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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 181, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest preventable cause of diseases and deaths; reducing tobacco intake is, therefore, an urgent public health goal. In recent years, e-cigarettes have been marketed as a 'healthier' alternative to tobacco smoking, whilst product features have evolved tremendously in the meantime. A lively scientific debate has developed regarding the potential benefits and risks of e-cigarettes although, surprisingly, there are few studies investigating the addictive potential of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. The present work comprises three work packages investigating the addictive potential of e-cigarettes from different perspectives: (1) the neurobiological addictive potential of e-cigarettes; (2) the experience and perception of dependence symptoms among users of e-cigarettes in a social context; and (3) the epidemiological perspective regarding factors influencing the potential for dependence. METHODS: Work package I: the neurobiological study will investigate the key elements of addiction in e-cigarettes compared to tobacco cigarettes using neurobiological and neuropsychological correlates associated with craving, incentive motivation, cue reactivity and attentional bias. Work package II: the sociological study part examines self-reports on the experience and perception of dependence symptoms in a social context, using focus group interviews and the analysis of posts in online discussion forums on e-cigarettes. Work package III: the epidemiological study part focuses on tolerance development and the role of psychosocial and product factors by analyzing longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC). DISCUSSION: The present study offers a chosen mix of three methodological approaches, thereby comprehensively examining core symptoms of positive and negative reinforcement in addiction. Whether e-cigarettes are as reinforcing and addictive as combustible tobacco cigarettes is an important public health issue with implications for prevention and treatment programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Work package I: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04772014. Work package II: Registered at OSF Registries: https://osf.io/dxgya (2021, January 14).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nicotina
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 691930, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603097

RESUMO

Rationale: Both attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are accompanied by deficits in response inhibition. Furthermore, the prevalence of comorbidity of ADHD and AUD is high. However, there is a lack of research on whether the same neuronal subprocesses of inhibition (i.e., interference inhibition, action withholding and action cancellation) exhibit deficits in both psychiatric disorders. Methods: We examined these three neural subprocesses of response inhibition in patient groups and healthy controls: non-medicated individuals with ADHD (ADHD; N = 16), recently detoxified and abstinent individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD; N = 15), and healthy controls (HC; N = 15). A hybrid response inhibition task covering interference inhibition, action withholding, and action cancellation was applied using a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results: Individuals with ADHD showed an overall stronger hypoactivation in attention related brain areas compared to AUD or HC during action withholding. Further, this hypoactivation was more accentuated during action cancellation. Individuals with AUD recruited a broader network, including the striatum, compared to HC during action withholding. During action cancellation, however, they showed hypoactivation in motor regions. Additionally, specific neural activation profiles regarding group and subprocess became apparent. Conclusions: Even though deficits in response inhibition are related to both ADHD and AUD, neural activation and recruited networks during response inhibition differ regarding both neuronal subprocesses and examined groups. While a replication of this study is needed in a larger sample, the results suggest that tasks have to be carefully selected when examining neural activation patterns of response inhibition either in research on various psychiatric disorders or transdiagnostic questions.

3.
Front Physiol ; 12: 720898, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489738

RESUMO

Background: Liver cirrhosis is a relevant comorbidity with increasing prevalence. Postoperative decompensation and development of complications in patients with cirrhosis remains a frequent clinical problem. Surgery has been discussed as a precipitating event for decompensation and complications of cirrhosis, but the underlying pathomechanisms are still obscure. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of abdominal extrahepatic surgery in cirrhosis on portal pressure and fibrosis in a preclinical model. Methods: Compensated liver cirrhosis was induced using tetrachlormethane (CCL4) inhalation and bile duct ligation (BDL) models in rats, non-cirrhotic portal hypertension by partial portal vein ligation (PPVL). Intestinal manipulation (IM) as a model of extrahepatic abdominal surgery was performed. 2 and 7 days after IM, portal pressure was measured in-vivo. Hydroxyproline measurements, Sirius Red staining and qPCR measurements of the liver were performed for evaluation of fibrosis development and hepatic inflammation. Laboratory parameters of liver function in serum were analyzed. Results: Portal pressure was significantly elevated 2 and 7 days after IM in both models of cirrhosis. In the non-cirrhotic model the trend was the same, while not statistically significant. In both cirrhotic models, IM shows strong effects of decompensation, with significant weight loss, elevation of liver enzymes and hypoalbuminemia. 7 days after IM in the BDL group, Sirius red staining and hydroxyproline levels showed significant progression of fibrosis and significantly elevated mRNA levels of hepatic inflammation compared to the respective control group. A progression of fibrosis was not observed in the CCL4 model. Conclusion: In animal models of cirrhosis with continuous liver injury (BDL), IM increases portal pressure, and development of fibrosis. Perioperative portal pressure and hence inflammation processes may be therapeutic targets to prevent post-operative decompensation in cirrhosis.

