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J Avian Med Surg ; 35(3): 313-324, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677030


Birds are among the most visually proficient group of animals on the planet; however, their inability to visualize and discriminate translucent glass structures results in an extreme number of deaths worldwide from high-speed collisions. Despite reports of avian glass collisions in North America, only a few studies have been developed to understand this problem in South America, and none evaluated radiographic and postmortem findings. One hundred cadavers were examined radiographically and postmortem, and data from 186 collision reports were analyzed for seasonality (website and manual reports and cadavers). A total of 34 different species of birds within 22 families were evaluated for this study, with the rufous-bellied thrush (Turdus rufiventris; n = 12), eared dove (Zenaida auriculata; n = 12), and ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti; n = 10) being the most common species. Only 6 (27.7%) migratory species were reported: Sick's swift (Chaetura meridionalis), small-billed elaenia (Elaenia parvirostris), Black Jacobin (Florisuga fusca), Great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus), Double-collared seedeater (Sporophila caerulescens), and Creamy-bellied thrush (Turdus amaurochalinus). Males (51) were more frequently reported than females (5), and 50.1% of the males had active gonads. Sex was unable to be determined in 44 birds. The most common radiographic lesion, noted in 16 of 82 (19.5%) animals, was loss of coelomic definition, suggestive of hemorrhage. Prevalent postmortem findings included skull hemorrhages (58/75, 77.3%) and encephalic contusions (47/73, 64.4%), followed by coelomic hemorrhages (33/81, 40.7%). Most of the window collisions (61/186, 32.8%) occurred during spring, the most common breeding season of avian species in Brazil. Cranioencephalic trauma was identified as the primary cause of mortality associated with birds flying into glass windows. Migration does not appear to be the main predisposing factor for window collisions by birds in Brazil. Increased activity and aggression related to breeding season, especially in males, may be a more important predisposing factor for window collision accidents.

Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Brasil , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Vidro , Masculino
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 654-665, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537779


Collisions with buildings cause up to 1 billion bird fatalities annually in the United States and Canada. However, efforts to reduce collisions would benefit from studies conducted at large spatial scales across multiple study sites with standardized methods and consideration of species- and life-history-related variation and correlates of collisions. We addressed these research needs through coordinated collection of data on bird collisions with buildings at sites in the United States (35), Canada (3), and Mexico (2). We collected all carcasses and identified species. After removing records for unidentified carcasses, species lacking distribution-wide population estimates, and species with distributions overlapping fewer than 10 sites, we retained 269 carcasses of 64 species for analysis. We estimated collision vulnerability for 40 bird species with ≥2 fatalities based on their North American population abundance, distribution overlap in study sites, and sampling effort. Of 10 species we identified as most vulnerable to collisions, some have been identified previously (e.g., Black-throated Blue Warbler [Setophaga caerulescens]), whereas others emerged for the first time (e.g., White-breasted Nuthatch [Sitta carolinensis]), possibly because we used a more standardized sampling approach than past studies. Building size and glass area were positively associated with number of collisions for 5 of 8 species with enough observations to analyze independently. Vegetation around buildings influenced collisions for only 1 of those 8 species (Swainson's Thrush [Catharus ustulatus]). Life history predicted collisions; numbers of collisions were greatest for migratory, insectivorous, and woodland-inhabiting species. Our results provide new insight into the species most vulnerable to building collisions, making them potentially in greatest need of conservation attention to reduce collisions and into species- and life-history-related variation and correlates of building collisions, information that can help refine collision management.

Correlaciones de las Colisiones de Aves contra Edificios en Tres Países de América del Norte Resumen Las colisiones contra los edificios causan hasta mil millones de fatalidades de aves al año en los Estados Unidos y en Canadá. Sin embargo, los esfuerzos por reducir estas colisiones se beneficiarían con estudios realizados a grandes escalas espaciales en varios sitios de estudio con métodos estandarizados y considerando las variaciones relacionadas a la historia de vida y a la especie y las correlaciones de las colisiones. Abordamos estas necesidades de investigación por medio de una recolección coordinada de datos sobre las colisiones de aves contra edificios en los Estados Unidos (35), Canadá (3) y México (2). Recolectamos todos los cadáveres y los identificamos hasta especie. Después de retirar los registros de cadáveres no identificados, las especies sin estimaciones poblacionales a nivel distribución y las especies con distribuciones traslapadas en menos de diez sitios, nos quedamos con 269 cadáveres de 64 especies para el análisis. Estimamos la vulnerabilidad a colisiones para 40 especies con ≥2 fatalidades con base en la abundancia poblacional para América del Norte, el traslape de su distribución entre los sitios de estudio y el esfuerzo de muestreo. De las diez especies que identificamos como las más vulnerables a las colisiones, algunas han sido identificadas previamente (Setophaga caerulescens), y otras aparecieron por primera vez (Sitta carolinensis), posiblemente debido a que usamos una estrategia de muestreo más estandarizada que en los estudios previos. El tamaño del edificio y el área del vidrio estuvieron asociados positivamente con el número de colisiones para cinco de ocho especies con suficientes observaciones para ser analizadas independientemente. La vegetación alrededor de los edificios influyó sobre las colisiones solamente para una de esas ocho especies Catharus ustulatus). Las historias de vida pronosticaron las colisiones; el número de colisiones fue mayor para las especies migratorias, insectívoras y aquellas que habitan en las zonas boscosas. Nuestros resultados proporcionan una nueva perspectiva hacia las especies más vulnerables a las colisiones contra edificios, lo que las pone en una necesidad potencialmente mayor de atención conservacionista para reducir estas colisiones y de estudio de las variaciones relacionadas con la especie y la historia de vida y las correlaciones de las colisiones contra edificios, información que puede ayudar a refinar el manejo de colisiones.

Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Aves Canoras , Animais , Canadá , México , América do Norte , Estados Unidos
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 18 Suppl 1: S11-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440494


Sheet glass and plastic in the form of clear and reflective windows are universally lethal to birds. Reasonable interpretation of available scientific evidence describes windows as a principal human-associated avian mortality factor that is an indiscriminant killer of common species as well as species of conservation concern. A conservative toll estimates 1 billion or more annual fatalities in the United States alone. The injury and death from birds striking windows are foreseeable and preventable, but the most promising legal measures and commercial products are not being applied or made available to protect defenseless victims. Avian window casualties are important for birds and people, and they have nonhuman animal welfare, biodiversity, sustainability, legal, and ethical and moral value justifying responsible human action. Preventing this unintended and unwanted lethal hazard for free-flying birds should be an obligation. Short-term solutions include retrofitting existing panes with a variety of proven measures that among others include applying various materials to cover the outside surface of windows. Long-term solutions include current and proposed bird-safe sheet glass and plastic for remodeling and new construction that have patterns that transform windows into barriers that birds see and avoid.

Bem-Estar do Animal , Aves/lesões , Vidro , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes/mortalidade , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle