitalizations. We estimated VE for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization among US children. METHODS: We included children aged 6 months-17 years with acute respiratory illness enrolled in the New Vaccine Surveillance Network during the 2015-2016 influenza season. Documented influenza vaccination status was obtained from state immunization information systems, the electronic medical record, and/or provider records. Midturbinate nasal and throat swabs were tested for influenza using molecular assays. We estimated VE as 100% × (1 - odds ratio), comparing the odds of vaccination among subjects testing influenza positive with subjects testing negative, using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1653 participants, 36 of 707 (5%) of those fully vaccinated, 18 of 226 (8%) of those partially vaccinated, and 85 of 720 (12%) of unvaccinated children tested positive for influenza. Of those vaccinated, almost 90% were documented to have received inactivated vaccine. The majority (81%) of influenza cases were in children ≤ 8 years of age. Of the 139 influenza-positive cases, 42% were A(H1N1)pdm09, 42% were B viruses, and 14% were A(H3N2). Overall, adjusted VE for fully vaccinated children was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34%-71%) against any influenza-associated hospitalization, 68% (95% CI, 36%-84%) for A(H1N1)pdm09, and 44% (95% CI, -1% to 69%) for B viruses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the importance of annual influenza vaccination in prevention of severe influenza disease and of reducing the number of children who remain unvaccinated or partially vaccinated against influenza.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626687

RESUMO

International Classification of Diseases diagnostic codes are used to estimate acute gastroenteritis (AGE) disease burden. We validated AGE-related codes in pediatric and adult populations using 2 multiregional active surveillance platforms. The sensitivity of AGE codes was similar (54% and 58%) in both populations and increased with addition of vomiting-specific codes.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1912242, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560386

RESUMO

Importance: Rotavirus vaccines have been recommended for universal US infant immunization for more than 10 years, and understanding their effectiveness is key to the continued success of the US rotavirus vaccine immunization program. Objective: To assess the association of RotaTeq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1) with inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits for rotavirus infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control vaccine effectiveness study was performed at inpatient and ED clinical settings in 7 US pediatric medical institutions from November 1, 2009, through June 30, 2016. Children younger than 5 years seeking medical care for acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Clinical and epidemiologic data, vaccination verification, and results of stool sample tests for laboratory-confirmed rotavirus were collected. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2009, through June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness for preventing rotavirus-associated inpatient and ED visits over time for each licensed vaccine, stratified by clinical severity and age. Results: Among the 10 813 children included (5927 boys [54.8%] and 4886 girls [45.2%]; median [range] age, 21 [8-59] months), RV5 and RV1 analyses found that compared with controls, rotavirus-positive cases were more often white (RV5, 535 [62.2%] vs 3310 [57.7%]; RV1, 163 [43.1%] vs 864 [35.1%]), privately insured (RV5, 620 [72.1%] vs 4388 [76.5%]; RV1, 305 [80.7%] vs 2140 [87.0%]), and older (median [range] age for RV5, 26 [8-59] months vs 21 [8-59] months; median [range] age for RV1, 22 [8-59] months vs 19 [8-59] months) but did not differ by sex. Among 1193 rotavirus-positive cases and 9620 rotavirus-negative controls, at least 1 dose of any rotavirus vaccine was 82% (95% CI, 77%-86%) protective against rotavirus-associated inpatient visits and 75% (95% CI, 71%-79%) protective against rotavirus-associated ED visits. No statistically significant difference during this 7-year period was observed for either rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness against inpatient and ED visits was 81% (95% CI, 78%-84%) for RV5 (3 doses) and 78% (95% CI, 72%-82%) for RV1 (2 doses) among the study population. A mixed course of both vaccines provided 86% (95% CI, 74%-93%) protection. Rotavirus patients who were not vaccinated had severe infections 4 times more often than those who were vaccinated (74 of 426 [17.4%] vs 28 of 605 [4.6%]; P < .001), and any dose of rotavirus vaccine was 65% (95% CI, 56%-73%) effective against mild infections, 81% (95% CI, 76%-84%) against moderate infections, and 91% (95% CI, 85%-95%) against severe infections. Conclusions and Relevance: Evidence from this large postlicensure study of rotavirus vaccine performance in the United States from 2010 to 2016 suggests that RV5 and RV1 rotavirus vaccines continue to perform well, particularly in preventing inpatient visits and severe infections and among younger children.