4.
Addict Biol ; : e13096, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467604

RESUMO

Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been reported in alcohol use disorders (AUD), but findings are so far inconsistent. Here, we exploited recent developments in graph-theoretical analyses, enabling improved resolution and fine-grained representation of brain networks, to investigate functional connectivity in 35 recently detoxified alcohol dependent patients versus 34 healthy controls. Specifically, we focused on the modular organization, that is, the presence of tightly connected substructures within a network, and on the identification of brain regions responsible for network integration using an unbiased approach based on a large-scale network composed of more than 600 a priori defined nodes. We found significant reductions in global connectivity and region-specific disruption in the network topology in patients compared with controls. Specifically, the basal brain and the insular-supramarginal cortices, which form tightly coupled modules in healthy subjects, were fragmented in patients. Further, patients showed a strong increase in the centrality of the anterior insula, which exhibited stronger connectivity to distal cortical regions and weaker connectivity to the posterior insula. Anterior insula centrality, a measure of the integrative role of a region, was significantly associated with increased risk of relapse. Exploratory analysis suggests partial recovery of modular structure and insular connectivity in patients after 2 weeks. These findings support the hypothesis that, at least during the early stages of abstinence, the anterior insula may drive exaggerated integration of interoceptive states in AUD patients with possible consequences for decision making and emotional states and that functional connectivity is dynamically changing during treatment.

5.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 715765, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513923

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Activation of the inflammasome NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain containing 3) contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therefore, this study explored the therapeutic effects of a novel and selective NLRP3 antagonist in a murine dietary model of NASH. Methods: Groups of 12-week-old ApoE -/- mice were fed ad lib for 7 weeks with a methionine/choline deficient (MCD) and western diet (WD). After 3 weeks of diet-induced injury, mice were injected i. p. with the NLRP3 antagonist IFM-514 (100 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (0.5% carmellose) every day, 5 days/week for a further 4 weeks. Several markers of inflammation, fibrosis and steatosis were evaluated. Whole transcriptome sequencing and panel RNA expression analysis (NanoString) were performed. Results: IFM-514 inhibited IL-1ß production in mice challenged with 20 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide, and in mouse and human inflammatory cells in vitro. IFM-514 inhibited hepatic inflammation in the in vivo non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model assessed by H&E staining and in the hepatic gene expression of inflammasome-related proinflammatory cytokines. This effect was associated with significant reduction in caspase-1 activation. Similarly, IFM-514 was efficacious in vivo in MDC-fed ApoE -/- mice, markedly reducing portal pressure, Sirius red staining and 4-hydroxyproline content compared to vehicle-treated mice. Moreover, IFM-514 significantly reduced hepatic steatosis in MCD-fed ApoE -/- mice, as evidenced by NAFLD scores, oil red O staining, hepatic triglycerides and gene expression. In WD treated animals, similar trends in inflammation and fibrosis were observed, although not sufficient IFM-514 levels were reached. Conclusion: Overall, IFM-514 reduced liver inflammation and fibrosis, with mild effects on liver steatosis in experimental murine NASH. Blocking of NLRP3 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for NASH patients.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of portal hypertension is multifactorial and includes pathologic intrahepatic angiogenesis, whereby TIPS insertion is an effective therapy of portal hypertension associated complications. While angiogenin is a potent contributor to angiogenesis in general, little is known about its impact on TIPS function over time. METHODS: In a total of 118 samples from 47 patients, angiogenin concentrations were measured in portal and inferior caval vein plasma at TIPS insertion (each blood compartment n = 23) or angiographic intervention after TIPS (each blood compartment n = 36) and its relationship with patient outcome was investigated. RESULTS: Angiogenin levels in the inferior caval vein were significantly higher compared to the portal vein (P = 0.048). Ten to 14 days after TIPS, inferior caval vein angiogenin level correlated inversely with the portal systemic pressure gradient (P<0.001), measured invasively during control angiography. Moreover, patients with TIPS revision during this angiography, showed significantly lower angiogenin level in the inferior caval vein compared to patients without TIPS dysfunction (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In cirrhosis patients with complications of severe portal hypertension, circulating levels of angiogenin are derived from the injured liver. Moreover, angiogenin levels in the inferior caval vein after TIPS may predict TIPS dysfunction.

