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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two prostate cancer (PC) classification methods based on transcriptome profiles, a de novo method referred to as the "Prostate Cancer Classification System" (PCS) and a variation of the established PAM50 breast cancer algorithm, were recently proposed. Both studies concluded that most human PC can be assigned to one of three tumor subtypes, two categorized as luminal and one as basal, suggesting the two methods reflect consistency in underlying biology. Despite the similarity, differences and commonalities between the two classification methods have not yet been reported. METHODS: Here, we describe a comparison of the PCS and PAM50 classification systems. PCS and PAM50 signatures consisting of 37 (PCS37) and 50 genes, respectively, were used to categorize 9,947 PC patients into PCS and PAM50 classes. Enrichment of hallmark gene sets and luminal and basal marker gene expression were assessed in the same datasets. Finally, survival analysis was performed to compare PCS and PAM50 subtypes in terms of clinical outcomes. RESULTS: PCS and PAM50 subtypes show clear differential expression of PCS37 and PAM50 genes. While only three genes are shared in common between the two systems, there is some consensus between three subtype pairs (PCS1 versus Luminal B, PCS2 versus Luminal A, and PCS3 versus Basal) with respect to gene expression, cellular processes, and clinical outcomes. PCS categories displayed better separation of cellular processes and luminal and basal marker gene expression compared to PAM50. Although both PCS1 and Luminal B tumors exhibited the worst clinical outcomes, outcomes between aggressive and less aggressive subtypes were better defined in the PCS system, based on larger hazard ratios observed. CONCLUSION: The PCS and PAM50 classification systems are similar in terms of molecular profiles and clinical outcomes. However, the PCS system exhibits greater separation in multiple clinical outcomes and provides better separation of prostate luminal and basal characteristics.

2.
Urology ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556450

RESUMO

The Breast Cancer Gene (BRCA) confers an 8.6-fold higher risk of developing prostate cancer in men ≤ 65 years of age and portends a worse prognosis as compared to noncarriers even in patients with low volume, localized disease. The BRCA2 gene, in particular, imparts a more biologically aggressive form of prostate cancer and a higher prostate cancer specific mortality. From a treatment standpoint, this translates to worse overall clinical outcomes for such patients. The most appropriate screening and management strategy for germline BRCA mutation carriers with prostate cancer is not known. Herein, we present an incidentally discovered prostate cancer in a 61-year-old BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carrier who was screened and managed using an individualized treatment approach.

3.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162316

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of enema and dietary restrictions on prostate MR image quality metrics and to assess inter-reader agreement for these metrics. METHODS: This retrospective study included 195 men divided into groups based on their compliance with preparation instructions before prostate MRI (Enema + Diet, n = 98; Enema, n = 42; Diet, n = 35; Control [no compliance], n = 20). Four readers independently assessed six image quality metrics on a 5-point scale. Between-group comparisons were made using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Inter-reader agreement was calculated using Fleiss' kappa. RESULTS: Compared with the Control group, image quality with respect to rectal stool/gas, distortion of diffusion-weighted images, overall image quality, and confidence in assessment was higher in the Enema + Diet, Enema, and Diet groups (p  < 0.05 for all comparisons). The Enema + Diet and Enema groups had significantly higher scores than the Diet group for rectal stool/gas (p < 0.001 and 0.005, respectively). The Enema + Diet and Diet groups had higher scores than the Control group for rectal peristalsis (p = 0.027 and 0.009, respectively), but there were no significant differences in motion artifacts on T2-weighted images. Agreement among readers was fair, with kappa values ranging from 0.25 to 0.37. CONCLUSION: Enema and dietary restriction can improve the quality of prostate MRI by decreasing rectal distension and distortion of diffusion-weighted images and by increasing reader confidence in image assessment. Inter-reader agreement using subjective criteria for analysis of MRI quality is fair.

