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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth failure in sub-Saharan Africa leads to a high prevalence of child stunting starting in infancy, and is attributed to dietary inadequacy, poor hygiene, and morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a program in Malawi providing a lipid-based nutrient supplement to infants from 6-23 months of age, accompanied by a social and behavior change communication intervention to optimize caregiver feeding and handwashing practices. METHODS: This impact evaluation was a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study with 1 program and 1 comparison district. Infants were enrolled at 6-7 months of age. Anthropometry, child morbidity, and caregiver feeding and handwashing practices were assessed at enrollment and at 6, 12, and 18 month follow-ups (ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively). Changes in the length-for-age z-score (LAZ), weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), and midupper arm circumference (MUAC) were compared using mixed-effects models. Program impacts on child stunting (LAZ < -2), wasting (WLZ < -2), morbidity, and feeding and handwashing practices were estimated using difference-in-differences. RESULTS: We enrolled 367 infants across the program (n = 176) and comparison (n = 191) districts. The combined prevalences of stunting and wasting at enrollment were 42.1% and 1.4%, respectively, and did not differ by district. At enrollment, the prevalence of severe stunting (LAZ < -3) was higher in the program (15.5%) versus comparison (7.6%) district (P = 0.02), with corresponding lower LAZ scores (-1.9 vs. -1.7, respectively; P = 0.12). Growth velocities favored program children, such that LAZ, WLZ, and MUAC measurements increased by +0.12/y (P = 0.06), +0.12/y (P = 0.04), and +0.24 cm/y (P < 0.001), respectively, leading to comparable LAZ distributions across districts by 24 months of age. Program exposure was associated with 19.8 percentage point (pp) and 13.8 pp reductions in the prevalences of malaria (P = 0.001) and fever (P = 0.02), respectively, at the 18-month follow-up. Improvements of 20 pp (P < 0.01) in minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet were seen in the program versus comparison district at 18 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The program improved child growth patterns, with benefits to health and diet apparent after 18 months of exposure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02985359.

2.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-14, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This process evaluation aimed to understand factors affecting the implementation of a government-sponsored short message service (SMS) programme for delivering nutrition information to rural populations, including message access, acceptability and putting messages into action. DESIGN: The study was nested within a larger randomised controlled trial. Cross-sectional data collection included structured surveys and in-depth interviews. Data were analysed for key trends and themes using Stata and ATLAS.ti software. SETTING: The study took place in Tanzania's Mtwara region. PARTICIPANTS: Surveys were conducted with 205 women and 93 men already enrolled in the randomised controlled trial. A sub-set of 30 women and 14 men participated in the in-depth interviews. RESULTS: Among women relying on a spouse's phone, sharing arrangements impeded regular SMS access; men were commonly away from home, forgot to share SMS or did not share them in women's preferred way. Phone-owning women faced challenges related to charging their phones and defective handsets. Once SMS were delivered, most participants viewed them as trustworthy and comprehensible. However, economic conditions limited the feasibility of applying certain recommendations, such as feeding meat to toddlers. A sub-set of participants concurrently enrolled in an interpersonal counselling (IPC) intervention indicated that the SMS provided reminders of lessons learned during the IPC; yet, the SMS did not help participants contextualise information and overcome the challenges of putting that information into practice. CONCLUSIONS: The challenges to accessing and implementing SMS services highlighted here suggest that such platforms may work well as one component of a comprehensive nutrition intervention, yet not as an isolated effort.