7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397296

RESUMO

International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder Abstract. Background: Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for substance misuse and substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence and (early) adulthood. ADHD and SUD also frequently co-occur in treatment-seeking adolescents, which complicates diagnosis and treatment and is associated with poor treatment outcomes. Research on the effect of treatment of childhood ADHD on the prevention of adolescent SUD is inconclusive, and studies on the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and SUD are scarce. Thus, the available evidence is generally not sufficient to justify robust treatment recommendations. Objective: The aim of the study was to obtain a consensus statement based on a combination of scientific data and clinical experience. Method: A modified Delphi study to reach consensus based upon the combination of scientific data and clinical experience with a multidisciplinary group of 55 experts from 17 countries. The experts were asked to rate a set of statements on the effect of treatment of childhood ADHD on adolescent SUD and on the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of adolescents with comorbid ADHD and SUD. Results: After 3 iterative rounds of rating and adapting 37 statements, consensus was reached on 36 of these statements representing 6 domains: general (n = 4), risk of developing SUD (n = 3), screening and diagnosis (n = 7), psychosocial treatment (n = 5), pharmacological treatment (n = 11), and complementary treatments (n = 7). Routine screening is recommended for ADHD in adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment and for SUD in adolescent patients with ADHD in mental healthcare settings. Long-acting stimulants are recommended as the first-line treatment of ADHD in adolescents with concurrent ADHD and SUD, and pharmacotherapy should preferably be embedded in psychosocial treatment. The only remaining no-consensus statement concerned the requirement of abstinence before starting pharmacological treatment in adolescents with ADHD and concurrent SUD. In contrast to the majority, some experts required full abstinence before starting any pharmacological treatment, some were against the use of stimulants in the treatment of these patients (independent of abstinence), while some were against the alternative use of bupropion. Conclusion: This international consensus statement can be used by clinicians and patients together in a shared decision-making process to select the best interventions and to reach optimal outcomes in adolescent patients with concurrent ADHD and SUD.

8.
Curr Tissue Microenviron Rep ; : 1-12, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337431

RESUMO

Purpose of the Review: This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the extracellular matrix remodeling during hepatic fibrosis. We discuss the diverse interactions of the extracellular matrix with hepatic cells and the surrounding matrix in liver fibrosis, with the focus on the molecular pathways and the mechanisms that regulate extracellular matrix remodeling. Recent Findings: The extracellular matrix not only provides structure and support for the cells, but also controls cell behavior by providing adhesion signals and by acting as a reservoir of growth factors and cytokines. Summary: Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. During fibrogenesis, the natural remodeling process of the extracellular matrix varies, resulting in the excessive accumulation of its components, mainly collagens. Signals released by the extracellular matrix induce the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which are the major source of extracellular matrix and most abundant myofibroblasts in the liver.

9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 226: 108861, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198135

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has recently been raising interest in its therapeutic impact on tobacco use disorder. This study investigates the effects of repeated frontal tDCS (anode: F3, cathode: F4) on cigarette consumption, craving and executive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a randomized sham-controlled trial, 24 individuals received active (2.0 mA) and 20 individuals received sham stimulation (0.3 mA) for 20 min on five consecutive days. The participants indicated their tobacco cravings, answered questionnaires and completed neuropsychological tasks at various time points throughout the study. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels and the daily numbers of consumed cigarettes were recorded. RESULTS: Both intervention groups experienced a significant decrease in the daily number of smoked cigarettes, CO levels, and craving after the stimulation, however, there were no improvements in executive functions. These results did not differ significantly between both intervention groups. Additionally, in the active group, a higher level of perceived stress and a lower level of self-control were linked to a lower cigarette consumption, respectively a higher reduction of the level of CO. CONCLUSION: This study does not support the hypotheses that tDCS reduces cigarette consumption, attenuates substance craving, or improves executive functions beyond the placebo effect. Our subgroup analysis suggests that high levels of perceived stress and low self-control may be predictors for a successful reduction in cigarette consumption. Furthermore, the placebo effect might be rather high for light smokers, whereas heavy smokers seem to benefit more from the specific effects of tDCS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03691805.


