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1.
Life Sci Alliance ; 3(2)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882397

RESUMO

We identified a consanguineous kindred, of three affected children with severe autoinflammation, resulting in the death of one sibling and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the other two. All three were homozygous for MEFV p.S208C mutation; however, their phenotype was more severe than previously reported, prompting consideration of an oligogenic autoinflammation model. Further genetic studies revealed homozygous mutations in TRAP1, encoding the mitochondrial/ER resident chaperone protein tumour necrosis factor receptor associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Identification of a fourth, unrelated patient with autoinflammation and compound heterozygous mutation of TRAP1 alone facilitated further functional studies, confirming the importance of this protein as a chaperone of misfolded proteins with loss of function, which may contribute to autoinflammation. Impaired TRAP1 function leads to cellular stress and elevated levels of serum IL-18. This study emphasizes the importance of considering digenic or oligogenic models of disease in particularly severe phenotypes and suggests that autoinflammatory disease might be enhanced by bi-allelic mutations in TRAP1.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775019

RESUMO

CAPSULE SUMMARY: We characterise the immunopathogenesis of autoinflammation, HLH, and early onset intestinal inflammation caused by homozygous mutation in DNASE2, and provide the first description of favourable therapeutic response to JAK1/JAK2 blockade in this disease.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781101

RESUMO

Monogenic forms of vasculitis are rare but increasingly recognized. Furthermore, genetic immunodeficiency is increasingly associated with inflammatory immune dysregulatory features, including vasculitis. This case report describes a child of non-consanguineous parents who presented with chronic digital vasculitis early in life, is of short stature, has facial dysmorphia, immunodeficiency (low serum IgA, high serum IgM), recurrent bacterial infections, lymphoproliferation, absence of detectable serum C1q, and low classical complement pathway activity. We identified a previously reported de novo heterozygous pathogenic splice mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1425 + 1G > A), resulting in the skipping of exon 11 of the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and causing activated PI3Kδ syndrome type II (APDS2). This explained the phenotype, with the exception of digital vasculitis and C1q deficiency, which have never been described in association with APDS2. No mutations were identified in C1QA, B, or C, their promoter regions, or in any other complement component. Functional studies indicated normal monocytic C1q production and release, suggesting that the observed C1q deficiency was caused by peripheral consumption of C1q. Since C1q deficiency has never been associated with APDS2, we assessed C1q levels in two unrelated patients with genetically confirmed APDS2 and confirmed C1q deficiency in those two cases as well. This observation suggests C1q deficiency to be an inherent but previously unrecognized feature of APDS2. We speculate that the consumption of C1q is driven by increased apoptotic bodies derived from immune cellular senescence, combined with elevated IgM production (both inherent features of APDS2). Secondary C1q deficiency in APDS2 may further contribute to immunodeficiency and could also be associated with inflammatory immune dysregulatory phenotypes, such as the digital vasculitis observed in our case.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633161

RESUMO

The reduction in childhood mortality noted in trials investigating azithromycin mass drug administration (MDA) for trachoma control has been confirmed by a recent large randomized controlled trial. Population-level implementation of azithromycin MDA may lead to selection of multiresistant pathogens. Evidence suggests that repeated azithromycin MDA may result in a sustained increase in macrolide and other antibiotic resistance in gut and respiratory bacteria. Current evidence comes from standard microbiological techniques in studies focused on a time-limited intervention, while MDA implemented for mortality benefits would likely repeatedly expose the population over a prolonged period and may require a different surveillance approach. Targeted short-term and long-term surveillance of resistance emergence to key antibiotics, especially those from the World Health Organization Access group, is needed throughout any implementation of azithromycin MDA, focusing on a genotypic approach to overcome the limitations of resistance surveillance in indicator bacteria. Azithromycin mass drug administration results in a sustained increase in antimicrobial resistance when implemented at a population level. Targeted risk-based metagenomics approaches complementing traditional microbiological methods are recommended for surveillance of emerging short- and long-term antimicrobial resistance.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether parenteral plus enteral glutamine supplementation influences microbial invasion in surgical infants who require parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: An prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial studying surgical infants receiving PN for at least 5 days for congenital or acquired intestinal anomalies (2009-2012) was used. Infants were randomized to receive either glutamine supplementation (parenteral plus enteral; total 400 mg/kg/d) or isonitrogenous control. The primary end point was microbial invasion evaluated after 5 days of supplementation and defined as: (i) positive conventional blood culture, (ii) evidence of microbial DNA in blood (polymerase chain reaction), (iii) plasma endotoxin level ≥50 pg/mL, or (iv) plasma level of lipopolysaccharide binding protein ≥50 ng/mL. Data are given as median (range) and compared by logistic regression. RESULTS: Sixty infants were randomized and reached the primary end point. Twenty-five patients had intestinal obstruction, 19 had abdominal wall defects, and 13 had necrotizing enterocolitis. Thirty-six infants showed evidence of microbial invasion during the study, and 17 of these were not detected by conventional blood culture. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the primary outcome; evidence of microbial invasion after 5 days was found in 9/31 (control group) and 8/29 (glutamine group) (odds ratio 0.83 [0.24-2.86; P = 0.77]). CONCLUSION: More than half of surgical infants requiring PN showed evidence of microbial invasion. Approximately half of this was not detectable by conventional blood cultures. Parenteral plus enteral glutamine supplementation had no effect on incidence of microbial invasion.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11246, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375740