4.
Teach Learn Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523994

RESUMO

Phenomenon: Feedback given by medical students to their teachers during a clerkship has the potential to improve learning by communicating students' needs and providing faculty with information on how to adjust their teaching. Aligning student learning needs and faculty teaching approach could result in increased student understanding and skill development before a clerkship's end. However, little is known about faculty perceptions of formative feedback from medical students and how faculty might respond to such feedback. Approach: In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews of 24 third-year clerkship faculty were conducted to explore faculty opinions about receiving formative feedback from students. Transcripts of these interviews were reviewed, and content analysis was performed. Findings: Faculty endorsed the idea of obtaining formative feedback from medical students. However, probing revealed factors that would significantly influence their receptivity and response to the feedback provided, including (a) who would be giving the feedback, (b) what content was included in the feedback, (c) how the feedback was framed, and (d) why the feedback was given. Although participants endorsed the concept of receiving formative feedback from medical students, their accounts of how they might respond to it presented a mixed picture of receptivity, acceptance, and response. Insights: These findings have practical implications. If formative feedback from medical students to faculty is to be encouraged, institutions need to find ways of creating a feedback culture in which more dialogic models become "the norm" and work with faculty to increase their receptivity to and acceptance of student feedback. This is essential for students to feel safe and be safe from retribution when providing insights into how faculty can better meet their learning needs.

5.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe the prescribing patterns of oxycodone for patients with distal upper extremity fractures and to evaluate factors that influence the quantity of oxycodone prescribed at discharge. METHODS: We retrospectively studied oxycodone prescriptions for patients with upper extremity fractures presenting to a single center tertiary pediatric emergency department (ED) from June 1, 2014, to May 31, 2016. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association of opioid administration in the ED, fracture reduction under ketamine sedation, initial pain scores (low, medium, and high), patient demographics, and type of prescriber (residents, attendings, fellows, and advanced registered nurse practitioners) with oxycodone prescription at discharge and the number of doses prescribed (≤12 or >12 doses). RESULTS: A total of 1185 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 669 (56%) were prescribed oxycodone at discharge. Children with fractures requiring reduction had 13 times higher odds [95% confidence interval (CI), 9.45-20.12] of receiving an oxycodone prescription compared with children with fractures not requiring reduction. Opioid administration in the ED was associated with 7.5 times higher odds (95% CI, 5.41-10.51) of receiving an outpatient prescription. Children were more likely to have a higher quantity of oxycodone prescribed if they had a fracture reduction in the ED [odds ratio (OR), 1.73; 95% CI, 1.20-2.50], received an opioid in the ED (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.43-3.20), or received their prescription from an emergency medicine resident (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.44-5.74). CONCLUSIONS: Opioid prescribing differs based on patient- and provider-related factors. Given the variability in prescribing patterns, changing suggested opioid prescriptions in the electronic medical record may lead to more consistent practice and therefore decrease unnecessary prescribing while still ensuring adequate outpatient analgesia.