Assuntos
Autocontrole , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Fissura , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Fumantes , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
10.
Addict Biol ; : e13069, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132011

RESUMO

Over the last decades, the assessment of alcohol cue-reactivity gained popularity in addiction research, and efforts were undertaken to establish neural biomarkers. This attempt however depends on the reliability of cue-induced brain activation. Thus, we assessed test-retest reliability of alcohol cue-reactivity and its implications for imaging studies in addiction. We investigated test-retest reliability of alcohol cue-induced brain activation in 144 alcohol-dependent patients over 2 weeks. We computed established reliability estimates, such as intraclass correlation (ICC), Dice and Jaccard coefficients, for the three contrast conditions of interest: 'alcohol', 'neutral' and the 'alcohol versus neutral' difference contrast. We also investigated how test-retest reliability of the different contrasts affected the capacity to establishing associations with clinical data and determining effect size estimates. Whereas brain activation, indexed by the constituting contrast conditions 'alcohol' and 'neutral' separately, displayed overall moderate (ICC > 0.4) to good (ICC > 0.75) test-retest reliability in areas of the mesocorticolimbic system, the difference contrast 'alcohol versus neutral' showed poor overall reliability (ICC < 0.40), which was related to the intercorrelation between the constituting conditions. Data simulations and analyses of craving data confirmed that the low reliability of the difference contrast substantially limited the capacity to establish associations with clinical data and precisely estimate effect sizes. Future research on alcohol cue-reactivity should be cautioned by the low reliability of the common 'alcohol versus neutral' difference contrast. We propose that this limitation can be overcome by using the constituent task conditions as an individual difference measure, when intending to longitudinally monitor brain responses.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12923, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155221

RESUMO

The chicken (Gallus gallus) is one of the most common and widespread domestic species, with an estimated total population of 25 billion birds worldwide. The vast majority of chickens in agriculture originate from hybrid breeding programs and is concentrated on few commercially used high performance lines, whereas numerous local and indigenous breeds are at risk to become extinct. To preserve the genomic resources of rare and endangered chicken breeds innovative methods are necessary. Here, we established a solid workflow for the derivation and biobanking of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) from blue layer hybrids. To achieve this, embryos of a cross of heterozygous blue egg layers were sampled to obtain blood derived and gonadal male as well as female PGCs of different genotypes (homozygous, heterozygous and nullizygous blue-allele bearing). The total efficiency of established PGC lines was 45% (47/104) within an average of 49 days until they reached sufficient numbers of cells for cryopreservation. The stem-cell character of the cultivated PGCs was confirmed by SSEA-1 immunostaining, and RT-PCR amplification of the pluripotency- and PGC-specific genes cPOUV, cNANOG, cDAZL and CVH. The Sleeping Beauty transposon system allowed to generate a stable integration of a Venus fluorophore reporter into the chicken genome. Finally, we demonstrated that, after re-transfer into chicken embryos, Venus-positive PGCs migrated and colonized the forming gonads. Semen samples of 13 raised cell chimeric roosters were analyzed by flow cytometry for the efficiency of germline colonization by the transferred PGCs carrying the Venus reporter and their proper differentiation into vital spermatids. Thus, we provide a proof-of-concept study for the potential use of PGCs for the cryobanking of rare breeds or rare alleles.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Quimera/genética , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Gônadas/citologia , Hibridização Genética , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino
12.
Appetite ; 163: 105237, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794259