RESUMO

Spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB, delivery <37 weeks gestation), accounts for approximately 10% of births worldwide; the aetiology is multifactorial with intra-amniotic infection being one contributing factor. This study aimed to determine whether asymptomatic women with a history of sPTB or cervical surgery have altered levels of inflammatory/antimicrobial mediators and/or microflora within cervical fluid at 22-24 weeks gestation. External cervical fluid was collected from women with history of previous sPTB and/or cervical surgery at 22-24 weeks gestation (n = 135). Cytokine and antimicrobial peptides were measured on a multiplex platform or by ELISA. qPCR was performed for detection of 7 potentially pathogenic bacterial species. IL-8 and IL-1ß levels were lower in women who delivered preterm compared to those who delivered at term (IL-8 P = 0.02; IL-1ß P = 0.04). There were no differences in elafin or human beta defensin-1 protein levels between the two groups. Multiple bacterial species were detected in a higher proportion of women who delivered preterm than in those who delivered at term (P = 0.005). Cervical fluid IL-8 and IL-1ß and microflora have the potential to be used as biomarkers to predict sPTB in high risk women.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10184, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308390

RESUMO

Co-existing infection/inflammation and birth asphyxia potentiate the risk of developing neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and adverse outcome. In a newborn piglet model we assessed the effect of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion started 4 h prior to and continued for 48 h after hypoxia on brain cell death and systemic haematological changes compared to LPS and hypoxia alone. LPS sensitized hypoxia resulted in an increase in mortality and in brain cell death (TUNEL positive cells) throughout the whole brain, and in the internal capsule, periventricular white matter and sensorimotor cortex. LPS alone did not increase brain cell death at 48 h, despite evidence of neuroinflammation, including the greatest increases in microglial proliferation, reactive astrocytosis and cleavage of caspase-3. LPS exposure caused splenic hypertrophy and platelet count suppression. The combination of LPS and hypoxia resulted in the highest and most sustained systemic white cell count increase. These findings highlight the significant contribution of acute inflammation sensitization prior to an asphyxial insult on NE illness severity.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium abscessus is an extensively drug resistant pathogen that causes pulmonary disease particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Identifying direct patient-to-patient transmission of M. abscessus is critically important in directing infection control policy for the management of risk in CF patients. A variety of clinical labs have used molecular epidemiology to investigate transmission. However there is still conflicting evidence as to how M. abscessus is acquired and whether cross-transmission occurs. Recently labs have applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate this further and in this study we investigate whether WGS can reliably identify cross-transmission in M. abscessus. METHODS: We retrospectively sequenced the whole genomes of 145 M. abscessus isolates from 62 patients seen at four hospitals in two countries over 16 years. RESULTS: We have shown that a comparison of a fixed number of core single nucleotide variants (SNVs) alone cannot be used to infer cross-transmission in M. abscessus but does provide enough information to replace multiple existing molecular assays. We detected one episode of possible direct patient-to-patient transmission in a sibling pair. We found that patients acquired unique M. abscessus strains even after spending considerable time on the same wards with other M. abscessus positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: This novel analysis has demonstrated that the majority of patients in this study have not acquired M. abscessus through direct patient-patient transmission or a common reservoir. Tracking transmission using WGS will only realise its full potential with proper environmental screening as well as patient sampling.

9.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243159

RESUMO

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NBS) are 2 overlapping syndromes caused by mutations in genes of the barrier-to-autointegration factor chromatin-remodeling complex, presenting with multiple malformations and intellectual disability. Musculoskeletal changes such as noninflammatory prominence of interphalangeal joints in hands, feet, and, to a lesser extent, knee joints are common in NBS (up to 85%) and also reported in CSS. We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with polyarthritis of several years' duration (without uveitis), developmental delay, microcephaly, and dysmorphic features reminiscent of NBS. Sanger sequencing of the SMARCA2 gene revealed no mutations. Laboratory test results were normal. With synovial biopsy, we confirmed a chronic inflammatory synovitis. Brain MRI revealed dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Treatment with methotrexate and, subsequently, etanercept led to significant clinical improvement. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation in the ARID1B gene, resulting in a premature stop codon (c.C5404T; p.R1802×), a genotype consistent with CSS. The absence of significantly raised inflammatory markers and a clinical diagnosis of a genetic syndrome associated with noninflammatory joint changes may have contributed to this patient's polyarthritis being missed for several years. We propose that some patients with CSS may have inflammatory arthritis (with or without coexisting skeletal dysplasia), which may be helped by treatment as described herein. Early recognition and treatment of inflammatory arthritis in CSS would have a significant impact on reducing disease burden and improving quality of life for patients with this rare genetic syndrome.

10.
Crit Care Med ; 47(9): e727-e734, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adverse physiology and antibiotic exposure devastate the intestinal microbiome in critical illness. Time and cost implications limit the immediate clinical potential of microbial sequencing to identify or treat intestinal dysbiosis. Here, we examined whether metabolic profiling is a feasible method of monitoring intestinal dysbiosis in critically ill children. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Three U.K.-based PICUs. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated critically ill (n = 60) and age-matched healthy children (n = 55). INTERVENTIONS: Collection of urine and fecal samples in children admitted to the PICU. A single fecal and urine sample was collected in healthy controls. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Untargeted and targeted metabolic profiling using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or urine and fecal samples. This was integrated with analysis of fecal bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA profiles and clinical disease severity indicators. We observed separation of global urinary and fecal metabolic profiles in critically ill compared with healthy children. Urinary excretion of mammalian-microbial co-metabolites hippurate, 4-cresol sulphate, and formate were reduced in critical illness compared with healthy children. Reduced fecal excretion of short-chain fatty acids (including butyrate, propionate, and acetate) were observed in the patient cohort, demonstrating that these metabolites also distinguished between critical illness and health. Dysregulation of intestinal bile metabolism was evidenced by increased primary and reduced secondary fecal bile acid excretion. Fecal butyrate correlated with days free of intensive care at 30 days (r = 0.38; p = 0.03), while urinary formate correlated inversely with vasopressor requirement (r = -0.2; p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Disruption to the functional activity of the intestinal microbiome may result in worsening organ failure in the critically ill child. Profiling of bacterial metabolites in fecal and urine samples may support identification and treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in critical illness.

11.
AIDS ; 33(9): 1485-1490, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A proportion of HIV-infected children with advanced disease develop severe malnutrition soon after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. We tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of severe malnutrition in HIV-infected children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional laboratory substudy in 613 HIV-infected children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe. METHODS: We measured C-reactive protein (CRP), TNFα, IL-6 and soluble CD14 by ELISA in cryopreserved plasma at baseline (pre-ART) and week-4 (children with severe malnutrition only). Independent associations between baseline biomarkers and subsequent hospitalization for severe malnutrition were identified using multivariable fractional polynomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared with children without severe malnutrition (n = 574, median age 6.3 years, median baseline weight-for-age Z-score -2.2), children hospitalized for severe malnutrition post-ART (n = 39, median age 2.3 years, median baseline weight-for-age Z-score -4.8) had higher baseline CRP [median 13.5 (interquartile range 5.5, 41.1) versus 4.1 (1.4, 14.4) mg/l; P = 0.003] and IL-6 [median 9.2 (6.7, 15.6) versus 5.9 (4.6, 9.3) pg/ml; P < 0.0001], but similar overall TNFα, soluble CD14 and HIV viral load (all P > 0.06). In a multivariable model, higher pre-ART IL-6, lower TNFα and lower weight-for-age were independently associated with subsequent hospitalization for severe malnutrition. Between weeks 0 and 4, there was a significant rise in CRP, IL-6 and soluble CD14, and fall in TNFα and HIV viral load in children hospitalized for severe malnutrition (all P < 0.02). CONCLUSION: Pre-ART IL-6 and TNFα were more strongly associated with hospitalization for severe malnutrition than CD4 cell count or viral load, highlighting the importance of inflammation at the time of ART initiation in HIV-infected children.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(486)2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944164