3.
J Nutr ; 150(11): 3024-3032, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in central rural Malawi is ∼50%, which prompted a multipronged nutrition program in 1 district from 2014 to 2016. The program distributed a daily, fortified, small-quantity lipid-based nutritional supplement, providing 110 kcal and 2.6 g of protein to children aged 6-23 mo, and behavior change messages around optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and water, sanitation, and hygiene. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to perform an impact evaluation of the program using a neighboring district as comparison. METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental study design, with cross-sectional baseline (January-March, 2014; n = 2404) and endline (January-March, 2017; n = 2453) surveys, we evaluated the program's impact using a neighboring district as comparison. Impact on stunting was estimated using propensity score weighted difference-in-differences regression analyses to account for baseline differences between districts. RESULTS: No differences in mean length-for-age z-score or prevalence of stunting were found at endline. However, mean weight, weight-for-length z-score, and mid-upper arm circumference were higher at endline by 150 g, 0.22, and 0.19 cm, respectively, in the program compared with the comparison district (all P < 0.05). Weekly reports of high fever and malaria were also lower by 6.4 and 4.7 percentage points, respectively, in the program compared with the comparison district (both P < 0.05). There was no impact on anemia. Children's dietary diversity score improved by 0.17, and caregivers' infant and young child feeding and hand-washing practices improved by 8-11% in the program compared with the comparison district (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An impact evaluation of a comprehensive nutrition program in rural Malawi demonstrated benefit for child ponderal growth and health, improved maternal IYCF and hand-washing practices, but a reduction in stunting prevalence was not observed.

4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718947

RESUMO

WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programmes for children 6-59 months where vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. However, resources for VAS are falling short of current needs and programme coverage is suffering. The authors present the case for considering the options for shifting efforts and resources from a generalised approach, to prioritising resources to reach populations with continued high child mortality rates and high vitamin A deficiency prevalence to maximise child survival benefits . This includes evaluating where child mortality and/or vitamin A deficiency has dropped, as well as using under 5 mortality rates as a proxy for vitamin A deficiency, in the absence of recent data. The analysis supports that fewer countries may now need to prioritise VAS than in the year 2000, but that there are still a large number of countries that do. The authors also outline next steps for analysing options for improved targeting and cost-effectiveness of programmes. Focusing VAS resources to reach the most vulnerable is an efficient use of resources and will continue to promote young child survival.

5.
J Artif Organs ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671508

RESUMO

We read with great interest the article written by Murphy et al. (J Artif Organs 22:286-293, 2019). We acknowledge the authors contribution. However, the results presented may be difficult to interpret due to several missing information and therefore may not support the conclusions. Therefore, the results of this publication should be viewed very critically.

6.
Food Nutr Bull ; 41(2): 152-166, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preschool child anthropometric status has been assessed nationally in Nepal since 1975, with semi-decadal surveys since 1996, plus several recent, short-interval surveys to track progress toward achieving a World Health Assembly (WHA) goal to reduce stunting to 24% by 2025. OBJECTIVE: We report prevalence of preschool child stunting and wasting from a national survey in 2016 and place findings into the context of national trends and alignment for Nepal to attain its WHA 2025 goal. METHODS: A representative, midyear Policy and Science for Health, Agriculture and Nutrition (PoSHAN) survey was conducted in 2016 on 5479 children <60 months in 4051 households in 21 village development committees. Child weight and height were measured, and sociodemographic factors were assessed. Data from previous surveys (Nepal Demographic Health Surveys, PoSHAN) were also acquired, and rates of stunting (<-2 height-for-age z score) and wasting (<-2 weight-for-height z score) were compared to current World Health Organization standards. Trends were expressed as average annual rates of reduction (AARR). RESULTS: Nationally, in 2016, 34.1% of preschoolers were stunted and 13.7% wasted. Stunting was highest in the Mountains (40.6%) and wasting highest in the Tarai (18.9%). Trend analysis revealed a steady decline (3.8% AARR) in stunting from 2001 to 2013, with virtually no decline from 2013 to 2016. Wasting has been continually high and variable, at ≥8%, since 1975. CONCLUSIONS: Following a steady decline in prevalence, preschool child stunting has plateaued at ∼35% in Nepal, while wasting has changed little over time, offering the opportunity to inform, reassess, and adjust, as needed, efforts to reach WHA 2025 goals.