RESUMO

Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide and are amongst the leading causes of death. Participants with obesity also suffer from poorer mental health with a concomitant reduced quality of life. Bariatric surgery outperforms other existing weight optimization approaches. However, hitherto, it was not possible to identify factors predicting weight loss following surgery. Therefore, we aimed at investigating neural and behavioral predictors of weight loss, as well as the neurological underpinnings of food cue-induced craving before and after bariatric surgery. The total sample consisted of 26 participants with obesity (17 females and 9 males, mean age 41 ± 12 years, mean BMI 46 ± 6 kg/m2, 21 received Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 5 sleeve gastrectomy). Participants with obesity were prospectively assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging two weeks before, as well as eight and 24 weeks after surgery. Imaging data were available for 11 individuals; 10 received Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and one sleeve gastrectomy. Subjective cue-induced food craving correlated positively with brain activation in the amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus, and hippocampus, and negatively with brain activation in frontal brain regions. In the total sample (N = 26), perceived feeling of hunger and YFAS sum score explained 50.6% of the variance (R2 = 0.506, F(1,23) = 10.759, p < 0.001) and in the imaging sample, cue-induced food craving at baseline before surgery explained 49.6% of the variance (R2 = 0.496, F(1,23) = 7.862, p = 0.023) of % total weight loss (%TWL). In other words, with respect to %TWL, bariatric surgery was most efficient in candidates characterized by high cue-induced food craving, high-perceived feeling of hunger and a low YFAS sum score.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Laparoscopia , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
13.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 271(5): 915-927, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884495

RESUMO

Pharmacological treatment in alcohol use disorder suffers from modest effect sizes. Efforts have been undertaken to identify patient characteristics that help to select individuals that benefit from pharmacological treatment. Previous studies indicated that neural alcohol cue-reactivity (CR) might provide a marker that identifies patients, which benefit from naltrexone treatment.We investigated the reproducibility of the association between ventral striatum (VS) activation and naltrexone (NTX) treatment response by analyzing data from a recent longitudinal clinical trial in N = 44 abstinent treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent patients. A follow-up was conducted over 3 months. We computed the percentage of significant voxels in VS and tested main effects and interactions with NTX treatment on relapse risk using Cox Regression models.We found a significant interaction effect between pre-treatment cue reactivity in the VS and NTX treatment on time to first heavy relapse (Hazard Ratio = 7.406, 95% CI 1.17-46.56, p = 0.033), such that the patient group with high VS activation (defined by a mean split) showed a significant medication effect (Hazard Ratio = 0.140, 95% CI 0.02-0.75, p = 0.022) with a number needed to treat of 3.4 [95% CI 2.413.5], while there was no significant effect in the group with low VS activation (Hazard Ratio = 0.726, p = 0.454).Thus, using an independent sample we replicated the previously described positive association between VS activation and NTX efficacy. Although our results should be considered cautiously in light of the small sample size, our results support the potential of neural alcohol CR as a tool for precision medicine approaches in alcohol dependence.

14.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(8): 2179-2189, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846866

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder is a common and devastating mental illness for which satisfactory treatments are still lacking. Nalmefene, as an opioid receptor modulator, could pharmacologically support the reduction of drinking by reducing the (anticipated) rewarding effects of alcohol and expanding the range of treatment options. It has been hypothesized that nalmefene acts via an indirect modulation of the mesolimbic reward system. So far, only a few imaging findings on the neuronal response to nalmefene are available. OBJECTIVES: We tested the effect of a single dose of 18 mg nalmefene on neuronal cue-reactivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum and subjective craving. METHODS: Eighteen non-treatment-seeking participants with alcohol use disorder (67% male, M = 50.3 ± 13.9 years) with a current high-risk drinking level (M = 76.9 ± 52 g of pure alcohol per day) were investigated using a cue-reactivity task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study/design. In addition, self-reported craving was assessed before and after exposure to alcohol cues. RESULTS: An a priori defined region of interest (ROI) analysis of fMRI data from 15 participants revealed that nalmefene reduced alcohol cue-reactivity in the ventral, but not the dorsal striatum. Additionally, the subjective craving was significantly reduced after the cue-reactivity task under nalmefene compared to placebo. CONCLUSION: In the present study, reduced craving and cue-reactivity to alcohol stimuli in the ventral striatum by nalmefene indicates a potential anti-craving effect of this drug via attenuation of neural alcohol cue-reactivity.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Naltrexona/análogos & derivados , Estriado Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naltrexona/farmacologia , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estriado Ventral/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657626

