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1.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108269, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683054

RESUMO

Genetic studies have led to identification of an increasing number of monogenic primary immunodeficiency disorders. Monoallelic pathogenic gain-of-function (GOF) variants in NFKBIA, the gene encoding IκBα, result in an immunodeficiency disorder, typically accompanied by anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA). So far, 14 patients with immunodeficiency due to NFKBIA GOF mutations have been reported. In this study we report three patients from the same family with immunodeficiency, presenting with recurrent respiratory tract infections, bronchiectasis and viral skin conditions due to a novel pathogenic NFKBIA variant (c.106 T > G, p.Ser36Ala), which results in reduced IκBα degradation. Immunological investigations revealed inadequate antibody responses against vaccine antigens, despite hypergammaglobulinemia. Interestingly, none of the studied patients displayed features of EDA. Therefore, missense NFKBIA variants substituting serine 36 of IκBα, differ from the rest of pathogenic GOF NFKBIA variants in that they cause combined immunodeficiency, even in the absence of EDA.

2.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108316, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770611

RESUMO

Germline STAT3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have been linked to poly-autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Here we studied the impact of 17 different STAT3 GOF mutations on the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway and correlated the molecular results with clinical manifestations. The mutations clustered in three groups. Group 1 mutants showed altered STAT3 phosphorylation kinetics and strong basal transcriptional activity. They were associated with the highest penetrance of lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity. Group 2 mutants showed a strongly inducible transcriptional reporter activity and were clinically less penetrant. Group 3 mutants were mostly located in the DNA binding domain and showed the strongest DNA binding affinity despite a poor transcriptional reporter response. Thus, the GOF effect of STAT3 mutations is determined by a heterogeneous response pattern at the molecular level. The correlation of response pattern and clinical penetrance indicates a significant contribution of mutation-determined effects on disease manifestations.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222637, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare diseases (RD) result in a wide variety of clinical presentations, and this creates a significant diagnostic challenge for health care professionals. We hypothesized that there exist a set of consistent and shared phenomena among all individuals affected by (different) RD during the time before diagnosis is established. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify commonalities between different RD and developed a machine learning diagnostic support tool for RD. METHODS: 20 interviews with affected individuals with different RD, focusing on the time period before their diagnosis, were performed and qualitatively analyzed. Out of these pre-diagnostic experiences, we distilled key phenomena and created a questionnaire which was then distributed among individuals with the established diagnosis of i.) RD, ii.) other common non-rare diseases (NRO) iii.) common chronic diseases (CD), iv.), or psychosomatic/somatoform disorders (PSY). Finally, four combined single machine learning methods and a fusion algorithm were used to distinguish the different answer patterns of the questionnaires. RESULTS: The questionnaire contained 53 questions. A total sum of 1763 questionnaires (758 RD, 149 CD, 48 PSY, 200 NRO, 34 healthy individuals and 574 not evaluable questionnaires) were collected. Based on 3 independent data sets the 10-fold stratified cross-validation method for the answer-pattern recognition resulted in sensitivity values of 88.9% to detect the answer pattern of a RD, 86.6% for NRO, 87.7% for CD and 84.2% for PSY. CONCLUSION: Despite the great diversity in presentation and pathogenesis of each RD, patients with RD share surprisingly similar pre-diagnosis experiences. Our questionnaire and data-mining based approach successfully detected unique patterns in groups of individuals affected by a broad range of different rare diseases. Therefore, these results indicate distinct patterns that may be used for diagnostic support in RD.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379802

RESUMO

Introduction: The German PID-NET registry was founded in 2009, serving as the first national registry of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Germany. It is part of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry. The primary purpose of the registry is to gather data on the epidemiology, diagnostic delay, diagnosis, and treatment of PIDs. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data was collected from 2,453 patients from 36 German PID centres in an online registry. Data was analysed with the software Stata® and Excel. Results: The minimum prevalence of PID in Germany is 2.72 per 100,000 inhabitants. Among patients aged 1-25, there was a clear predominance of males. The median age of living patients ranged between 7 and 40 years, depending on the respective PID. Predominantly antibody disorders were the most prevalent group with 57% of all 2,453 PID patients (including 728 CVID patients). A gene defect was identified in 36% of patients. Familial cases were observed in 21% of patients. The age of onset for presenting symptoms ranged from birth to late adulthood (range 0-88 years). Presenting symptoms comprised infections (74%) and immune dysregulation (22%). Ninety-three patients were diagnosed without prior clinical symptoms. Regarding the general and clinical diagnostic delay, no PID had undergone a slight decrease within the last decade. However, both, SCID and hyper IgE- syndrome showed a substantial improvement in shortening the time between onset of symptoms and genetic diagnosis. Regarding treatment, 49% of all patients received immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution (70%-subcutaneous; 29%-intravenous; 1%-unknown). Three-hundred patients underwent at least one hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had gene therapy. Conclusion: The German PID-NET registry is a precious tool for physicians, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, and ultimately the patients, for whom the outcomes will eventually lead to a more timely diagnosis and better treatment.