7.
Foods ; 9(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290264

RESUMO

The number of people engaged in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) has grown rapidly in the past twenty years, but they continue to be an understudied population experiencing high rates of malnutrition, poverty, and food insecurity. This paper explores how characteristics of markets that serve ASM populations facilitate and pose challenges to acquiring a nutritious and sustainable diet. The study sites included eight markets across four mining districts in the Kankan Region in the Republic of Guinea. Market descriptions to capture the structure of village markets, as well as twenty in-depth structured interviews with food vendors at mining site markets were conducted. We identified three forms of market organization based on location and distance from mining sites. Markets located close to mining sites offered fewer fruit and vegetable options, as well as a higher ratio of prepared food options as compared with markets located close to village centers. Vendors were highly responsive to customer needs. Food accessibility and utilization, rather than availability, are critical for food security in non-agricultural rural areas such as mining sites. Future market-based nutrition interventions need to consider the diverse market settings serving ASM communities and leverage the high vendor responsiveness to customer needs.

8.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(3): e12985, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207581

RESUMO

Undernutrition may affect fecundability, but few studies have quantified this relationship. In rural Bangladesh, where newlywed couples face strong pressures to become pregnant, we assessed fecundability, estimated by time to pregnancy (TTP), and its association with preconceptional thinness among nulligravid, newlywed female adolescents. During 2001-2002, 5,516 newlywed women aged 12-19 years participated in a home-based, 5-weekly surveillance system for 5-6 years to enrol pregnant women into an antenatal vitamin A or ß-carotene supplementation trial. Thinness was defined as a left mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) ≤21.5 versus >21.5 cm. At each visit, staff obtained a monthly history of menstruation. Report of amenorrhea prompted a human chorionic gonadotropin urine test to confirm pregnancy. We derived hazard ratios (with 95% confidence intervals [CI]) for pregnancy and Kaplan-Meier curves for TTP. Ages of women at marriage and pregnancy detection (mean ± standard deviation) were 15.3 ± 1.9 and 17.0 ± 1.9 years, respectively. A total of 82.7% of thinner and 87.3% of better nourished women became pregnant. The unadjusted and multivariable relative hazard of ever becoming pregnant was 0.84 (95% CI [0.78, 0.89]) and 0.86 (95% CI [0.81, 0.92]), respectively, and TTP was 12 weeks longer (median [95% CI]: 63 [58-68] vs. 51 [49-54]) in women whose MUAC was ≤21.5 versus >21.5 cm. In rural Bangladesh, thin adolescent newlywed girls have a lower probability of becoming pregnant and experience a longer time to pregnancy.

9.
Br J Nutr ; 123(12): 1415-1425, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102702

RESUMO

Household food insecurity (HFI) is a major concern in South Asia. The pathways by which HFI may reduce child growth remain inadequately understood. In a cohort study of 12 693 maternal-infant dyads in rural Bangladesh, we examined association and likely explanatory pathways linking HFI, assessed using a validated nine-item perception-based index, to infant size at 6 months. Mothers were assessed early in pregnancy for anthropometric status, dietary diversity and socio-economic status. Infants were assessed for weight, length, and arm, chest and head circumferences and breast and complementary feeding status at birth and 6 months of age. Extent of HFI shared a negative, dose-response association with all measures of infant size at 6 months and odds of wasting and stunting; 57-89 % of variances in the unadjusted models were explained by prenatal factors (maternal nutritional status and dietary diversity), and birth size adjusted for gestational age. Postnatal infant breast and complementary feeding and morbidity exposures explained the remaining fraction of the significant association between HFI and differences in infant arm and chest circumferences and odds of underweight. Contextual (i.e. socio-economic) factors finally brought remaining non-significant fractions of the food insecurity-related mid-infancy growth deficit to practically zero. Improving food security prior to pregnancy and during gestation would likely improve infant growth the most in rural Bangladesh.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225192, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of missing and damaged teeth among women in the rural southern plains of Nepal using an interviewer-administered tooth assessment module. SETTING: 21wards in seven Village Development Committees across the Tarai of Nepal in 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Resident, married women of children less than 5 years of age or those married in the 2 years prior to the survey, 14 to 49 years of age participating in a mid-year nutrition and health survey in the Tarai region of Nepal. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of missing and damaged teeth, history of dental problems, oral hygiene practices, access to dental treatment and risk factors for missing and damaged teeth. RESULTS: Of 3007 assessed women, aged 14 to 49 years of age, 22.8% (95% CI: 21.4-24.4) reported ≥ 1 missing or damaged teeth; 81.5% (95% CI 80.1-82.9) reported regularly practicing oral hygiene, typically with standard local dentifrices. Pain or discomfort in the oral cavity in the previous 6 months affected 17.6% of women. Among these, 43.8% had sought treatment from a dental facility, pharmacy or village doctor. Home remedies were commonly applied to relieve pain. CONCLUSION: Broken and missing teeth are common, affecting nearly one-quarter of adult women of reproductive age in rural Southern Nepal, as assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Higiene Bucal , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eval Program Plann ; 77: 101695, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400655