6.
Acad Pediatr ; 19(8): 956-962, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience worse health care outcomes compared to English proficient (EP) patients, and professional interpretation is underutilized in clinical settings. The objectives of this study were to describe patterns of interpreter use in a pediatric emergency department (ED), to determine factors associated with its use, and to examine differences in outcomes between EP families and those with LEP. METHODS: ED encounters for LEP and EP patients were reviewed in a retrospective cohort study design over a 15 month period. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare patient encounters and factors associated with interpreter use. RESULTS: Interpreter use for families who preferred a non-English language was 45.4%. Use of interpretation was less likely during busier times of day (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.93), with a lower triage acuity (OR 0.66, CI 0.62-0.70), and with each increasing year of patient age (OR 0.97, CI 0.96-0.98). LEP patients who did not receive interpretation were less likely to be admitted than EP patients (OR 0.69, 0.62-0.78). Patients of LEP families, with or without interpretation, were more likely to be transferred to the ICU within 24 hours of admission than patients of EP families (OR 1.76, 1.07-2.90; 1.85, 1.08-3.18) suggesting that an aspect of clinical severity may have been missed in the ED. CONCLUSIONS: Professional interpretation is currently underutilized in this ED for patients with LEP, and important differences in outcomes exist between LEP and EP patients. Factors associated with interpreter use will inform ongoing improvement efforts.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(12): 277-280, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921299

RESUMO

In the fall of 2014, an outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)-associated acute respiratory illness (ARI) occurred in the United States (1,2); before 2014, EV-D68 was rarely reported to CDC (2,3). In the United States, reported EV-D68 detections typically peak during late summer and early fall (3). EV-D68 epidemiology is not fully understood because testing in clinical settings seldom has been available and detections are not notifiable to CDC. To better understand EV-D68 epidemiology, CDC recently established active, prospective EV-D68 surveillance among pediatric patients at seven U.S. medical centers through the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) (4). This report details a preliminary characterization of EV-D68 testing and detections among emergency department (ED) and hospitalized patients with ARI at all NVSN sites during July 1-October 31, 2017, and the same period in 2018. Among patients with ARI who were tested, EV-D68 was detected in two patients (0.8%) in 2017 and 358 (13.9%) in 2018. Continued active, prospective surveillance of EV-D68-associated ARI is needed to better understand EV-D68 epidemiology in the United States.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Enterovirus Humano D/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753568

RESUMO

Background: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children and is highly transmissible. In this study, we assessed the presence of AGE in household contacts (HHCs) of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus. Methods: Between December 2011 and June 2016, children aged 14 days to 11 years with AGE were enrolled at 1 of 7 hospitals or emergency departments as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Parental interviews, medical and vaccination records, and stool specimens were collected at enrollment. Stool was tested for rotavirus by an enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by real-time or conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay or repeated enzyme immunoassay. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to assess AGE in HHCs the week after the enrolled child's illness. A mixed-effects multivariate model was used to calculate odds ratios. Results: Overall, 829 rotavirus-positive subjects and 8858 rotavirus-negative subjects were enrolled. Households of rotavirus-positive subjects were more likely to report AGE illness in ≥1 HHC than were rotavirus-negative households (35% vs 20%, respectively; P < .0001). A total of 466 (16%) HHCs of rotavirus-positive subjects reported AGE illness. Of the 466 ill HHCs, 107 (23%) sought healthcare; 6 (6%) of these encounters resulted in hospitalization. HHCs who were <5 years old (odds ratio, 2.2 [P = .004]) were more likely to report AGE illness than those in other age groups. In addition, 144 households reported out-of-pocket expenses (median, $20; range, $2-$640) necessary to care for an ill HHC. Conclusions: Rotavirus-associated AGE in children can lead to significant disease burden in HHCs, especially in children aged <5 years. Prevention of pediatric rotavirus illness, notably through vaccination, can prevent additional illnesses in HHCs.