6.
Klin Padiatr ; 231(5): 240-247, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCBE) is an increasingly recognized chronic, progressive respiratory disorder with significant morbidity also in children and adolescents. METHODS: We longitudinally assessed a cohort of 35 pediatric patients with NCBE and investigated underlying diagnosis, symptoms, clinical course, treatment, and quality of life. RESULTS: NCBE were diagnosed at a mean age of 9.5 (±5.3) years. In half of the children NCBE were found prior to identification of the causative diagnosis. Primary immunodeficiency (PID) was identified as the underlying diagnosis in 24/35 (68%) cases, of which two-thirds showed antibody deficiency. In the 11 non-PID cases ciliopathies were most common (n=7). Clinical aspects such as manifestation age, cough or dyspnea symptoms, and exacerbation frequency did not differ significantly between PID and non-PID patients. Likewise, quality of life (QoL) was equally reduced in both groups. Lung function test parameters were stable under appropriate therapy in all children. The majority in both groups was insufficiently vaccinated against influenza and pneumococci. CONCLUSION: Our data indicates that NCBE need to be especially appreciated as a presenting sign of PID in pediatric patients. Thus, occurrence of NCBE should warrant rigorous diagnostics to identify the underlying condition. In our cohort NCBE themselves rather than the causative diagnoses seem to dictate the clinical course of disease and reduce QoL in children. More intensive efforts have to be undertaken to vaccinate patients according to recommendations.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/psicologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Bronquiectasia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Cística , Humanos
7.
Growth Factors ; 37(1-2): 68-75, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185750

RESUMO

Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive destruction of the biliary system leading to liver fibrosis and deterioration of liver function. Serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to be increased in cirrhotic diseases including BA. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of HGF levels in sera and liver tissue for the further disease course. A total of 49 serum and liver samples from infants with BA were acquired during Kasai-portoenterostomy (KPE) and analyzed by multiplex immunoassay including HGF, as marker of liver regeneration, and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as a marker of inflammation. Both mediators showed no correlation with the outcome defined as favorable (survival with native liver (SNL)) or, in contrast, rapid deterioration of liver function requiring transplantation. Our data suggest that the degree of liver regeneration indicated by high levels of HGF within the liver is a dismissible factor in the post-KPE disease course.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941118

RESUMO

Non-canonical NF-κB-pathway signaling is integral in immunoregulation. Heterozygous mutations in NFKB2 have recently been established as a molecular cause of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and DAVID-syndrome, a rare condition combining deficiency of anterior pituitary hormone with CVID. Here, we investigate 15 previously unreported patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) from eleven unrelated families with heterozygous NFKB2-mutations including eight patients with the common p.Arg853* nonsense mutation and five patients harboring unique novel C-terminal truncating mutations. In addition, we describe the clinical phenotype of two patients with proximal truncating mutations. Cohort analysis extended to all 35 previously published NFKB2-cases revealed occurrence of early-onset PID in 46/50 patients (mean age of onset 5.9 years, median 4.0 years). ACTH-deficiency occurred in 44%. Three mutation carriers have deceased, four developed malignancies. Only two mutation carriers were clinically asymptomatic. In contrast to typical CVID, most patients suffered from early-onset and severe disease manifestations, including clinical signs of T cell dysfunction e.g., chronic-viral or opportunistic infections. In addition, 80% of patients suffered from (predominately T cell mediated) autoimmune (AI) phenomena (alopecia > various lymphocytic organ-infiltration > diarrhea > arthritis > AI-cytopenia). Unlike in other forms of CVID, auto-antibodies or lymphoproliferation were not common hallmarks of disease. Immunophenotyping showed largely normal or even increased quantities of naïve and memory CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells and normal T-cell proliferation. NK-cell number and function were also normal. In contrast, impaired B-cell differentiation and hypogammaglobinemia were consistent features of NFKB2-associated disease. In addition, an array of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as regulatory T cell, Th17-, cTFH-, NKT-, and MAIT-cell numbers were decreased. We conclude that heterozygous damaging mutations in NFKB2 represent a distinct PID entity exceeding the usual clinical spectrum of CVID. Impairment of the non-canonical NF-κB pathways affects function and differentiation of numerous lymphocyte-subpopulations and thus causes a heterogeneous, more severe form of PID phenotype with early-onset. Further characteristic features are multifaceted, primarily T cell-mediated autoimmunity, such as alopecia, lymphocytic organ infiltration, and in addition frequently ACTH-deficiency.