RESUMO

Using agriculture to improve nutrition is an approach growing in popularity, with programs becoming increasingly complex and multisectoral. While there is an active line of research assessing the impacts of such programs, little has been written about the process of successfully implementing them. As such, this paper uses a multisectoral nutrition-sensitive agriculture program implemented in four African countries as a case study to address key challenges in and lessons learned from implementation. We highlight the overall flexibility of nutrition-sensitive agriculture but also the need to adapt certain aspects to the particular context, as well as the opportunities for cross-context learning (and the limits to this). Integrating rigorous evaluation into such complex programs and forging diverse cross-sectoral partnerships offer both rewards and challenges, upon which we reflect. Main lessons learned from the program include the importance of carefully sequencing interventions, retaining flexibility in implementation, allowing for considerable time for cross-sector integration and coordination, and considering community impacts when designing research.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/organização & administração , Burkina Faso , Costa do Marfim , Produção Agrícola , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Senegal , Tanzânia
14.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1444(1): 6-21, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134643

RESUMO

Inadequate micronutrient intakes are relatively common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially among pregnant women, who have increased micronutrient requirements. This can lead to an increase in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. This review presents the conclusions of a task force that set out to assess the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes and adverse birth outcomes in LMICs; the data from trials comparing multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) that contain iron and folic acid (IFA) with IFA supplements alone; the risks of reaching the upper intake levels with MMS; and the cost-effectiveness of MMS compared with IFA. Recent meta-analyses demonstrate that MMS can reduce the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in comparison with IFA alone. An individual-participant data meta-analysis also revealed even greater benefits for anemic and underweight women and female infants. Importantly, there was no increased risk of harm for the pregnant women or their infants with MMS. These data suggest that countries with inadequate micronutrient intakes should consider supplementing pregnant women with MMS as a cost-effective method to reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
15.
Int Breastfeed J ; 14: 14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988689

