Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 395
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cell Microbiol ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083802

RESUMO

Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) infection in vivo is characterized by invasion of bladder umbrella epithelial cells followed by endosomal escape and proliferation in the cytoplasm to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). By contrast, UPEC infection in tissue culture models results in bacteria being trapped within Lamp1-positive endosomes where proliferation is limited. Pharmacological disruption of the actin cytoskeleton has been shown to facilitate UPEC endosomal escape in vitro and extracellular matrix stiffness is a well characterized physiological regulator of actin dynamics; therefore, we hypothesized that substrate stiffness may play a role in UPEC endosomal escape. Using functionalized polyacrylamide substrates, we found that at physiological stiffness, UPEC escaped the endosome and proliferated rapidly in the cytoplasm of bladder epithelial cells. Dissection of the cytoskeletal signaling pathway demonstrated that inhibition of the Rho GTPase RhoB or its effector PRK1 was sufficient to increase cytoplasmic bacterial growth and that RhoB protein level was significantly reduced at physiological stiffness. Our data suggest that tissue stiffness is a critical regulator of intracellular bacterial growth. Due to the ease of doing genetic and pharmacological manipulations in cell culture, this model system may provide a useful tool for performing mechanistic studies on the intracellular life cycle of uropathogens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) in Europeans using three approaches, FUSION, MetaXcan and SMulTiXcan. We integrated GWAS summary statistics from 9,040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12,496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics, LTG (n = 95) and Genotype-Tissue Expression, GTEx v7 (n = 174) datasets), and data from 48 different tissues (GTEx v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (FDR < 0.05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12:, PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at 6 known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci, and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1 and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

3.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the pathological features and clinical outcomes in anterior-dominant prostate cancer (APCA) compared to posterior/posterolateral-dominant prostate cancer (PPCA) among men treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. METHODS: This is a single-institution, matched case-control analysis of short-term clinical outcomes stratified by pathologic tumor location at radical prostatectomy. Pathologic data extracted by expert genitourinary pathologists on tumor location was linked to clinical and oncologic outcomes data from a prospective institutional database for analysis. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2013, 1580 patients were identified for analysis with 150 (9.5%) having APCA. One-hundred and thirty two of these APCA men had complete clinical data and were matched to 353 men with PPCA (~1:3 ratio) by GrdGrp at surgery, margin status, and pathologic T stage. There were no racial/ethnic differences between APCA and PPCA (p = 0.13). Men with APCA demonstrated a higher median PSA at diagnosis (6.4 [4.6-9.1] ng/mL vs 5.6 [4.4-8.1] ng/mL; p = 0.04), a higher rate of GrdGrp 1 disease at diagnosis (57.7% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.003), and lower rates of abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) (10.1% vs. 23.2%, p = 0.003) when compared to PPCA. The rate of surgical upgrading was higher among men with APCA vs. PPCA (55.3% vs 42.0%, p = 0.015). Freedom from biochemical failure (BF) at 5-years was 85.1% (95% CI 73.1-98.9) for APCA and 82.9% (95% CI 69.2-99.5) for men with PPCA (p = 0.70, log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of anterior tumors were undetectable by DRE and were associated with higher PSA at diagnosis. Despite presenting mostly as low/intermediate grade cancers, more than half of the men with APCA had upgrading at surgery and slightly more than 40% had positive margins and/or extraprostatic disease. When matched to a cohort of posterior predominant tumors, no differences were seen in the rate of biochemical-failure after prostatectomy.