9.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines (RVVs) were included in the US immunization program in 2006 and are coadministered with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, yet their coverage lags behind DTaP. We assessed timing, initiation, and completion of the RVV series among children enrolled in active gastroenteritis surveillance at 7 US medical institutions during 2014-2016. METHODS: We compared coverage and timing of each vaccine series and analyzed characteristics associated with RVV initiation and completion. We report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: We enrolled 10 603 children. In 2015, ≥1 dose coverage was 91% for RVV and 97% for DTaP. Seven percent of children received their first DTaP vaccine at age ≥15 weeks versus 4% for RVV (P ≤ .001). Recent birth years (2013-2016) were associated with higher odds of RVV initiation (OR = 5.72; 95% CI 4.43-7.39), whereas preterm birth (OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.24-0.41), older age at DTaP initiation (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.91), income between $50 000 and $100 000 (OR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.40-0.78), and higher maternal education (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.36-0.74) were associated with lower odds. Once RVV was initiated, recent birth years (2013-2016; OR = 1.57 [95% CI 1.32-1.88]) and higher maternal education (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.07-1.60) were associated with higher odds of RVV completion, whereas preterm birth (OR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.94), African American race (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.70-0.97) and public or no insurance (OR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.60-0.93) were associated with lower odds. Regional differences existed. CONCLUSIONS: RVV coverage remains lower than that for the DTaP vaccine. Timely DTaP administration may help improve RVV coverage.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Esquemas de Imunização , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências
10.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 8(5): 414-421, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rotavirus disease burden has declined substantially since rotavirus vaccine was introduced in the United States in 2006. The aim of this study was to determine the viral etiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in US children aged <2 years. METHODS: The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) of geographically diverse US sites conducts active pediatric population-based surveillance in hospitals and emergency departments. Stool samples were collected from children aged <2 years with symptoms of AGE (n = 330) and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 272) between January and December 2012. Samples were tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays {adenovirus (type 40 and 41), norovirus, parechovirus A, enterovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus} and an enzyme immunoassay (rotavirus). All samples that tested positive were genotyped. RESULTS: Detection rates of pathogens in children with AGE versus those of HCs were, respectively, 23.0% versus 6.6% for norovirus (P < .01), 23.0% versus 16.0% for adenovirus (P = .08), 11.0% versus 16.0% for parechovirus A (P = .09), 11.0% versus 9.0% for enterovirus (P = .34), 7.0% versus 3.0% for sapovirus (P = .07), 3.0% versus 0.3% for astrovirus (P = .01), and 3.0% versus 0.4% for rotavirus (P = .01). A high prevalence of adenovirus was detected at 1 surveillance site (49.0% for children with AGE and 43.0% for HCs). Norovirus GII.4 New Orleans was the most frequently detected (33.0%) norovirus genotype. Codetection of >1 virus was more common in children with AGE (16.0%) than in HCs (10.0%) (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus were detected significantly more in children with AGE than in HCs, and norovirus was the leading AGE-causing pathogen in US children aged <2 years during the year 2012.