RESUMO

Increasing evidence shows that unintentional mind wandering is linked to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and that its frequency contributes to symptom severity and functional impairment in ADHD. However, empirical data on mind wandering in adult ADHD are still scarce, and a validated scale to assess mind wandering in German adult ADHD patients is lacking. The primary aim of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the German version of the recently published Mind Excessively Wandering Scale (MEWS-G) in terms of factorial structure and factor stability, internal consistency and construct validity. Analyses were performed in 128 adults with ADHD, clinical and healthy controls. As described for the original English 15-item version of the scale, we found lowest item-total-correlations for items 6, 10 and 14 with item-total correlation of all: 0.54/ADHD: 0.32 (item 6), all: 0.55/ADHD: 0.39 (item 10) and all: 0.11/ADHD: -0.04 (item 14). Item-total correlations for the remaining items were 0.65-0.86 and Cronbach Alpha was 0.96 indicating good internal consistency of the 12-item version of scale, on which we based all further analyses. Principal component analysis indicated a one- and two- factorial scale structure respectively explaining 71.7 % and 78.7 % of variance. Both factors showed good stability with lower stability of the factor-2 solution if sample size was reduced. The two-factorial solution also had many cross-loadings and a strong correlation of both factors in confirmatory factorial analysis (rf1f2 = 0.87). It probably describes related and interdependent, but not distinct facets of mind wandering, which strongly argues for the one factorial structure of the scale. Mean MEWS-G score in ADHD was 23.77 ± 7.85 compared to 7.64 ± 7.27 in controls (p < .0001). According to ROC, the optimal cut-off point to discriminate ADHD and controls is at MEWS-G score = 13. On the symptom level, MEWS-G score was correlated with ADHD, depressive and total psychiatric symptom scores, on the personality level with neuroticsm and negatively with conscientiousness and on the functional level with social interaction difficulties and impaired self-efficacy. In summary, our study shows that MEWS-G is a reliable, valid instrument to assess spontaneous mind wandering in adult ADHD and to discriminate between ADHD and controls.

16.
Front Physiol ; 12: 632502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776793

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Immunoregulatory checkpoint receptors (CR) contribute to the profound immunoparesis observed in alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) and in vitro neutralization of inhibitory-CRs TIM3/PD1 on anti-bacterial T-cells can rescue innate and adaptive anti-bacterial immunity. Recently described soluble-CR forms can modulate immunity in inflammatory conditions, but the contributions of soluble-TIM3 and soluble-PD1 and other soluble-CRs to immune derangements in ALD remain unclear. Methods: In Alcoholic Hepatitis (AH; n = 19), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC; n = 53) and healthy control (HC; n = 27) subjects, we measured by Luminex technology (i) plasma levels of 16 soluble-CRs, 12 pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines and markers of gut bacterial translocation; (ii) pre-hepatic, post-hepatic and non-hepatic soluble-CR plasma levels in ARC patients undergoing TIPS; (iii) soluble-CRs production from ethanol-treated immunocompetent precision cut human liver slices (PCLS); (iv) whole-blood soluble-CR expression upon bacterial challenge. By FACS, we assessed the relationship between soluble-TIM3 and membrane-TIM3 and rescue of immunity in bacterial-challenged PBMCs. Results: Soluble-TIM3 was the dominant plasma soluble-CR in ALD vs. HC (p = 0.00002) and multivariate analysis identified it as the main driver of differences between groups. Soluble-CRs were strongly correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, gut bacterial translocation markers and clinical indices of disease severity. Ethanol exposure or bacterial challenge did not induce soluble-TIM3 production from PCLS nor from whole-blood. Bacterial challenge prompted membrane-TIM3 hyperexpression on PBMCs from ALD patient's vs. HC (p < 0.002) and was inversely correlated with plasma soluble-TIM3 levels in matched patients. TIM3 ligands soluble-Galectin-9 and soluble-CEACAM1 were elevated in ALD plasma (AH > ARC; p < 0.002). In vitro neutralization of Galectin-9 and soluble-CEACAM1 improved the defective anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory cytokine production from E. coli-challenged PBMCs in ALD patients. Conclusions: Alcohol-related liver disease patients exhibit supra-physiological plasma levels of soluble-TIM3, particularly those with greater disease severity. This is also associated with increased levels of soluble TIM3-ligands and membrane-TIM3 expression on immune cells. Soluble-TIM3 can block the TIM3-ligand synapse and improve anti-bacterial immunity; however, the increased levels of soluble TIM3-binding ligands in patients with ALD negate any potential immunostimulatory effects. We believe that anti-TIM3 neutralizing antibodies currently in Phase I clinical trials or soluble-TIM3 should be investigated further for their ability to enhance anti-bacterial immunity. These agents could potentially represent an innovative immune-based supportive approach to rescue anti-bacterial defenses in ALD patients.