5.
J Bacteriol ; 202(4)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767777

RESUMO

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for adapting to environmental perturbations. Changes in oxygen availability result in a switch between aerobic and anaerobic respiration, whereas iron limitation may lead to siderophore secretion. In addition to metabolic adaptations, many organisms respond by altering their cell shape. Caulobacter crescentus, when grown under phosphate-limiting conditions, dramatically elongates its polar stalk appendage. The stalk is hypothesized to facilitate phosphate uptake; however, the mechanistic details of stalk synthesis are not well characterized. We used a chemical mutagenesis approach to isolate and characterize stalk-deficient mutants, one of which had two mutations in the phosphomannose isomerase gene (manA) that were necessary and sufficient to inhibit stalk elongation. Transcription of the pho regulon was unaffected in the manA mutant; therefore, ManA plays a unique regulatory role in stalk synthesis. The mutant ManA had reduced enzymatic activity, resulting in a 5-fold increase in the intracellular fructose 6-phosphate/mannose 6-phosphate ratio. This metabolic imbalance impaired the synthesis of cellular envelope components derived from mannose 6-phosphate, namely, lipopolysaccharide O-antigen and exopolysaccharide. Furthermore, the manA mutations prevented C. crescentus cells from efficiently entering stationary phase. Deletion of the stationary-phase response regulator gene spdR inhibited stalk elongation in wild-type cells, while overproduction of the alarmone ppGpp, which triggers growth arrest and stationary-phase entry, increased stalk length in the manA mutant strain. These results demonstrate that sugar-phosphate metabolism regulates stalk elongation independently of phosphate starvation.IMPORTANCE Metabolic control of bacterial cell shape is an important mechanism for adapting to environmental perturbations. Caulobacter crescentus dramatically elongates its polar stalk appendage in response to phosphate starvation. To investigate the mechanism of this morphological adaptation, we isolated stalk-deficient mutants, one of which had mutations in the phosphomannose isomerase gene (manA) that blocked stalk elongation, despite normal activation of the phosphate starvation response. The mutant ManA resulted in an imbalance in sugar-phosphate concentrations, which had effects on the synthesis of cellular envelope components and entry into stationary phase. Due to the interconnectivity of metabolic pathways, our findings may suggest more generally that the modulation of bacterial cell shape involves the regulation of growth phase and the synthesis of cellular building blocks.

6.
J Urol ; 203(2): 318-319, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664885
7.
J Urol ; 203(2): 311-319, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483693

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostatic adenocarcinoma with cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma has higher recurrence and mortality rates after radiation and surgery. While the prognostic impact of these features is well studied, concordance with cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma on biopsy and prostatectomy has only recently gained attention. Our primary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of biopsy to detect cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma in paired biopsy and prostatectomy specimens in a large contemporary cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent prostate biopsy or had biopsies reviewed prior to prostatectomy at a tertiary hospital between November 2017 and November 2018 were included in study. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to assess concordance with cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma on biopsy and prostatectomy. The association of biopsy diagnosed with cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma with adverse pathology was assessed by multivariable regression. RESULTS: Of the 455 men who underwent prostatectomy 216 (47.5%) had biopsy identified with cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma. For cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma the sensitivity and specificity of biopsy was 56.5% and 87.2%, respectively. In men eligible for active surveillance sensitivity was 34.1% and specificity was 88.1%. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies did not improve sensitivity (53.5%). Cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma identified on prostatectomy correlated with adverse pathological findings. However, compared to cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma negative biopsies, biopsies identified with cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma were not independently associated with adverse pathology. This was likely due to biopsy low sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort biopsy was not sensitive for detecting cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma and this was not improved by magnetic resonance imaging fusion. However, specificity was high, suggesting that when present on biopsy, cribriform morphology and/or intraductal carcinoma may be considered in treatment planning algorithms.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/cirurgia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Conduta Expectante , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prostatectomia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Eur Urol ; 77(1): 3-10, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of elective whole-pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) remains controversial. Few studies have investigated it in Gleason grade group (GG) 5 prostate cancer (PCa), known to have a high risk of nodal metastases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of WPRT on patients with GG 5 PCa treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or EBRT with a brachytherapy boost (EBRT+BT). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 1170 patients with biopsy-proven GG 5 PCa from 11 centers in the United States and one in Norway treated between 2000 and 2013 (734 with EBRT and 436 with EBRT+BT). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) were compared using Cox proportional hazards models with propensity score adjustment. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 299 EBRT patients (41%) and 320 EBRT+BT patients (73%) received WPRT. The adjusted 5-yr bRFS rates with WPRT in the EBRT and EBRT+BT groups were 66% and 88%, respectively. Without WPRT, these rates for the EBRT and EBRT+BT groups were 58% and 78%, respectively. The median follow-up was 5.6yr. WPRT was associated with improved bRFS among patients treated with EBRT+BT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-0.9, p=0.02), but no evidence for improvement was found in those treated with EBRT (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.2, p=0.4). WPRT was not significantly associated with improved DMFS or PCSS in the EBRT group (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7-1.7, p=0.8 for DMFS and HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1, p=0.1 for PCSS), or in the EBRT+BT group (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.4, p=0.2 for DMFS and HR 0.5 95% CI 0.2-1.2, p=0.1 for PCSS). CONCLUSIONS: WPRT was not associated with improved PCSS or DMFS in patients with GG 5 PCa who received either EBRT or EBRT+BT. However, WPRT was associated with a significant improvement in bRFS among patients receiving EBRT+BT. Strategies to optimize WPRT, potentially with the use of advanced imaging techniques to identify occult nodal disease, are warranted. PATIENT SUMMARY: When men with a high Gleason grade prostate cancer receive radiation with external radiation and brachytherapy, the addition of radiation to the pelvis results in a longer duration of prostate-specific antigen control. However, we did not find a difference in their survival from prostate cancer or in their survival without metastatic disease. We also did not find a benefit for radiation to the pelvis in men who received radiation without brachytherapy.