4.
Nat Rev Urol ; 17(12): 679-690, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173205

RESUMO

High-risk prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease that lacks clear consensus on its ideal management. Historically, non-surgical treatment was the preferred strategy, and several studies demonstrated improved survival among men with high-risk disease managed with the combination of radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) compared with ADT alone. However, practice trends in the past 10-15 years have shown increased use of radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection for primary management of high-risk, localized disease. Radical prostatectomy, as a primary monotherapy, offers the potential benefits of avoiding ADT, reducing rates of symptomatic local recurrence, enabling full pathological tumour staging and potentially reducing late adverse effects such as secondary malignancy compared with radiation therapy. Retrospective studies have reported wide variability in short-term (pathological) and long-term (oncological) outcomes of radical prostatectomy. Surgical monotherapy continues to be appropriate for selected patients, whereas in others the best treatment strategy probably involves a multimodal approach. Appropriate risk stratification utilizing clinical, pathological and potentially also genomic risk data is imperative in the initial management of men with prostate cancer. However, data from ongoing and planned prospective trials are needed to identify the optimal management strategy for men with high-risk, localized prostate cancer.

5.
J Urol ; : 101097JU000000000000136101, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238832
6.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083800

RESUMO

The sex discordance in COVID-19 outcomes has been widely recognized, with males generally faring worse than females and a potential link to sex steroids. A plausible mechanism is androgen-induced expression of TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 in pulmonary tissues that may increase susceptibility or severity in males. This hypothesis is the subject of several clinical trials of anti-androgen therapies around the world. Here, we investigated the sex-associated TMPRSS2 and ACE2 expression in human and mouse lungs and interrogated the possibility of pharmacologic modification of their expression with anti-androgens. We found no evidence for increased TMPRSS2 expression in the lungs of males compared to females in humans or mice. Furthermore, in male mice, treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide did not decrease pulmonary TMPRSS2. On the other hand, ACE2 and AR expression was sexually dimorphic and higher in males than females. ACE2 was moderately suppressible with enzalutamide therapy. Our work suggests that sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes attributable to viral entry are independent of TMPRSS2. Modest changes in ACE2 could account for some of the sex discordance.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037017

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of immune-oncologic mechanisms of racial disparities in prostate cancer remains understudied. Limited research exists to evaluate the molecular underpinnings of immune differences in African American men (AAM) and European American men (EAM) prostate tumor microenvironment (TME). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 1,173 radiation-naïve radical prostatectomy samples with whole transcriptome data from the Decipher GRID registry were used. Transcriptomic expressions of 1,260 immune-specific genes were selected to assess immune-oncologic differences between AAM and EAM prostate tumors. Race-specific differential expression of genes was assessed using a rank test, and intergene correlational matrix and gene set enrichment was used for pathway analysis. RESULTS: AAM prostate tumors have significant enrichment of major immune-oncologic pathways, including proinflammatory cytokines, IFNα, IFNγ, TNFα signaling, ILs, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. AAM TME has higher total immune content score (ICSHIGH) compared with 0 (37.8% vs. 21.9%, P = 0.003). AAM tumors also have lower DNA damage repair and are genomically radiosensitive as compared with EAM. IFITM3 (IFN-inducible transmembrane protein 3) was one of the major proinflammatory genes overexpressed in AAM that predicted increased risk of biochemical recurrence selectively for AAM in both discovery [HRAAM = 2.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-4.34; P = 0.01] and validation (HRAAM = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.52-3.86; P = 0.0001) but not in EAM. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate tumors of AAM manifest a unique immune repertoire and have significant enrichment of proinflammatory immune pathways that are associated with poorer outcomes. Observed immune-oncologic differences can aid in a genomically adaptive approach to treating prostate cancer in AAM.

8.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001338, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TMPRSS2 is a host co-receptor for cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. A prior report suggested that use of androgen deprivation therapy, which downregulates TMPRSS2, may protect men with prostate cancer from infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cohort study of a prospective registry of all patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March 12 and June 10, 2020, with complete followup until disease recovery or death. The main exposure examined was the use of androgen deprivation therapy, and the outcome measures were the rate of SARS-CoV-2 positivity and disease severity as a function of androgen deprivation therapy use. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 1,779 men with prostate cancer from a total tested population of 74,787, of whom 4,885 (6.5%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of those with prostate cancer 102 (5.7%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 304 (17.1%) were on androgen deprivation therapy. Among those on androgen deprivation therapy 5.6% were positive as compared to 5.8% not on androgen deprivation therapy. Men on androgen deprivation therapy were slightly older (75.5 vs 73.8 years, p=0.009), more likely to have smoked (68.1% vs 59.3%, p=0.005) and more likely to report taking steroids (43.8% vs 23.3%, p <0.001). Other factors known to increase risk of infection and disease severity were equally distributed (asthma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure and immune suppressive disease). Multivariable analysis did not indicate a difference in infection risk for those with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.54-1.61, p=0.8). CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deprivation therapy does not appear to be protective against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Development ; 147(15)2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680934