RESUMO

Background: Optimal breastfeeding practices, reflected by early initiation and feeding of colostrum, avoidance of prelacteal feeds, and continued exclusivity or predominance of breastfeeding, are critical for assuring proper infant nutrition, growth and development. Methods: We used data from a nationally representative survey in 21 district sites across the Mountains, Hills and Terai (southern plains) of Nepal in 2013. Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum, prelacteal feeding and predominant breastfeeding were explored in 1015 infants < 12 months of age. Prelacteal feeds were defined as food/drink other than breast milk given to newborns in first 3 days. Predominant breastfeeding was defined as a child < 6 months of age is mainly breastfed, not fed solid/semi-solid foods, infant formula or non-human milk, in the past 7 days. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated, using log Poisson regression models with robust variance for clustering. Results: The prevalence of breastfeeding within an hour of birth, colostrum feeding, prelacteal feeding and predominant breastfeeding was 41.8, 83.5, 32.7 and 57.2% respectively. Compared to infants not fed prelacteal feeds, infants given prelacteal feeds were 51% less likely to be breastfed within the first hour of birth (APR 0.49; 95% CI 0.36, 0.66) and 55% less likely to be predominantly breastfed (APR 0.45; 95% CI 0.32, 0.62). Infants reported to have received colostrum were more likely to have begun breastfeeding within an hour of birth (APR 1.26; 95% CI 1.04, 1.54) compared to those who did not receive colostrum. Infants born to mothers ≥ 20 years of age were less likely than adolescent mothers to initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth. Infants in the Terai were 10% less likely to have received colostrum (APR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83, 0.97) and 2.72 times more likely to have received prelacteal feeds (APR 2.72; 95% CI 1.67, 4.45) than those in the Mountains. Conclusions: Most infants in Nepal receive colostrum but less than half initiate breastfeeding within an hour of birth and one-third are fed prelacteal feeds, which may negatively affect breastfeeding and health throughout early infancy.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Colostro/metabolismo , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nepal , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1260-1270, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation improves birth outcomes relative to iron-folic acid (IFA) in developing countries, but limited data exist on its impact on pregnancy micronutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the efficacy of a daily MM (15 nutrients) compared with IFA supplement, each providing approximately 1 RDA of nutrients and given beginning at pregnancy ascertainment, on late pregnancy micronutrient status of women in rural Bangladesh. Secondarily, we explored other contributors to pregnancy micronutrient status. METHODS: Within a double-masked trial (JiVitA-3) among 44,500 pregnant women, micronutrient status indicators were assessed in n = 1526 women, allocated by cluster to receive daily MM (n = 749) or IFA (n = 777), at 10 wk (baseline: before supplementation) and 32 wk (during supplementation) gestation. Efficacy of MM supplementation on micronutrient status indicators at 32 wk was assessed, controlling for baseline status and other covariates (e.g., inflammation and season), in regression models. RESULTS: Baseline status was comparable by intervention. Prevalence of deficiency among all participants was as follows: anemia, 20.6%; iron by ferritin, 4.0%; iron by transferrin receptor, 4.7%; folate, 2.5%; vitamin B-12, 35.4%; vitamin A, 6.7%; vitamin E, 57.7%; vitamin D, 64.0%; zinc, 13.4%; and iodine, 2.6%. At 32 wk gestation, vitamin B-12, A, and D and zinc status indicators were 3.7-13.7% higher, and ferritin, γ-tocopherol, and thyroglobulin indicators were 8.7-16.6% lower, for the MM group compared with the IFA group, with a 15-38% lower prevalence of deficiencies of vitamins B-12, A, and D and zinc (all P < 0.05). However, indicators typically suggested worsening status during pregnancy, even with supplementation, and baseline status or other covariates were more strongly associated with late pregnancy indicators than was MM supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Rural Bangladeshi women commonly entered pregnancy deficient in micronutrients other than iron and folic acid. Supplementation with MM improved micronutrient status, although deficiencies persisted. Preconception supplementation or higher nutrient doses may be warranted to support nutritional demands of pregnancy in undernourished populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860470.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , População Rural , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
Eval Program Plann ; 73: 1-9, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453182