9.
Urology ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between urologic oncology fellowship training (UOFT) and diagnostic yield of prostate biopsy. METHODS: Retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent prostate biopsy across the Cleveland Clinic between 2000 and 2018. Biopsies done by urologists with and without UOFT were detailed via descriptive statistics and appropriate (chi-square, Student t, Wilcoxon rank-sum) tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between UOFT and positive prostate biopsy, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: A total of 11,241 biopsies by 129 urologists had complete information available for review. Sixteen urologists (12.4%) had UOFT; 113 either completed a different fellowship or no fellowship. Those with UOFT were more likely to use MRI-guided biopsy (7.80% vs 3.05%, P <.0001), more likely to get a positive biopsy (41.25% vs 32.72%, P <.0001), and more likely to obtain an adequate number (by ≥12) of cores (90.25% vs 74.53%, P <.0001). UOFT remained a significant predictor of positivity when adjusting for patient age and race, PSA, 5-alpha-reductase-inhibitor use, year of biopsy, years in practice, and type of biopsy (MRI or transrectal ultrasound guided). UOFT also predicted higher-risk biopsy (Gleason sum ≥7), adjusting for the same variables, though this association lost significance when adjusting for adequacy of biopsy. The learning curve to achieve a higher percentage of positive biopsies was steeper for nonurologic oncology fellowship trained than for UOFT urologists. CONCLUSION: UOFT is associated with higher diagnostic yield on prostate biopsy, higher uptake of MRI-guided biopsy, and less steep learning curve. This may be due to patient selection, technique, or, as we demonstrate here, adherence to guidelines.