RESUMO

Long-term cotrimoxazole prophylaxis reduces mortality and morbidity in HIV infection, but the mechanisms underlying these clinical benefits are unclear. Here, we investigate the impact of cotrimoxazole on systemic inflammation, an independent driver of HIV mortality. In HIV-positive Ugandan and Zimbabwean children receiving antiretroviral therapy, we show that plasma inflammatory markers were lower after randomization to continue (n = 144) versus stop (n = 149) cotrimoxazole. This was not explained by clinical illness, HIV progression, or nutritional status. Because subclinical enteropathogen carriage and enteropathy can drive systemic inflammation, we explored cotrimoxazole effects on the gut microbiome and intestinal inflammatory biomarkers. Although global microbiome composition was unchanged, viridans group Streptococci and streptococcal mevalonate pathway enzymes were lower among children continuing (n = 36) versus stopping (n = 36) cotrimoxazole. These changes were associated with lower fecal myeloperoxidase. To isolate direct effects of cotrimoxazole on immune activation from antibiotic effects, we established in vitro models of systemic and intestinal inflammation. In vitro cotrimoxazole had modest but consistent inhibitory effects on proinflammatory cytokine production by blood leukocytes from HIV-positive (n = 16) and HIV-negative (n = 8) UK adults and reduced IL-8 production by gut epithelial cell lines. Collectively we demonstrate that cotrimoxazole reduces systemic and intestinal inflammation both indirectly via antibiotic effects on the microbiome and directly by blunting immune and epithelial cell activation. Synergy between these pathways may explain the clinical benefits of cotrimoxazole despite high antimicrobial resistance, providing further rationale for extending coverage among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(4): e69-e71, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882743
14.
ISME J ; 13(7): 1845-1856, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877283

RESUMO

Treatment with antibiotics is one of the most extreme perturbations to the human microbiome. Even standard courses of antibiotics dramatically reduce the microbiome's diversity and can cause transitions to dysbiotic states. Conceptually, this is often described as a 'stability landscape': the microbiome sits in a landscape with multiple stable equilibria, and sufficiently strong perturbations can shift the microbiome from its normal equilibrium to another state. However, this picture is only qualitative and has not been incorporated in previous mathematical models of the effects of antibiotics. Here, we outline a simple quantitative model based on the stability landscape concept and demonstrate its success on real data. Our analytical impulse-response model has minimal assumptions with three parameters. We fit this model in a Bayesian framework to data from a previous study of the year-long effects of short courses of four common antibiotics on the gut and oral microbiomes, allowing us to compare parameters between antibiotics and microbiomes, and further validate our model using data from another study looking at the impact of a combination of last-resort antibiotics on the gut microbiome. Using Bayesian model selection we find support for a long-term transition to an alternative microbiome state after courses of certain antibiotics in both the gut and oral microbiomes. Quantitative stability landscape frameworks are an exciting avenue for future microbiome modelling.

15.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 69, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever improves pathogen control at a significant metabolic cost. No randomized clinical trials (RCT) have compared fever treatment thresholds in critically ill children. We performed a pilot RCT to determine whether a definitive trial of a permissive approach to fever in comparison to current restrictive practice is feasible in critically ill children with suspected infection. METHODS: An open, parallel-group pilot RCT with embedded mixed methods perspectives study in four UK paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and associated retrieval services. Participants were emergency PICU admissions aged > 28 days to < 16 years receiving respiratory support and supplemental oxygen. Subjects were randomly assigned to permissive (antipyretic interventions only at ≥ 39.5 °C) or restrictive groups (antipyretic interventions at ≥ 37.5 °C) whilst on respiratory support. Parents were invited to complete a questionnaire or take part in an interview. Focus groups were conducted with staff at each unit. Outcomes were measures of feasibility: recruitment rate, protocol adherence and acceptability, between group separation of temperature and safety. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-eight children met eligibility criteria of whom 100 (72%) were randomized (11.1 patients per month per site) without prior consent (RWPC). Consent to continue in the trial was obtained in 87 cases (87%). The mean maximum temperature (95% confidence interval) over the first 48 h was 38.4 °C (38.2-38.6) in the restrictive group and 38.8 °C (38.6-39.1) in the permissive group, a mean difference of 0.5 °C (0.2-0.8). Protocol deviations were observed in 6.8% (99/1438) of 6-h time periods and largely related to patient comfort in the recovery phase. Length of stay, duration of organ support and mortality were similar between groups. No pre-specified serious adverse events occurred. Staff (n = 48) and parents (n = 60) were supportive of the trial, including RWPC. Suggestions were made to only include invasively ventilated children for the duration of intubation. CONCLUSION: Uncertainty around the optimal fever threshold for antipyretic intervention is relevant to many emergency PICU admissions. A more permissive approach was associated with a modest increase in mean maximum temperature. A definitive trial should focus on the most seriously ill cases in whom antipyretics are rarely used for their analgesic effects alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16022198 . Registered on 14 August 2017.