17.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(5): 948-960, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been widely demonstrated. In this study, we used neuroimaging to investigate the connectivity traits that may contribute to the comorbidity of these disorders. METHODS: The study included an AUD group (N = 18), an ADHD group (N = 17), a group with AUD + ADHD comorbidity (N = 12) and a control group (N = 18). We used resting-state functional connectivity in a seed-based approach in the default mode networks, the dorsal attention network, and the salience network. RESULTS: Within the default mode networks, all affected groups shared greater connectivity toward the temporal gyrus when compared to the control group. Regarding the dorsal attention network, the Brodmann area 6 presented greater connectivity for each affected group in comparison with the control group, displaying the strongest aberrations in the AUD + ADHD group. In the salience network, the prefrontal cortex showed decreased connectivity in each affected group compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small and unequal sample sizes, our findings show evidence of common neurobiological alterations in AUD and ADHD, supporting the hypothesis that ADHD could be a risk factor for the development of AUD. The results highlight the importance of an early ADHD diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of a subsequent AUD.

18.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(7): 2074-2081, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657661

RESUMO

AIM: Due to scarce available national data, this study assessed current attitudes of neonatal caregivers regarding decisions on life-sustaining interventions, and their views on parents' aptitude to express their infant's best interest in shared decision-making. METHODS: Self-administered web-based quantitative empirical survey. All 552 experienced neonatal physicians and nurses from all Swiss NICUs were eligible. RESULTS: There was a high degree of agreement between physicians and nurses (response rates 79% and 70%, respectively) that the ability for social interactions was a minimal criterion for an acceptable quality of life. A majority stated that the parents' interests are as important as the child's best interest in shared decision-making. Only a minority considered the parents as the best judges of what is their child's best interest. Significant differences in attitudes and values emerged between neonatal physicians and nurses. The language area was very strongly associated with the attitudes of neonatal caregivers. CONCLUSION: Despite clear legal requirements and societal expectations for shared decision-making, survey respondents demonstrated a gap between their expressed commitment to shared decision-making and their view on parental aptitude to formulate their infant's best interest. National guidelines need to address these barriers to shared decision-making to promote a more uniform nationwide practice.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pais , Qualidade de Vida , Suíça
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630132

RESUMO

Recent studies on the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence suggest a link between peripheral calcium concentrations and alcohol craving. Here, we investigated the association between plasma calcium concentration, cue-induced brain activation, and alcohol craving. Plasma calcium concentrations were measured at the onset of inpatient detoxification in a sample of N = 115 alcohol-dependent patients. Alcohol cue-reactivity was assessed during early abstinence (mean 11.1 days) using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) alcohol cue-reactivity task. Multiple regression analyses and bivariate correlations between plasma calcium concentrations, clinical craving measures and neural alcohol cue-reactivity (CR) were tested. Results show a significant negative correlation between plasma calcium concentrations and compulsive alcohol craving. Higher calcium levels predicted higher alcohol cue-induced brain response in a cluster of frontal brain areas, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior prefrontal cortex (alPFC), and the inferior (IFG) and middle frontal gyri (MFG). In addition, functional brain activation in those areas correlated negatively with craving for alcohol during fMRI. Higher peripheral calcium concentrations during withdrawal predicted increased alcohol cue-induced brain activation in frontal brain areas, which are associated with craving inhibition and cognitive control functions. This might indicate that higher plasma calcium concentrations at onset of detoxification could modulate craving inhibition during early abstinence.Trial registration number: DRKS00003388; date of registration: 14.12.2011.

20.
Epigenomics ; 13(4): 271-283, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432840

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to identify novel miRNAs (miRs) as regulators of UGT1A gene expression and to evaluate them as potential risk factors for the development of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. Materials & methods: miRNA target sites in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) 3'-UTR were predicted and confirmed by luciferase assays, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot using HEK293, HepG2 and Huh7 cells. UGT1A and miRNA expression were analyzed in cirrhotic patients and a mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis. Results: miR-214-5p and miR-486-3p overexpression reduced UGT1A mRNA, protein levels and enzyme activity in HepG2 and Huh7 cells. miR-486-3p was upregulated in cirrhotic patients and fibrotic mice livers, whereas UGT1A mRNA levels were reduced. Conclusion: In conclusion, we identified two novel miRNAs capable to repress UGT1A expression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR-486-3p may represent a potential risk factor for the development or progression of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis by means of a reduced UGT1A-mediated detoxification activity.

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