11.
Acad Pediatr ; 18(8): 935-943, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Families with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience communication barriers and are at risk for adverse events after discharge from the pediatric emergency department (ED). We sought to describe the characteristics of ED discharge communication for LEP families and to assess whether the use of a professional interpreter was associated with provider communication quality during ED discharge. METHODS: Transcripts of video-recorded ED visits for Spanish-speaking LEP families were obtained from a larger study comparing professional interpretation modalities in a freestanding children's hospital. Caregiver-provider communication interactions that included discharge education were analyzed for content and for the techniques that providers used to assess caregiver comprehension. Regression analysis was used to assess for an association between professional interpreter use and discharge education content or assessment of caregiver comprehension. RESULTS: We analyzed 101 discharge communication interactions from 47 LEP patient visits; 31% of communications did not use professional interpretation. Although most patients (70%) received complete discharge education content, only 65% received instructions on medication dosing, and only 55% were given return precautions. Thirteen percent of the patient visits included an open-ended question to assess caregiver comprehension, and none included teach-back. Professional interpreter use was associated with greater odds of complete discharge education content (odds ratio [OR], 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-37.0) and high-quality provider assessment of caregiver comprehension (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 2.3-15.9). CONCLUSIONS: Professional interpreter use is associated with superior provider discharge communication behaviors. This study identifies clear areas for improving discharge communication, which may improve safety and outcomes for LEP children discharged from the ED.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Comunicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pais/educação , Alta do Paciente , Tradução , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
12.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(4): 522-528, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe respiratory disease associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been reported in hospitalized pediatric patients. Virologic and clinical characteristics of EV-D68 infections exclusively in patients presenting to a hospital Emergency Department (ED) or urgent care have not been well defined. METHODS: Mid-nasal swabs from pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms presenting to the ED or urgent care were evaluated using a commercial multiplex PCR platform. Specimens positive for rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/EV) were subsequently tested using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR for EV-D68. The PCR cycle threshold (CT) was used as a viral load proxy. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with EV-D68 and patients without EV-D68 who tested positive for HRV/EV. RESULTS: From August to December 2014, 511 swabs from patients with HRV/EV were available. EV-D68 was detected in 170 (33%) HRV/EV-positive samples. In multivariable models adjusted for age and underlying asthma, patients with EV-D68 were more likely to require hospitalization for respiratory reasons (odds ratio (OR): 3.11, CI: 1.85-5.25), require respiratory support (OR: 1.69, CI: 1.09-2.62), have confirmed/probable lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI; OR: 3.78, CI: 2.03-7.04), and require continuous albuterol or steroids (OR: 3.91, CI: 2.22-6.88 and OR: 4.73, CI: 2.65-8.46, respectively). Higher EV-D68 viral load was associated with need for respiratory support and LRTI in multivariate models. CONCLUSIONS: Among pediatric patients presenting to the ED or urgent care, EV-D68 causes more severe disease than non-EV-D68 HRV/EV independent of underlying asthma. High viral load was associated with worse clinical outcomes. Rapid and quantitative viral testing may help identify and risk stratify patients.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus Humano D/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Washington , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatrics ; 141(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely or with underlying conditions are at increased risk of severe rotavirus disease and associated complications. Given the theoretical risk of nosocomial transmission of vaccine-type rotavirus, rotavirus vaccination is recommended for infants at or after discharge from neonatal care settings. Because the first dose should be administered by 104 days of age, some infants may be age-ineligible for vaccination if delayed until discharge. METHODS: This prospective cohort included infants admitted to an urban academic medical center between birth and 104 days who received care in intensive care settings. Pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was used, per routine clinical care. Stool specimens were collected weekly (February 2013-April 2014) and analyzed for rotavirus strains using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Demographic and vaccine data were collected. RV5 safety was not assessed. RESULTS: Of 385 study infants, 127 were age-eligible for routine vaccinations during hospitalization. At discharge, 32.7% were up-to-date for rotavirus vaccination, compared with 82.7% for other vaccinations. Of rotavirus-unvaccinated infants, 42.6% were discharged at age >104 days and thus vaccination-ineligible. Of 1192 stool specimens collected, rotavirus was detected in 13 (1.1%): 1 wild-type strain from an unvaccinated infant; 12 vaccine-type strains from 9 RV5-vaccinated infants. No vaccine-type rotavirus cases were observed among unvaccinated infants (incidence rate: 0.0 [95% confidence interval: 0.0-1.5] cases per 1000 patient days at risk). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that delaying rotavirus vaccination until discharge from the hospital could lead to missed vaccination opportunities and may be unnecessary in institutions using RV5 with comparable infection control standards.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/normas , Vacinação/tendências
15.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 34(4): 273-279, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transurethral bladder catheterization (TUBC) is a painful, frequently performed procedure for collecting sterile urine. We sought to determine if administration of intraurethral lidocaine before TUBC using a blunt tipped syringe decreases procedural pain in young children in the pediatric emergency department. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial of children 0 to 36 months old requiring TUBC for collection of urine in a pediatric emergency department was performed. Patients received intraurethral 2% lidocaine jelly or usual care (no analgesia). Randomization was stratified by sex. Intraurethral lidocaine jelly was administered via Uro-Jet, 5 minutes before TUBC. Baseline child state, lidocaine application, TUBC, and child state 1 minute post-TUBC were videotaped. Neither providers nor parents were blinded to study arm. Videos were scored by a trained, independent, blinded reviewer using the Faces, Legs, Arms, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) and Modified Behavioral Pain Score scales. Pain scores were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Our primary outcome was difference in FLACC scores between groups. RESULTS: Eighty children were enrolled in the study, and 73 had analyzable data. No differences were detected in pain by mean FLACC score between intervention (8; 95% confidence interval, 7-9) and control (9; 95% confidence interval, 8-10) groups. There were no differences between groups in mean FLACC score when stratified by age or sex or in mean Modified Behavioral Pain Score. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral lidocaine for TUBC for urine collection using a blunt tipped applicator did not improve procedural pain scores. Pain scores were high across groups. Further study should be performed to improve analgesia for this highly painful procedure.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Analgesia/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Uretra/efeitos dos fármacos , Cateterismo Urinário/instrumentação , Cateterismo Urinário/métodos , Gravação de Videoteipe
16.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 34(8): e147-e149, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28590990

RESUMO

The following cases describe children who presented to the emergency department (ED) with a constellation of symptoms consistent with delirium. In each case, there was no identified inciting cause (eg, fever, medications) other than the presence of influenza. All children had variable workups, with 2 children undergoing extensive neurologic evaluation and testing. Clinical recognition of delirium in the pediatric acute care setting can be challenging, but heightened awareness by ED and primary care physicians may lead to earlier diagnosis, prevent unwarranted investigations, and decrease hospitalization. Children with influenza may be at increased risk of developing delirium. A prospective study to assess the prevalence of delirium in pediatric patients presenting to the ED with influenza is warranted.


Assuntos
Delírio/etiologia , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
17.
Pediatrics ; 140(4)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite widespread use of the rotavirus vaccine in the last decade, dehydrating illnesses impact almost 2 billion children worldwide annually. Evidence supports oral rehydration therapy as a first-line treatment of mild to moderate dehydration. Ondansetron has proven to be a safe and effective adjunct in children with vomiting. We implemented a clinical pathway in our pediatric emergency department (ED) in January 2005 to improve care for this common condition. Our objective in this study was to determine the long-term impact of the pathway for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) on the proportion of patients receiving intravenous (IV) fluids and ED length of stay (LOS) for discharged patients. METHODS: Cases were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. We used statistical process control to analyze process and outcome measures for 2 years before and 10 years after pathway implementation. RESULTS: We included 30 519 patients. We found special cause variation with a downward shift in patients receiving IV fluids after initiation of the pathway and later with addition of ondansetron to the pathway from 48% to 26%. Mean ED LOS for discharged patients with AGE decreased from 247 to 172 minutes. These improvements were sustained over time. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a clinical pathway emphasizing oral rehydration therapy and ondansetron for children with AGE led to decreased IV fluid use and LOS in a pediatric ED. Improvements were sustained over a 10-year period. Our results suggest that quality-improvement interventions for AGE can have long-term impacts on care delivery.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/terapia , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hidratação/normas , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
18.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 6(3): e49-e54, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186546

RESUMO

Background: The etiology of acute childhood diarrhea often eludes identification. We used a case-control study-stool archive to determine if nucleic acid tests for established and newly identified viruses diminish our previously published 32% rate of microbiologically unexplained episodes. Methods: Using polymerase chain reaction, we sought to detect noroviruses GI and GII, classic and novel astroviruses, and human bocaviruses (HBoVs) 2, 3, and 4 among 178 case and 178 matched control stool samples and St. Louis and Malawi polyomaviruses among a subset of 98 case and control stool samples. We calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression. Results: Noroviruses were more common in cases (GI, 2.2%; GII, 16.9%) than in controls (GI, 0%; GII, 4.5%) (adjusted odds ratio, 5.2 [95% confidence interval, 2.5-11.3]). Astroviruses and HBoVs 2, 3, and 4 were overrepresented among the cases, although this difference was not statistically significant. Malawi polyomavirus was not associated with case status, and St. Louis polyomavirus was identified in only 1 subject (a control). When identified in cases, HBoVs 2, 3, and 4 were frequently (77%) found in conjunction with a bona fide diarrheagenic pathogen. Thirty-five (20%) case and 3 (2%) control stool samples contained more than 1 organism of interest. Overall, a bona fide or plausible pathogen was identified in 79% of the case stool samples. Preceding antibiotic use was more common among cases (adjusted odds ratio, 4.5 [95% confidence interval, 2.3-8.5]). Conclusion: Noroviruses were found to cause one-third of the diarrhea cases that previously had no identified etiology. Future work should attempt to ascertain etiologic agents in the approximately one-fifth of cases without a plausible microbial cause, understand the significance of multiple agents in stools, and guide interpretation of nonculture diagnostics.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Bocavirus Humano/patogenicidade , Mamastrovirus/patogenicidade , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Polyomavirus/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Astroviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/classificação , Razão de Chances , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Emerg Med ; 52(2): 169-175, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric adnexal torsion is rare, can be challenging to recognize, and may result in ovarian loss. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify and compare the defining characteristics of adnexal torsion in premenarchal and postmenarchal girls. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary care children's hospital, including patients diagnosed postnatally with adnexal (ovarian or tubal) torsion between 1997 and 2013. Proportions were compared using relative risk regression. RESULTS: Adnexal torsion was found in 59 premenarchal and 43 postmenarchal girls. Abdominal pain was the most common chief complaint (54%). History included reports of pain (96%), vomiting (67%), and fever (19%). Excluding 12 patients with isolated tubal torsion and 19 with a teratoma, there were no statistically significant differences in ovarian loss in premenarchal vs. postmenarchal girls (47% and 25% respectively; relative risk [RR] = 1.8 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.9-3.8]), left- vs. right-sided torsion (47% and 32%; RR = 1.5 [95% CI 0.8-2.7]), pain duration ≤ 2 days vs. > 2 days (31% and 41%; RR = 0.8 [95% CI 0.4-1.5]; n = 64) and severe pain vs. mild to moderate (38% and 33%; RR = 1.1 [95% CI 0.7-1.5]; n = 56). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of pediatric adnexal torsion is difficult and often delayed. Pain and tenderness may not be isolated to a unilateral lower quadrant. Although traditionally considered a postmenarchal problem, in a pediatric academic emergency department adnexal torsion occurred with similar frequency in premenarchal and postmenarchal girls. The potential for organ salvage means that adnexal torsion should be considered in all females presenting with acute abdominal pain regardless of age or menstrual history.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Anexos/cirurgia , Anormalidade Torcional/cirurgia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Doenças dos Anexos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Menarca/fisiologia , Necrose/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Teratoma/epidemiologia , Anormalidade Torcional/epidemiologia
20.
J Grad Med Educ ; 8(5): 754-758, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28018542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : Just-in-time (JIT) training refers to education occurring immediately prior to clinical encounters. An in situ JIT room in a pediatric emergency department (ED) was created for procedural education. OBJECTIVE : We examined trainee self-reported JIT room use, its impact on trainee self-perception of procedural competence/confidence, and the effect its usage has on the need for intervention by supervising physicians during procedures. METHODS : Cross-sectional survey study of a convenience sample of residents rotating through the ED and supervising pediatric emergency medicine physicians. Outcomes included JIT room use, trainee procedural confidence, and frequency of supervisor intervention during procedures. RESULTS : Thirty-one of 32 supervising physicians (97%) and 122 of 186 residents (66%) completed the survey, with 71% of trainees reporting improved confidence, and 68% reporting improved procedural skills (P < .05, +1.4-point average skills improvement on a 5-point Likert scale). Trainees perceived no difference among supervising physicians intervening in procedures with or without JIT room use (P = .30, paired difference -0.0 points). Nearly all supervisors reported improved trainee procedural confidence, and 77% reported improved trainee procedural skills after JIT room use (P < .05, paired difference +1.8 points); 58% of supervisors stated they intervene in procedures without trainee JIT room use, compared with 42% with JIT room use (P < .05, paired difference -0.4 points). CONCLUSIONS : Use of the JIT room led to improved trainee confidence and supervisor reports of less procedural intervention. Although it carries financial and time costs, an in situ JIT room may be important for convenient JIT training.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Médicos , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington
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