Assuntos
/complicações , Níveis Máximos Permitidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833429

RESUMO

This study aimed to suggest an initial pediatric vancomycin dose regimen through population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. A population pharmacokinetic approach was used to analyze vancomycin concentration-time data from a large pediatric cohort. Pharmacokinetic target attainment for patients with bloodstream isolates was compared with clinical outcome using logistic regression and classification and regression trees. Change in serum creatinine during treatment was used as an indicator of acute nephrotoxicity. Probability of acute kidney injury (50% increase from baseline) or kidney failure (75% increase from baseline) was evaluated using logistic regression. An initial dosing regimen was derived, personalized by age, weight, and serum creatinine, using stochastic simulations. Data from 785 hospitalized pediatric patients (1 day to 21 years of age) with suspected Gram-positive infections were collected. Estimated (relative standard error) typical clearance, volume of distribution 1, intercompartmental clearance, and volume of distribution 2 were (standardized to 70 kg) 4.84 (2.38) liters/h, 39.9 (8.15) liters, 3.85 (17.3) liters/h, and 37.8 (10.2) liters, respectively. While cumulative vancomycin exposure correlated positively with the development of nephrotoxicity (713 patients), no clear relationship between vancomycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve and efficacy was found (102 patients). Predicted probability of acute kidney injury and kidney failure with the optimized dosing regimen at day 5 was 10 to 15% and 5 to 10%, increasing by approximately 50% on day 7 and roughly 100% on day 10 across all age groups. This study presents the first data-driven pediatric dose selection to date accounting for nephrotoxicity, and it indicates that cumulative vancomycin exposure best describes risk of acute kidney injury and acute kidney failure.