9.
Cytokine ; 111: 382-388, 2018 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease of unknown pathogenesis in infants characterized by an inflammatory, progressive destruction of the biliary system and deterioration of liver function. The standard treatment for BA is a Kasai-hepatoportoenterostomy (KPE). However, liver transplantation (LTX) becomes necessary in about 50-80% of cases. Therefore, some authors advocate for primary LTX in BA, but this would require early markers to predict which children would benefit from KPE or to show rapid progression to liver cirrhosis (RLC) instead. METHODS: Snap-frozen liver biopsies and sera samples of 57 infants with BA were collected during KPE. Clinical and follow-up data were assessed via the biliary atresia and related diseases registry (BARD-online.com). Protein-levels of 25 pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators of 49 infants were assessed via multiplex protein-immunoassay and analyzed by t-test as well as multidimensional principal component analysis. RESULTS: 22 different immunomodulatory mediators were detectable in livers of children with BA, while serum protein levels were very low to undetectable. Following KPE, 33 BA patients showed RLC that required early LTX, while 24 had favorable course of disease with long-term survival with native liver (SNL). There were no significant differences between RLC and SNL in terms of local (from liver samples) nor systemic (from sera) immunomodulatory mediators. Protein levels were much lower in sera than in livers without statistical correlation. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that local or systemic immunomodulatory mediators are unsuitable for predicting the disease course of BA. Thus, no deduction for optimal treatment strategy can be drawn. Collectively, we conclude that in BA, the degree of inflammation and protein microenvironment in the liver at the time-point of KPE are dismissible factors for the future course of disease.

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(11): e27344, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070073

RESUMO

In this report, we evaluate the hypothesis that hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in patients with defects of lymphocyte cytotoxicity is usually triggered by infections. We show that in the majority of patients, extensive virus PCR panels performed in addition to routine microbiological investigations remain negative and summarize 25 patients with onset of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in utero or within the first 10 days of life, in none of which an associated bacterial or viral infection was reported. These observations, even though preliminary, invite to consider a key role of lymphocyte cytotoxicity in controlling T-cell homeostasis also in the absence of apparent infectious stimuli.

11.
Kidney Int ; 94(4): 741-755, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935951

RESUMO

Severe ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) results in rapid complement activation, acute kidney injury and progressive renal fibrosis. Little is known about the roles of the C5aR1 and C5aR2 complement receptors in IRI. In this study C5aR1-/- and C5aR2-/- mice were compared to the wild type in a renal IRI model leading to renal fibrosis. C5a receptor expression, kidney morphology, inflammation, and fibrosis were measured in different mouse strains one, seven and 21 days after IRI. Renal perfusion was evaluated by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Protein abundance and phosphorylation were assessed with high content antibody microarrays and Western blotting. C5aR1 and C5aR2 were increased in damaged tubuli and even more in infiltrating leukocytes after IRI in kidneys of wild-type mice. C5aR1-/- and C5aR2-/- animals developed less IRI-induced inflammation and showed better renal perfusion than wild-type mice following IRI. C5aR2-/- mice, in particular, had enhanced tubular and capillary regeneration with less renal fibrosis. Anti-inflammatory IL-10 and the survival/growth kinase AKT levels were especially high in kidneys of C5aR2-/- mice following IRI. LPS caused bone marrow-derived macrophages from C5aR2-/- mice to release IL-10 and to express the stress response enzyme heme oxygenase-1. Thus, C5aR1 and C5aR2 have overlapping actions in which the kidneys of C5aR2-/- mice regenerate better than those in C5aR1-/- mice following IRI. This is mediated, at least in part, by differential production of IL-10, heme oxygenase-1 and AKT.