RESUMO

To bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative analyses of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in tissues, we generated an sfGFP-tagged EGF receptor (EGFR-sfGFP) in Drosophila The homozygous fly appears similar to wild type with EGFR expression and activation patterns that are consistent with previous reports in the ovary, early embryo, and imaginal discs. Using ELISA, we quantified an average of 1100, 6200 and 2500 receptors per follicle cell (FC) at stages 8/9, 10 and ≥11 of oogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, the spatial localization of the EGFR to the apical side of the FCs at early stages depended on the TGFα-like ligand Gurken. At later stages, EGFR localized to basolateral positions of the FCs. Finally, we followed the endosomal localization of EGFR in the FCs. The EGFR colocalized with the late endosome, but no significant colocalization of the receptor was found with the early endosome. The EGFR-sfGFP fly is an exciting new resource for studying cellular localization and regulation of EGFR in tissues.

10.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 34(5): 163-164, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644175
11.
Urol Oncol ; 38(11): 846.e9-846.e16, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to determine the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) plus Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) category for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 526 men without known prostate cancer (initial diagnosis group) and 133 men with prostate cancer grade group 1 (active surveillance group) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging-guided and/or systematic prostate biopsy procedures between August 2014 and October 2018. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), PSAD, and PI-RADS category were entered into logistic regression models for predicting clinically significant prostate cancer (grade group ≥2) at biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess model accuracy. RESULTS: The area under the curve (AUC) increased when PSAD was combined with PI-RADS in the initial diagnosis group (difference in AUC = 0.031; 95% confidence interval: 0.012, 0.050; P = 0.002) but not in the active surveillance group (difference in AUC = 0.016; 95% confidence interval: -0.040, 0.071; P = 0.579). When a PSAD threshold of 0.15 was applied, the frequency of clinically significant prostate cancer in patients with a PI-RADS score of 3 or lower decreased from 9.8% to 5.6% in the initial diagnosis group and from 10.7% to 2.7% in the active surveillance group. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of PSAD improves the predictive performance of PI-RADS in men without known prostate cancer. A PSAD threshold of 0.15 can help to minimize the number of missed clinically significant prostate cancer cases in men with a PI-RADS score of 3 or lower who decide to defer biopsy.

12.
Biophys J ; 119(3): 593-604, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416080

RESUMO

The MreB actin-like cytoskeleton assembles into dynamic polymers that coordinate cell shape in many bacteria. In contrast to most other cytoskeleton systems, few MreB-interacting proteins have been well characterized. Here, we identify a small protein from Caulobacter crescentus, an assembly inhibitor of MreB (AimB). AimB overexpression mimics inhibition of MreB polymerization, leading to increased cell width and MreB delocalization. Furthermore, aimB appears to be essential, and its depletion results in decreased cell width and increased resistance to A22, a small-molecule inhibitor of MreB assembly. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that AimB binds MreB at its monomer-monomer protofilament interaction cleft and that this interaction is favored for C. crescentus MreB over Escherichia coli MreB because of a closer match in the degree of opening with AimB size, suggesting coevolution of AimB with MreB conformational dynamics in C. crescentus. We support this model through functional analysis of point mutants in both AimB and MreB, photo-cross-linking studies with site-specific unnatural amino acids, and species-specific activity of AimB. Together, our findings are consistent with AimB promoting MreB dynamics by inhibiting monomer-monomer assembly interactions, representing a new mechanism for regulating actin-like polymers and the first identification of a non-toxin MreB assembly inhibitor. Because AimB has only 104 amino acids and small proteins are often poorly characterized, our work suggests the possibility of more bacterial cytoskeletal regulators to be found in this class. Thus, like FtsZ and eukaryotic actin, MreB may have a rich repertoire of regulators to tune its precise assembly and dynamics.