RESUMO

Child stunting is a public health problem in Malawi. In 2014, the Government of Malawi launched the Right Foods at the Right Time (RFRT) program in Ntchisi district delivering nutrition social and behavior change communication, a small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement to children 6-23 months, and nutrition sensitive activities. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems are key aspects of successful program implementation. We describe these and the methodology for an impact evaluation that was conducted for this program. Two monitoring systems using traditional and electronic platforms were established to register and track program delivery and processes including number of eligible beneficiaries, worker performance, program participation, and to monitor input, output, and outcome indicators. The impact evaluation used comparative cross-sectional and longitudinal designs to assess impact on anthropometric and infant and young child feeding outcomes. Three cross-sectional surveys (base-, mid-, and end-line) and two longitudinal cohorts of children followed in 6-month intervals from 6 to 24 months of age, were conducted in sampled households in the program and a neighboring comparison district. Additional M&E included qualitative studies, a process evaluation, and a cost-effectiveness study. The current paper describes lessons from this program's M&E, and demonstrates how multiple implementation research activities can inform course-correction and program scale-up.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Dieta/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Estudos Longitudinais , Malaui , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
18.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(4): 697-705, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between household food insecurity and dietary diversity in the past 24h (dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0-9); minimum dietary diversity (MDD, consumption of three or more food groups); consumption of nine separate food groups) among pregnant and lactating women in rural Malawi. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two rural districts in Central Malawi. SUBJECTS: Pregnant (n 589) and lactating (n 641) women. RESULTS: Of surveyed pregnant and lactating women, 66·7 and 68·6 %, respectively, experienced moderate or severe food insecurity and only 32·4 and 28·1 %, respectively, met MDD. Compared with food-secure pregnant women, those who reported severe food insecurity had a 0·36 lower DDS (P<0·05) and more than threefold higher risk (OR; 95 % CI) of not consuming meat/fish (3·19; CI 1·68, 6·03). The risk of not consuming eggs (3·77; 1·04, 13·7) was higher among moderately food-insecure pregnant women. Compared with food-secure lactating women, those who reported mild, moderate and severe food insecurity showed a 0·36, 0·44 and 0·62 lower DDS, respectively (all P<0·05). The risk of not achieving MDD was higher among moderately (1·95; 1·06, 3·59) and severely (2·82; 1·53, 5·22) food-insecure lactating women. The risk of not consuming meat/fish and eggs increased in a dose-response manner among lactating women experiencing mild (1·75; 1·01, 3·03 and 2·81; 1·09, 7·25), moderate (2·66; 1·47, 4·82 and 3·75; 1·40, 10·0) and severe (5·33; 2·63, 10·8 and 3·47; 1·19, 10·1) food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing food insecurity during and after pregnancy needs to be considered when designing nutrition programmes aiming to increase dietary diversity in rural Malawi.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactação , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 490, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation between unwanted pregnancy and intention discordance and maternal mental health in low-income countries. The study aim was to evaluate maternal and paternal pregnancy intentions (and intention discordance) in relation to perinatal depressive symptoms among rural Bangladeshi women. METHODS: Data come from a population-based, community trial of married rural Bangladeshi women aged 13-44. We examined pregnancy intentions among couples and pregnancy-intention discordance, as reported by women at enrollment soon after pregnancy ascertainment, in relation to depressive symptoms in the third trimester of pregnancy (N = 14,629) and six months postpartum (N = 31,422). We calculated crude and adjusted risk ratios for prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms by pregnancy intentions. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, women with unwanted pregnancies were at higher risk of prenatal (Adj. RR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.37-1.87) and postnatal depressive symptoms (Adj. RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.21-1.44) than women with wanted pregnancies. Women who perceived their husbands did not want the pregnancy also were at higher risk for prenatal (Adj. RR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.22-1.65) and postnatal depressive symptoms (Adj. RR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.19-1.41). Both parents not wanting the pregnancy was associated with prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms (Adj. RR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.19-1.52; Adj. RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21, respectively), compared to when both parents wanted it. Adjusting for socio-demographic and pregnancy intention variables simultaneously, maternal intentions and pregnancy discordance were significantly related to prenatal depressive symptoms, and perception of paternal pregnancy unwantedness and couple pregnancy discordance, with postnatal depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal, paternal and discordant couple pregnancy intentions, as perceived by rural Bangladeshi women, are important risk factors for perinatal maternal depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Gravidez não Desejada/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Cônjuges , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0205438, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2015 earthquake in Nepal caused massive damages and triggered relief activities to minimize human suffering. The post-earthquake nutrition and food security situation in the hardest hit areas remains uncertain. METHODS: Two national cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2016 among households (HH) with pre-school aged children or newly married women. Of the 21 village development committees (VDCs) included in this sample, 7 fell within "earthquake-affected" areas. This paper presents data from 982 HH, 1015 women, and 883 children from 2014 and 1056 HH, 1083 women, and 998 children from 2016 living in these areas, with longitudinal overlap of about 55%. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and logistic regression was used to calculate p-values, both using robust estimates of standard errors to account for clustering. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2016, child wasting (weight-for-height z score <-2) fell from 4.5% (95% CI 3.3%- 6.1%) to 2.1% (1.4%- 3.1%) and food insecurity (assessed using the household food insecurity access scale) dropped from 17.6% (11.7%- 25.6%) to 12.4% (6.9%- 21.2%). Child stunting prevalence remained similar at both time-points. Improvements were also evident in dietary diversity and breastfeeding indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition and food security conditions remained comparable or improved one year after the earthquake despite evidence of structural and other damage. Livelihood resilience to shocks and/or effective nutrition, food or health interventions may have helped buffer the impact on nutrition, although this hypothesis requires further exploration.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Terremotos/história , Características da Família , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Nepal , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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