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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3478-3491, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505883

RESUMO

Trauma-induced organ failure is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its cleaving enzyme, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs, member 13) in the occurrence of endothelial permeability and organ failure in trauma. In an observational study in a level-1 trauma center, 169 adult trauma patients with clinical signs of shock and/or severe injuries were included. Trauma was associated with low ADAMTS13 and high VWF antigen levels, thus generating an imbalance of ADAMTS13 to VWF. Patients who developed organ failure (23%) had greater ADAMTS13-to-VWF imbalances, persistently lower platelet counts, and elevated levels of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers compared with those without organ failure, suggesting microthrombi formation. To investigate the effect of replenishing low ADAMTS13 levels on endothelial permeability and organ failure using either recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rhADAMTS13) or plasma transfusion, a rat model of trauma-induced shock and transfusion was used. Rats in traumatic hemorrhagic shock were randomized to receive crystalloids, crystalloids supplemented with rhADAMTS13, or plasma transfusion. A 70-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran was injected to determine endothelial leakage. Additionally, organs were histologically assessed. Both plasma transfusion and rhADAMTS13 were associated with a reduction in pulmonary endothelial permeability and organ injury when compared with resuscitation with crystalloids, but only rhADAMTS13 resulted in significant improvement of a trauma-induced decline in ADAMTS13 levels. We conclude that rhADAMTS13 and plasma transfusion can reduce organ failure following trauma. These findings implicate the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in the pathogenesis of organ failure.

2.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S243-S251, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In traumatic bleeding, transfusion practice has shifted toward higher doses of platelets and plasma transfusion. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether a higher platelet-to-red blood cell (RBC) transfusion ratio improves mortality without worsening organ failure when compared with a lower ratio of platelet-to-RBC. METHODS: Pubmed, Medline, and Embase were screened for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in bleeding trauma patients (age ≥16 years) receiving platelet transfusion between 1946 until October 2020. High platelet:RBC ratio was defined as being the highest ratio within an included study. Primary outcome was 24 hour mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, thromboembolic events, organ failure, and correction of coagulopathy. RESULTS: In total five RCTs (n = 1757 patients) were included. A high platelet:RBC compared with a low platelet:RBC ratio significantly improved 24 hour mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.69 [0.53-0.89]) and 30- day mortality (OR 0.78 [0.63-0.98]). There was no difference between platelet:RBC ratio groups in thromboembolic events and organ failure. Correction of coagulopathy was reported in five studies, in which platelet dose had no impact on trauma-induced coagulopathy. CONCLUSIONS: In traumatic bleeding, a high platelet:RBC improves mortality as compared to low platelet:RBC ratio. The high platelet:RBC ratio does not influence thromboembolic or organ failure event rates.


Assuntos
Contagem de Eritrócitos , Hemorragia/sangue , Contagem de Plaquetas , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Plaquetas/citologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(5): 958-966, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced shock is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We examined whether the tyrosine kinase inhibitor bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced blood component resuscitation strategy reduces trauma-induced endothelial permeability, thereby improving shock reversal and limiting transfusion requirements and organ failure in a rat polytrauma transfusion model. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=13 per group) were traumatised and exsanguinated until a MAP of 40 mm Hg was reached, then randomised to two groups: red blood cells, plasma and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio with either bosutinib or vehicle. Controls were randomised to sham (median laparotomy, no trauma) with bosutinib or vehicle. Organs were harvested for histology and wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. RESULTS: Traumatic injury resulted in shock, with higher lactate levels compared with controls. In trauma-induced shock, the resuscitation volume needed to obtain a MAP of 60 mm Hg was lower in bosutinib-treated animals (2.8 [2.7-3.2] ml kg-1) compared with vehicle (6.1 [5.1-7.2] ml kg-1, P<0.001). Lactate levels in the bosutinib group were 2.9 [1.7-4.8] mM compared with 6.2 [3.1-14.1] mM in the vehicle group (P=0.06). Bosutinib compared with vehicle reduced lung vascular leakage (W/D ratio of 5.1 [4.6-5.3] vs 5.7 [5.4-6.0] (P=0.046) and lung injury scores (P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced transfusion strategy reduced resuscitation volume, improved shock reversal, and reduced vascular leak and organ injury in a rat polytrauma model.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Traumatismo Múltiplo/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque/etiologia
5.
Anesth Analg ; 131(6): 1708-1720, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186159

RESUMO

During hyperinflammatory conditions that can occur in acute critical illness, such as shock or hypoperfusion, inflammatory mediators activate the endothelium, fueling a proinflammatory host-response as well as procoagulant processes. These changes result in shedding of the glycocalyx, endothelial hyperpermeability, edema formation, and lead to disturbed microcirculatory perfusion and organ failure. Different fluid strategies that are used in shock may have differential effects on endothelial integrity. Collectively, low protein content fluids seem to have negative effects on the endothelial glycocalyx, aggravating endothelial hyperpermeability, whereas fluids containing albumin or plasma proteins may be superior to normal saline in protecting the glycocalyx and endothelial barrier function. Targeting the endothelium may be a therapeutic strategy to limit organ failure, which hitherto has not received much attention. Treatment targets aimed at restoring the endothelium should focus on maintaining glycocalyx function and/or targeting coagulation pathways or specific endothelial receptors. Potential treatments could be supplementing glycocalyx constituents or inhibiting glycocalyx breakdown. In this review, we summarize mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction during acute critical illness, such as the systemic inflammatory response, shedding of the glycocalyx, endothelial activation, and activation of coagulation. In addition, this review focuses on the effects of different fluid strategies on endothelial permeability. Also, potential mechanisms for treatment options to reduce endothelial hyperpermeability with ensuing organ failure are evaluated. Future research is needed to elucidate these pathways and to translate these data to the first human safety and feasibility trials.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/metabolismo , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Doença Aguda , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Hidratação/métodos , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Glicocálix/patologia , Humanos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/patologia , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica
6.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2079-2089, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved platelet products can be stored for years and are mainly used in military settings. Following thawing, cryopreserved platelets are activated, resulting in faster clot formation but reduced aggregation in vitro, rendering their efficacy in bleeding unknown. Also, concerns remain on the safety of these products. The aim was to investigate the efficacy and safety of cryopreserved platelets in a rat model of traumatic hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: After 1 hour of shock, rats (n = 13/group) were randomized to receive a balanced transfusion pack (1:1:1 red blood cell:plasma:platelet) made from syngeneic rat blood, containing either liquid stored platelets or cryopreserved platelets. Primary outcome was the transfusion volume required to obtain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 60 mmHg. Secondary outcomes were coagulation as assessed by thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and organ failure as assessed by biochemistry and histopathology. RESULTS: The transfusion volume to obtain a MAP of 60 mmHg was lower in animals receiving cryopreserved platelets (5.4 [4.1-7.1] mL/kg) compared to those receiving liquid stored platelets (7.5 [6.4-8.5] mL/kg, p < 0.05). ROTEM® clotting times were shorter (45 [41-48] vs. 49 [45-53]sec, p < 0.05), while maximum clot firmness was slightly lower (68 [67-68] vs. 69 [69-71]mm, p < 0.01). Organ failure was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Use of cryopreserved platelets required less transfusion volume to reach a targeted MAP compared to liquid stored platelets, while organ injury was similar. These results provide a rationale for clinical trials with cryopreserved platelets in (traumatic) bleeding.

7.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 7(Suppl 1): 42, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet dysfunction importantly contributes to trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). Our aim was to examine the impact of transfusing platelets (PLTs) in a 2:1 PLT-to-red blood cell (RBC) ratio versus the standard 1:1 ratio on transfusion requirements, correction of TIC, and organ damage in a rat multiple trauma transfusion model. METHODS: Mechanically ventilated male Sprague Dawley rats were traumatized by crush injury to the small intestine and liver and a fracture of the femur, followed by exsanguination until a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg. Animals were randomly assigned to receive resuscitation in a high PLT dose (PLT to plasma to RBC in a ratio of 2:1:1) or a standard PLT dose (ratio of 1:1:1) until a MAP of 60 mmHg was reached (n = 8 per group). Blood samples were taken for biochemical and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) assessment. Organs were harvested for histopathology.Outcome measures were transfusion requirements needed to reach a pretargeted MAP, as well as ROTEM correction and organ failure. RESULTS: Trauma resulted in coagulopathy as assessed by deranged ROTEM results. Mortality rate was 19%, with all deaths occurring in the standard dose group. The severity of hypovolemic shock as assessed by lactate and base excess was not different in both groups. The volume of transfusion needed to reach the MAP target was lower in the high PLT dose group compared to the standard dose, albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.054). Transfusion with a high PLT dose resulted in significant stronger clot firmness compared to the standard dose at all time points following trauma, while platelet counts were similar. Organ failure as assessed by biochemical analysis and histopathology was not different between groups, nor were there any thromboembolic events recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Resuscitation with a high (2:1) PLT-to-RBC ratio was more effective compared to standard (1:1) PLT-to-RBC ratio in treating TIC, with a trend towards reduced transfusion volumes. Also, high PLT dose did not aggravate organ damage. Transfusion strategies using higher PLT dose regiments might be a feasible treatment option in hemorrhaging trauma patients for the correction of TIC.

8.
Shock ; 43(4): 317-21, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25565646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe trauma affects the immune system, which in its turn is associated with poor outcome. The mediators driving the immune responses in trauma are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous microparticles (MPs) in mediating the immune response following severe trauma. METHODS: A prospective, observational substudy of the ACIT II (Activation of Coagulation and Inflammation in Trauma II) study was performed at our academic level I trauma center. Adult multiple-trauma patients with an injury severity score of 15 or higher were included between May 2012 and June 2013. Ex vivo whole-blood stimulation with lipopolysaccharide was performed on aseptically collected patient plasma containing MPs and in plasma depleted of MPs. Flow cytometry and transmission electronic microscopy were performed on plasma samples to investigate the numbers and cellular origin of MPs. Healthy individuals served as a control group. RESULTS: Ten trauma patients and 10 control subjects were included. Trauma patients were significantly injured with a median injury severity score of 19 (range, 17-45). Patients were neither in shock nor bleeding. On admission to the hospital, the host response to bacterial stimulation was blunted in trauma patients compared with control subjects, as reflected by decreased production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.001). In trauma patients, MP-positive plasma was associated with a significantly higher synthesis of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α compared with plasma depleted from MPs (P = 0.047 and 0.002, respectively). Compared with control subjects, the number of circulating MPs was significantly decreased in trauma patients (P = 0.009). Most MPs originated from platelets. Multiple cellular protrusions, which result in MP formation, were observed in plasma from trauma patients, but not in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: On admission, trauma patients have a reduced immune response toward endotoxin challenge, which is, at least in part, mediated by MPs, which circulate in low numbers and in early stages. Most MPs originate from platelets, which indicates that these cells may be the most important source of MPs involved in initiating an inflammatory host response after injury.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/patologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo Múltiplo/sangue , Traumatismo Múltiplo/imunologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Endotoxinas/química , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leucócitos/citologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Monócitos/citologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Choque/patologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
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