13.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

14.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 327-332, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461072

RESUMO

Gleason grade group (GG) 5 prostate cancer has been associated with an aggressive natural history, and retrospective data support a role for treatment intensification. However, clinical outcomes remain heterogeneous in this cohort, and intensified treatments carry an increased risk of adverse events. We sought to explore the transcriptomic heterogeneity of GG 5 tumors by querying transcriptomic data from the tumors of 2138 patients with GG 5 disease who underwent prostatectomy. Four distinct consensus clusters were identified with respect to differential transcriptional activation of hallmark pathways, with distinct molecular subtyping profiles and different average genomic risks (AGRs). One cluster, accounting for 325 tumors (15.2% of the population), was enriched for genes related to the cell cycle/proliferation, metabolic pathways, androgen response pathways, and DNA repair, and had a higher AGR than the other clusters (p < 0.001). This clustering, with an identification of a high genomic risk cluster, was subsequently validated in a separate cohort of 1921 patients as well as a third cohort of 201 patients. The latter cohort had outcomes available, and it was found that patients in the high genomic risk cluster had significantly worse distant metastasis-free survival than the other clusters. Tumors in this high genomic risk cluster of GG 5 disease may be particularly likely to benefit from treatment intensification. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we examined differences in gene expression in tumors from men with Gleason grade group 5 prostate cancer. We identified significant diversity, with one specific subgroup of tumors associated with expression profiles that suggest a worse prognosis.

15.
J Urol ; 204(4): 748-753, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259468

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined rates of Grade Group 4 downgrading at radical prostatectomy among men diagnosed with high and very high risk prostate cancer at biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pooled cohort of 1,776 patients from 3 tertiary referral centers who underwent radical prostatectomy for National Comprehensive Cancer Network® high risk (prostate specific antigen greater than 20 ng/ml, or Grade Group 4-5, or clinical stage T3 or greater) or very high risk (primary Gleason pattern 5, or more than 4 biopsy cores with Grade Group 4-5, or 2 or more high risk features) disease from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed. Overall 893 patients with Grade Group 4 disease at biopsy were identified and 726 patients were available for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to determine factors associated with downgrading to Grade Group 3 or less at radical prostatectomy. RESULTS: Overall 333 (45%) cases were downgraded to Grade Group 3 or less at radical prostatectomy. Of these cases 198 (27%) had concordant Grade Group 4 biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology and 195 (27%) were upgraded at radical prostatectomy to Grade Group 5. Of high risk cases with biopsy Grade Group 4 disease 49% had any downgrading vs 29% of very high risk cases (p <0.0001). Downgrading to Grade Group 2 or less occurred in 16% (98 of 604) of high risk and 7% (8 of 122) of very high risk cases (p <0.01). Downgraded cases had a lower prostate specific antigen, fewer positive biopsy cores and lower clinical stage (p <0.01). On multivariable analysis fewer positive biopsy cores were significantly associated with downgrading at radical prostatectomy (p <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with high risk/very high risk prostate cancer, downgrading from biopsy Grade Group 4 at radical prostatectomy occurred less frequently than in other published reports. Any downgrading was significantly less common in very high risk compared to high risk patients, and downgrading to Grade Group 2 or less occurred in a minority of cases in high risk and very high risk patients.


Assuntos
Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Biópsia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prostatectomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
16.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(7): 469-476, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy studies delivered uniform doses of 35 to 40 Gy/5 fx. Attempts at uniform dose escalation to 50 Gy caused high rates of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. We hypothesize that heterogeneous dose escalation to regions nonadjacent to sensitive structures (urethra, rectum, and bladder) is safe and efficacious. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were enrolled on a prospective pilot study. The primary endpoint was treatment-related GI and genitourinary (GU) toxicity. The secondary endpoints included quality of life (QOL) assessed by the EPIC-26 questionnaire and biochemical control. The target volume received 36.25 Gy/5 fx. The target >3 mm from sensitive was dose escalated to 50 Gy/5 fx. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Three patients had low, 14 intermediate, and 18 high-risk disease. The mean initial prostate specific antigen was 15.1 ng/mL. Androgen deprivation therapy was given to 19 patients. Median follow-up was 46 months. Urinary irritation/obstructive and urinary bother scores declined by minimal clinically important difference threshold from baseline at 6 weeks, but subsequently recovered by 4 months. No differences in QOL scores were observed for urinary incontinence, bowel domain, bloody stools, or sexual domain. One patient developed acute grade 4 GU toxicity and acute grade 4 GI toxicity. The incidence of late high grade toxicity was 1/35 for GU toxicity and 2/35 for GI toxicity. Freedom from biochemical failure at 3 years was 88.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneous dose-escalated prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy is feasible with low rates of acute and late toxicities and favorable QOL outcomes in patients with predominantly intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
17.
Cell Microbiol ; 22(5): e13196, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083802

RESUMO

Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) infection in vivo is characterized by invasion of bladder umbrella epithelial cells followed by endosomal escape and proliferation in the cytoplasm to form intracellular bacterial communities. By contrast, UPEC infection in tissue culture models results in bacteria being trapped within Lamp1-positive endosomes where proliferation is limited. Pharmacological disruption of the actin cytoskeleton has been shown to facilitate UPEC endosomal escape in vitro and extracellular matrix stiffness is a well-characterized physiological regulator of actin dynamics; therefore, we hypothesized that substrate stiffness may play a role in UPEC endosomal escape. Using functionalized polyacrylamide substrates, we found that at physiological stiffness, UPEC escaped the endosome and proliferated rapidly in the cytoplasm of bladder epithelial cells. Dissection of the cytoskeletal signaling pathway demonstrated that inhibition of the Rho GTPase RhoB or its effector PRK1 was sufficient to increase cytoplasmic bacterial growth and that RhoB protein level was significantly reduced at physiological stiffness. Our data suggest that tissue stiffness is a critical regulator of intracellular bacterial growth. Due to the ease of doing genetic and pharmacological manipulations in cell culture, this model system may provide a useful tool for performing mechanistic studies on the intracellular life cycle of uropathogens.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1003-1012, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

19.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(3): 435-440, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the pathological features and clinical outcomes in anterior-dominant prostate cancer (APCA) compared to posterior/posterolateral-dominant prostate cancer (PPCA) among men treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. METHODS: This is a single-institution, matched case-control analysis of short-term clinical outcomes stratified by pathologic tumor location at radical prostatectomy. Pathologic data extracted by expert genitourinary pathologists on tumor location was linked to clinical and oncologic outcomes data from a prospective institutional database for analysis. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2013, 1580 patients were identified for analysis with 150 (9.5%) having APCA. One-hundred and thirty two of these APCA men had complete clinical data and were matched to 353 men with PPCA (~1:3 ratio) by GrdGrp at surgery, margin status, and pathologic T stage. There were no racial/ethnic differences between APCA and PPCA (p = 0.13). Men with APCA demonstrated a higher median PSA at diagnosis (6.4 [4.6-9.1] ng/mL vs 5.6 [4.4-8.1] ng/mL; p = 0.04), a higher rate of GrdGrp 1 disease at diagnosis (57.7% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.003), and lower rates of abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) (10.1% vs. 23.2%, p = 0.003) when compared to PPCA. The rate of surgical upgrading was higher among men with APCA vs. PPCA (55.3% vs 42.0%, p = 0.015). Freedom from biochemical failure (BF) at 5-years was 85.1% (95% CI 73.1-98.9) for APCA and 82.9% (95% CI 69.2-99.5) for men with PPCA (p = 0.70, log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of anterior tumors were undetectable by DRE and were associated with higher PSA at diagnosis. Despite presenting mostly as low/intermediate grade cancers, more than half of the men with APCA had upgrading at surgery and slightly more than 40% had positive margins and/or extraprostatic disease. When matched to a cohort of posterior predominant tumors, no differences were seen in the rate of biochemical-failure after prostatectomy.

20.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

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