17.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(5): 1-148, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever accelerates host immune system control of pathogens but at a high metabolic cost. The optimal approach to fever management and the optimal temperature thresholds used for treatment in critically ill children are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of conducting a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different temperature thresholds for antipyretic management. DESIGN: A mixed-methods feasibility study comprising three linked studies - (1) a qualitative study exploring parent and clinician views, (2) an observational study of the epidemiology of fever in children with infection in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and (3) a pilot RCT with an integrated-perspectives study. SETTING: Participants were recruited from (1) four hospitals in England via social media (for the FEVER qualitative study), (2) 22 PICUs in the UK (for the FEVER observational study) and (3) four PICUs in England (for the FEVER pilot RCT). PARTICIPANTS: (1) Parents of children with relevant experience were recruited to the FEVER qualitative study, (2) patients who were unplanned admissions to PICUs were recruited to the FEVER observational study and (3) children admitted with infection requiring mechanical ventilation were recruited to the FEVER pilot RCT. Parents of children and clinicians involved in the pilot RCT. INTERVENTIONS: The FEVER qualitative study and the FEVER observational study had no interventions. In the FEVER pilot RCT, children were randomly allocated (1 : 1) using research without prior consent (RWPC) to permissive (39.5 °C) or restrictive (37.5 °C) temperature thresholds for antipyretics during their PICU stay while mechanically ventilated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) The acceptability of FEVER, RWPC and potential outcomes (in the FEVER qualitative study), (2) the size of the potentially eligible population and the temperature thresholds used (in the FEVER observational study) and (3) recruitment and retention rates, protocol adherence and separation between groups and distribution of potential outcomes (in the FEVER pilot RCT). RESULTS: In the FEVER qualitative study, 25 parents were interviewed and 56 clinicians took part in focus groups. Both the parents and the clinicians found the study acceptable. Clinicians raised concerns regarding temperature thresholds and not using paracetamol for pain/discomfort. In the FEVER observational study, 1853 children with unplanned admissions and infection were admitted to 22 PICUs between March and August 2017. The recruitment rate was 10.9 per site per month. The majority of critically ill children with a maximum temperature of > 37.5 °C received antipyretics. In the FEVER pilot RCT, 100 eligible patients were randomised between September and December 2017 at a recruitment rate of 11.1 per site per month. Consent was provided for 49 out of 51 participants in the restrictive temperature group, but only for 38 out of 49 participants in the permissive temperature group. A separation of 0.5 °C (95% confidence interval 0.2 °C to 0.8 °C) between groups was achieved. A high completeness of outcome measures was achieved. Sixty parents of 57 children took part in interviews and/or completed questionnaires and 98 clinicians took part in focus groups or completed a survey. Parents and clinicians found the pilot RCT and RWPC acceptable. Concerns about children being in pain/discomfort were cited as reasons for withdrawal and non-consent by parents and non-adherence to the protocol by clinicians. LIMITATIONS: Different recruitment periods for observational and pilot studies may not fully reflect the population that is eligible for a definitive RCT. CONCLUSIONS: The results identified barriers to delivering the definitive FEVER RCT, including acceptability of the permissive temperature threshold. The findings also provided insight into how these barriers may be overcome, such as by limiting the patient inclusion criteria to invasive ventilation only and by improved site training. A definitive FEVER RCT using a modified protocol should be conducted, but further work is required to agree important outcome measures for clinical trials among critically ill children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The FEVER observational study is registered as NCT03028818 and the FEVER pilot RCT is registered as Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16022198. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 5. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 219(12): 1948-1958, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of immune activation to arterial stiffness and its reversibility in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. METHODS: HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected Malawian adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a CD4+ T-cell count of <100 cells/µL were enrolled and followed for 44 weeks; enrollment of infected adults occurred 2 weeks after ART initiation. We evaluated the relationship between carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and T-cell activation (defined as HLA-DR+CD38+ T cells), exhaustion (define as PD-1+ T cells), and senescence (defined as CD57+ T cells) and monocyte subsets, using normal regression. RESULTS: In 279 HIV-infected and 110 HIV-uninfected adults, 142 (37%) had hypertension. HIV was independently associated with a 12% higher cfPWV (P = .02) at baseline and a 14% higher cfPWV at week 10 (P = .02), but the increases resolved by week 22. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell exhaustion were independently associated with a higher cfPWV at baseline (P = .02). At 44 weeks, arterial stiffness improved more in those with greater decreases in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and the percentage of PD-1+CD8+ T cells (P = .01 and P = .03, respectively). When considering HIV-infected participants alone, the adjusted arterial stiffness at week 44 tended to be lower in those with higher baseline percentage of PD-1+CD8+ T cells (P = .054). CONCLUSIONS: PD-1+CD8+ T-cells are associated with HIV-related arterial stiffness, which remains elevated during the first 3 months of ART. Resources to prevent cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa should focus on blood pressure reduction and individuals with a low CD4+ T-cell count during early ART.

20.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 35(1): 33-39, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298747

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to quantify KREC (kappa-deleting recombination excision circle) levels and naive B cell output in healthy HIV-uninfected children, compared with HIV-infected South African children, before and after starting ART (antiretroviral therapy). Samples were acquired from a Child Wellness Clinic (n = 288 HIV-uninfected South African children, 2 weeks-12 years) and the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial (n = 153 HIV-infected South African children, 7 weeks-8 years). Naive B cell output was estimated using a mathematical model combining KREC levels to reflect B cell emigration into the circulation, flow cytometry measures of naive unswitched B cells to quantify total body naive B cells, and their rates of proliferation using the intracellular marker Ki67. Naive B cell output increases from birth to 1 year, followed by a decline and plateau into late childhood. HIV-infected children on or off ART had higher naive B cell outputs than their uninfected counterparts (p = .01 and p = .04). This is the first study to present reference ranges for measurements of KRECs and naive B cell output in healthy and HIV-infected children. Comparison between HIV-uninfected healthy children and HIV-infected children suggests that HIV may increase naive B cell output. Further work is required to fully understand the mechanisms involved and clinical value of measuring naive B cell output in children.

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