10.
Brachytherapy ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To validate the 2019 NCCN subgroups of favorable- and unfavorable-intermediate risk (IR) prostate cancer among patients treated with brachytherapy, who are underrepresented in the studies used to develop the 2019 NCCN classification. METHODS: We included all 2,705 men treated with I-125 LDR brachytherapy monotherapy at a single institution, and who could be classified into the 2019 NCCN risk groups. Biochemical failure and distant metastasis rates were calculated using cumulative incidence analysis. RESULTS: Of 1,510 IR patients, 756 (50%) were favorable-IR, and 754 (50%) were unfavorable-IR. Median follow up was 48 months (range, 3-214). As compared to favorable-IR, the unfavorable-IR group was associated with significantly higher rates of biochemical failure (HR, 2.87; 95% CI, 2.00-4.10; p < 0.001) and distant metastasis (HR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.78-5.50, p < 0.001). For favorable-IR vs. unfavorable-IR groups, 5-year estimates of biochemical failure were 4.3% (95% CI, 2.6-6.1%) vs. 17.0% (95% CI, 13.6-20.5%; p < 0.001), and for distant metastasis were 1.6% (95% CI, 0.5-2.6%) vs. 5.4% (95% CI, 3.3-7.4%; p < 0.001), respectively. Patients with one unfavorable-intermediate risk factor (unfavorable-IRF; HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.54-3.36; p < 0.001) and 2-3 unfavorable-IRFs (HR, 4.42; 95% CI, 2.89-6.76; p < 0.001) had higher biochemical failure rates; similar findings were observed for distant metastasis (1 unfavorable-IRF: HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.34-4.53, p = 0.004; 2-3 unfavorable-IRFs: HR, 4.76; 95% CI, 2.49-9.10, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings validate the prognostic utility of the 2019 NCCN favorable-IR and unfavorable-IR prostate cancer subgroups among men treated with brachytherapy. Androgen deprivation was not beneficial in any subgroup. Alternative treatment intensification strategies for unfavorable-IR patients are warranted.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1902768, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This guideline provides recommendations for available tissue-based prostate cancer biomarkers geared toward patient selection for active surveillance, identification of clinically significant disease, choice of postprostatectomy adjuvant versus salvage radiotherapy, and to address emerging questions such as the relative value of tissue biomarkers compared with magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: An ASCO multidisciplinary Expert Panel, with representatives from the European Association of Urology, American Urological Association, and the College of American Pathologists, conducted a systematic literature review of localized prostate cancer biomarker studies between January 2013 and January 2019. Numerous tissue-based molecular biomarkers were evaluated for their prognostic capabilities and potential for improving management decisions. Here, the Panel makes recommendations regarding the clinical use and indications of these biomarkers. RESULTS: Of 555 studies identified, 77 were selected for inclusion plus 32 additional references selected by the Expert Panel. Few biomarkers had rigorous testing involving multiple cohorts and only 5 of these tests are commercially available currently: Oncotype Dx Prostate, Prolaris, Decipher, Decipher PORTOS, and ProMark. With various degrees of value and validation, multiple biomarkers have been shown to refine risk stratification and can be considered for select men to improve management decisions. There is a paucity of prospective studies assessing short- and long-term outcomes of patients when these markers are integrated into clinical decision making. RECOMMENDATIONS: Tissue-based molecular biomarkers (evaluating the sample with the highest volume of the highest Gleason pattern) may improve risk stratification when added to standard clinical parameters, but the Expert Panel endorses their use only in situations in which the assay results, when considered as a whole with routine clinical factors, are likely to affect a clinical decision. These assays are not recommended for routine use as they have not been prospectively tested or shown to improve long-term outcomes-for example, quality of life, need for treatment, or survival. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/genitourinary-cancer-guidelines.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 168, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An epigenetic field of cancer susceptibility exists for prostate cancer (PC) that gives rise to multifocal disease in the peripheral prostate. In previous work, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling identified altered regions in the normal prostate tissue of men with PC. In the current multicenter study, we examined the predictive strength of a panel of loci to detect cancer presence and grade in patients with negative biopsy tissue. RESULTS: Four centers contributed benign prostate biopsy tissues blocks from 129 subjects that were either tumor associated (TA, Grade Group [GG] ≥ 2, n = 77) or non-tumor associated (NTA, n = 52). Biopsies were analyzed using pyrosequencing for DNA methylation encompassing CpG loci near CAV1, EVX1, FGF1, NCR2, PLA2G16, and SPAG4 and methylation differences were detected within all gene regions (p < 0.05). A multiplex regression model for biomarker performance incorporating a gene combination discriminated TA from NTA tissues (area under the curve [AUC] 0.747, p = 0.004). A multiplex model incorporating all the above genes and clinical information (PSA, age) identified patients with GG ≥ 2 PC (AUC 0.815, p < 0.0001). In patients with cancer, increased variation in gene methylation levels occurs between biopsies across the prostate. CONCLUSIONS: A widespread epigenetic field defect is utilized to detect GG ≥ 2 PC in patients with histologically negative biopsies. These alterations in non-tumor cells display increased heterogeneity of methylation extent and are spatially distant from tumor foci. These findings have the potential to decrease the need for repeated prostate biopsy.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224081, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622417