12.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 96(10): 1060-1071, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790605

RESUMO

Premature T-cell immunosenescence with CD57+ CD8+ T-cell accumulation has been linked to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in primary immunodeficiencies including activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS). To address whether CD57 marks the typical senescent T-cell population seen in adult individuals or identifies a distinct population in APDS, we compared CD57+ CD8+ T cells from mostly pediatric APDS patients to those of healthy adults with similarly prominent senescent T cells. CD57+ CD8+ T cells from APDS patients were less differentiated with more CD27+ CD28+ effector memory T cells showing increased PD1 and Eomesodermin expression. In addition, transition of naïve to CD57+ CD8+ T cells was not associated with the characteristic telomere shortening. Nevertheless, they showed the increased interferon-gamma secretion, enhanced degranulation and reduced in vitro proliferation typical of senescent CD57+ CD8+ T cells. Thus, hyperactive PI3 kinase signaling favors premature accumulation of a CD57+ CD8+ T-cell population, which shows most functional features of typical senescent T cells, but is different in terms of differentiation and relative telomere shortening. Initial observations indicate that this specific differentiation state may offer the opportunity to revert premature T-cell immunosenescence and its potential contribution to inflammation and immunodeficiency in APDS.

13.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(5): 870-877, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843966

RESUMO

CD59 is involved in lymphocyte signal transduction and regulates complement-mediated cell lysis by inhibiting the membrane attack complex. In the cases reported so far, congenital isolated CD59 deficiency was associated with recurrent episodes of hemolytic anemia, peripheral neuropathy, and strokes. Here, we report on a patient from a consanguineous Turkish family, who had a first episode of hemolytic anemia at one month of age and presented at 14 months with acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The child suffered repeated infection-triggered relapses leading to the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Although partly steroid-responsive, the polyneuropathy failed to be stabilized by a number of immunosuppressive agents. At the age of 6 years, he developed acute hemiparesis and showed progressive stenosis of proximal cerebral arteries, evolving into Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) with recurrent infarctions leading to death at 8 years of age. Post-mortem genetic analysis revealed a pathogenic p.(Asp49Valfs*31) mutation in CD59. Re-analysis of brain biopsy specimens showed absent CD59 expression and severe endothelial damage. Whereas strokes are a known feature of CD59 deficiency, MMS has not previously been described in this condition. Therefore, we conclude that in MMS combined with hemolysis or neuropathy CD59 deficiency should be considered. Establishing the diagnosis and targeted therapy with eculizumab might have prevented the lethal course in our patient.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(8): 770-780, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936583

RESUMO

We report our experience in using flow cytometry-based immunological screening prospectively as a decision tool for the use of genetic studies in the diagnostic approach to patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). We restricted genetic analysis largely to patients with abnormal immunological screening, but included whole exome sequencing (WES) for those with normal findings upon Sanger sequencing. Among 290 children with suspected HLH analyzed between 2010 and 2014 (including 17 affected, but asymptomatic siblings), 87/162 patients with "full" HLH and 79/111 patients with "incomplete/atypical" HLH had normal immunological screening results. In 10 patients, degranulation could not be tested. Among the 166 patients with normal screening, genetic analysis was not performed in 107 (all with uneventful follow-up), while 154 single gene tests by Sanger sequencing in the remaining 59 patients only identified a single atypical CHS patient. Flow cytometry correctly predicted all 29 patients with FHL-2, XLP1 or 2. Among 85 patients with defective NK degranulation (including 13 asymptomatic siblings), 70 were Sanger sequenced resulting in a genetic diagnosis in 55 (79%). Eight patients underwent WES, revealing mutations in two known and one unknown cytotoxicity genes and one metabolic disease. FHL3 was the most frequent genetic diagnosis. Immunological screening provided an excellent decision tool for the need and depth of genetic analysis of HLH patients and provided functionally relevant information for rapid patient classification, contributing to a significant reduction in the time from diagnosis to transplantation in recent years.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Doenças Assintomáticas , Degranulação Celular , Criança , Citometria de Fluxo , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/metabolismo , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Transplante de Órgãos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Irmãos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(12): 2109-2120, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28930861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where many genetic loci have been shown to be involved in complex disease etiology, early-onset IBD (eoIBD) and associated syndromes can sometimes present as monogenic conditions. As a result, the clinical phenotype and ideal disease management in these patients often differ from those in adult-onset IBD. However, due to high costs and the complexity of data analysis, high-throughput screening for genetic causes has not yet become a standard part of the diagnostic work-up of eoIBD patients. METHODS: We selected 28 genes of interest associated with monogenic IBD and performed targeted panel sequencing in 71 patients diagnosed with eoIBD or early-onset chronic diarrhea to detect causative variants. We compared these results to whole-exome sequencing (WES) data available for 25 of these patients. RESULTS: Target coverage was significantly higher in the targeted gene panel approach compared with WES, whereas the cost of the panel was considerably lower (approximately 25% of WES). Disease-causing variants affecting protein function were identified in 5 patients (7%), located in genes of the IL10 signaling pathway (3), WAS (1), and DKC1 (1). The functional effects of 8 candidate variants in 5 additional patients (7%) are under further investigation. WES did not identify additional causative mutations in 25 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted gene panel sequencing is a fast and effective screening method for monogenic causes of eoIBD that should be routinely established in national referral centers.