RESUMO

Steroid hormones and their respective nuclear receptors are essential mediators in numerous physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, ranging from regulation of metabolism, immune function, and reproductive processes to the development of hormone-dependent cancers such as those of the breast and prostate. Because steroids must enter cells before activating nuclear receptors, understanding the mechanisms by which cellular uptake occurs is critical, yet a clear understanding of these mechanisms has been elusive. It is generally assumed that diffusion-driven uptake is similar across various steroids whereas an elevated cellular concentration is thought to reflect active uptake, but these assumptions have not been directly tested. Here we show that intact cells rapidly accumulate free steroids to markedly elevated concentrations. This effect varies widely depending on steroid structure; more lipophilic steroids reach more elevated concentrations. Strong preferences exist for 3ß-OH, Δ5-steroids vs. 3-keto, Δ4-structural features and for progestogens vs. androgens. Surprisingly, steroid-structure-specific preferences do not require cell viability, implying a passive mechanism, and occur across cells derived from multiple tissue types. Physiologic relevance is suggested by structure-specific preferences in human prostate tissue compared with serum. On the other hand, the presence of serum proteins in vitro blocks much, but not all, of the passive accumulation, while still permitting a substantial amount of active accumulation for certain steroids. Our findings suggest that both passive and active uptake mechanisms make important contributions to the cellular steroid uptake process. The role of passive, lipophilicity-driven accumulation has previously been largely unappreciated, and its existence provides important context to studies on steroid transport and action both in vitro and in vivo.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584962

RESUMO

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is an excitatory pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC), homologous to the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor targeted by pharmaceuticals and endogenous sedatives. Activation of the GABAA receptor by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone can be inhibited competitively by thyroid hormone (L-3,3',5-triiodothyronine, or T3), but modulation of nAChR by T3 or neurosteroids has not been investigated. Here we show that allopregnanolone inhibits the nAChR from Torpedo californica at micromolar concentrations, as do T3 and the anionic neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PS). We test for the role of protein and ligand charge in mediated receptor inhibition by varying pH in a narrow range around physiological pH. We find that both T3 and PS become less potent with increasing pH, with remarkably similar trends in IC50 when T3 is neutral at pH < 7.3. After deprotonation of T3 (but no additional deprotonation of PS) at pH 7.3, T3 loses potency more slowly with increasing pH than PS. We interpret this result as indicating the negative charge is not required for inhibition but does increase activity. Finally, we show that both T3 and PS affect nAChR channel desensitization, which may implicate a binding site homologous to one that was recently indicated for accelerated desensitization of the GABAA receptor by PS.

15.
Cancer ; 125(21): 3853-3863, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the relationship between experience measured by caseload and oncological outcomes, economics, and access to care for prostate cancer care. Oncological outcomes have been limited to biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Questions remain regarding the more definitive measures of outcomes and their relationship with caseload. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was used to investigate the outcomes of radical prostatectomy in the United States. With overall survival (OS) as the primary outcome, the relationship between the facility annual caseload (FAC) for all prostate cancer encounters and the facility annual surgical caseload (FASC) for those requiring radical prostatectomy was examined with a Cox proportional hazards model. Four volume groups were defined by caseload: <50th percentile (volume group 1 [VG1]), 50th to 74th percentiles (volume group 2 [VG2]), 75th to 89th percentiles (volume group 3 [VG3]), and ≥90th percentile (volume group 4 [VG4]). By FAC/FASC, 11%/8%, 17%/18%, 25%/26%, and 47%/49% of patients were treated in VG1 through VG4, respectively. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2014, 488,389 patients underwent radical prostatectomy. At a median follow-up of 60.75 months, the median OS was not reached. There was a significant OS benefit as the caseload increased. For FAC, the adjusted OS difference between VG1 and VG4 at 90th percentile survivorship reached 13.2 months (hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.23-1.36; P < .0001). For FASC, this was 11.3 months (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.192-1.321; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: There is a statistically significant OS advantage from performing radical prostatectomy at a facility with a high annual caseload. Caseload measured by all prostate cancer encounters is a better predictor of favorable outcomes than the number of surgeries performed at a facility. LAY SUMMARY: An in-depth analysis of 488,389 cases of radical prostatectomy performed in more than 1000 facilities over a 10-year period showed better survival when surgery was performed in facilities with more experience and greater caseload. A survival difference of up to 13 months was observed when comparing patients treated at less experienced versus more experienced centers.   Experience across all stages of prostate cancer was a stronger predictor of survival outcome than just the number of surgeries performed.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to validate Decipher to predict adverse pathology (AP) at radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) favorable-intermediate risk (F-IR) prostate cancer (PCa), and to better select F-IR candidates for active surveillance (AS). METHODS: In all, 647 patients diagnosed with NCCN very low/low risk (VL/LR) or F-IR prostate cancer were identified from a multi-institutional PCa biopsy database; all underwent RP with complete postoperative clinicopathological information and Decipher genomic risk scores. The performance of all risk assessment tools was evaluated using logistic regression model for the endpoint of AP, defined as grade group 3-5, pT3b or higher, or lymph node invasion. RESULTS: The median age was 61 years (interquartile range 56-66) for 220 patients with NCCN F-IR disease, 53% classified as low-risk by Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA 0-2) and 47% as intermediate-risk (CAPRA 3-5). Decipher classified 79%, 13% and 8% of men as low-, intermediate- and high-risk with 13%, 10%, and 41% rate of AP, respectively. Decipher was an independent predictor of AP with an odds ratio of 1.34 per 0.1 unit increased (p value = 0.002) and remained significant when adjusting by CAPRA. Notably, F-IR with Decipher low or intermediate score did not associate with significantly higher odds of AP compared to VL/LR. CONCLUSIONS: NCCN risk groups, including F-IR, are highly heterogeneous and should be replaced with multivariable risk-stratification. In particular, incorporating Decipher may be useful for safely expanding the use of AS in this patient population.