Assuntos
Diarreia/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0182732, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of preterm human newborns with yet unresolved etiology. An established neonatal murine model for NEC employs oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) combined with hypoxia/hypothermia. In adult mice, feeding dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) represents a well-established model for experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Here we investigated the effect of DSS administration on the neonatal murine intestine in comparison with the established NEC model. METHODS: 3-day-old C57BL/6J mice were either fed formula containing DSS or LPS. LPS treated animals were additionally stressed by hypoxia/hypothermia twice daily. After 72 h, mice were euthanized, their intestinal tissue harvested and analyzed by histology, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. For comparison, adult C57BL/6J mice were fed with DSS for 8 days and examined likewise. Untreated, age matched animals served as controls. RESULTS: Adult mice treated with DSS exhibited colonic inflammation with significantly increased Cxcl2 mRNA expression. In contrast, tissue inflammation in neonatal mice treated with DSS or LPS plus hypoxia/hypothermia was present in colon and small intestine as well. Comparative analysis of neonatal mice revealed a significantly increased lesion size and intestinal Cxcl2 mRNA expression after DSS exposure. Whereas LPS administration mainly induced local neutrophil recruitment, DSS treated animals displayed increased monocytes/macrophages infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the potential of DSS to induce NEC-like lesions accompanied by a significant humoral and cellular immune response in the small and large intestine of neonatal mice. The new model therefore represents a good alternative to LPS plus hypoxia/hypothermia administration requiring no additional physical stress.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infiltração de Neutrófilos
18.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181326, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αß T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αß T cells play in IRI to the gut. METHODS: Adult wild-type (WT) and αß T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI. RESULTS: Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αß T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αß T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable. CONCLUSION: An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αß T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αß T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αß T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.


Assuntos
Isquemia Mesentérica/imunologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Isquemia Mesentérica/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 69(9): 1125-1135, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: IL-17A contributes to acute kidney injury and fibrosis. Therefore, we asked whether IL-17A deficiency or treatment with a IL-17A blocking antibody impacts severe renal ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and the progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: IL-17A-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice underwent transient unilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 min to induce IRI and subsequent renal fibrosis. Furthermore, a neutralizing anti-IL-17A antibody (mAb) was injected into WT mice before induction of renal IRI intravenously. On days 1, 7 and 21, inflammation, fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokine expression were assessed in kidneys using histology, qPCR and flow cytometry. KEY FINDINGS: IL-17A was significantly increased after renal IRI in WT kidneys. Levels of pro-inflammatory (MCP-1) cytokine and pro-fibrotic (collagen 1α1, fibronectin) transcripts were similar in the experimental groups studied. IL-17A deficiency had no effect on renal T-cell influx or the number, inflammatory phenotype, or spatial distribution of macrophages. Similarly, administration of an IL-17A blocking antibody did not attenuate inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effects of IL-17 in other inflammation models, neither genetic IL-17A deficiency nor treatment with an IL-17A blocking antibody attenuated IRI and progression to CKD. We conclude that in severe renal IRI IL-17A is not crucially involved in disease progression.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-17/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose , Citometria de Fluxo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia
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