18.
World J Urol ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309290

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This report presents our early experience at Cleveland Clinic replacing conventional ultrasound with a novel 29 MHz high-resolution micro-ultrasound system for both systematic sampling and real-time targeting of suspicious regions during prostate biopsy. The added value of micro-ultrasound and MRI over systematic biopsy is presented. METHODS: Sixty-seven consecutive subjects (January-August 2018) from our prospective database who underwent prostate biopsy using the micro-ultrasound system were included. 19/67 had prostate MRI imaging available. MRI targets were sampled using the UroNav fusion system. Patients had a median PSA of 5.37 ng/mL (IQR 4.13-8.74). RESULTS: 38/67 (56.7%) subjects were positive for prostate cancer. In six of these cases, systematic biopsy was negative with only micro-ultrasound targeted samples detecting cancer. In two other cases, patients were upgraded from Grade Group 1 to Grade Groups 4 and 2 based on micro-ultrasound targets. Micro-ultrasound targets detected cancer in two subjects where MRI was negative (Grade Groups 3 and 2). MRI targets alone did not change the overall diagnosis of any subjects. Switching biopsy guidance to real-time micro-ultrasound increased detection rate on prostate biopsy from 44.8% (30/67) to 56.7% (38/67), a relative increase of 26.7%. CONCLUSION: High-resolution micro-ultrasound identified clinically significant cancer that would have, otherwise, been missed by both MRI fusion and systematic biopsy and was useful in both biopsy naïve and repeat negative patients. Early results from this small, single-center cohort are promising, particularly given the ease with which micro-ultrasound can replace the conventional ultrasound in standard prostate biopsy procedures.

19.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(5): 366-372, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262501

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is up-regulated in prostate cancer (PCa). We evaluated the tumor tissue expression of downstream mTOR targets in patients with intermediate- and high-risk (IR/HR) PCa and their ability to predict outcome after radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis using antibodies against PTEN, mTOR, p-mTOR, pAKT, pS6, and Ki-67 was performed on a tissue microarray constructed from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded RP specimens. The marker expression was analyzed to determine their predictability for biochemical recurrence (BCR). RESULTS: Tumor tissue from 217 patients (86 IR/131 HR) was analyzed. The most frequent markers were p-mTOR, which was expressed in most cases (85%), whereas PTEN and pS6 were detected in 53% and 40% of the cases, respectively. Overexpression of PTEN (P = .02) and pS6 (P < .001) was associated with HR features. With a median follow up of 13.5 years, 39% (77/196) of patients developed BCR after RP, more frequently (31%) in patients with HR disease (P < .001). Overexpression of pS6 (P = .036), Ki67% (P = .024), and lack of expression of mTOR (P = .021) were associated with BCR. The 5- and 10-year survival rate was 81% and 66%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression of downstream mTOR molecules was significantly associated with outcome of patients with IR and HR PCa. Markers of the mTOR pathway could be incorporated in clinical studies evaluating inhibitors of the signaling pathway for treatment selection in men with PCa.

20.
J Urol ; 202(4): 701, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268814
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA