*Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 13(14)2023 Jul 19.*

##### RESUMO

The imitative modelling of processes in the brain of living beings is an ambitious task. However, advances in the complexity of existing hardware brain models are limited by their low speed and high energy consumption. A superconducting circuit with Josephson junctions closely mimics the neuronal membrane with channels involved in the operation of the sodium-potassium pump. The dynamic processes in such a system are characterised by a duration of picoseconds and an energy level of attojoules. In this work, two superconducting models of a biological neuron are studied. New modes of their operation are identified, including the so-called bursting mode, which plays an important role in biological neural networks. The possibility of switching between different modes in situ is shown, providing the possibility of dynamic control of the system. A synaptic connection that mimics the short-term potentiation of a biological synapse is developed and demonstrated. Finally, the simplest two-neuron chain comprising the proposed bio-inspired components is simulated, and the prospects of superconducting hardware biosimilars are briefly discussed.

*Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 13(13)2023 Jun 28.*

##### RESUMO

We have theoretically studied the transport properties of the SIsNSOF structure consisting of thick (S) and thin (s) films of superconductor, an insulator layer (I), a thin film of normal metal with spin-orbit interaction (SOI) (NSO), and a monodomain ferromagnetic layer (F). The interplay between superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and spin-orbit interaction allows the critical current of this Josephson junction to be smoothly varied over a wide range by rotating the magnetization direction in the single F-layer. We have studied the amplitude of the spin valve effect and found the optimal ranges of parameters.

*Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 13(12)2023 Jun 16.*

##### RESUMO

In this paper, we present a theoretical study of electronic transport in planar Josephson Superconductor-Normal Metal-Superconductor (SN-N-NS) bridges with arbitrary transparency of the SN interfaces. We formulate and solve the two-dimensional problem of finding the spatial distribution of the supercurrent in the SN electrodes. This allows us to determine the scale of the weak coupling region in the SN-N-NS bridges, i.e., to describe this structure as a serial connection between the Josephson contact and the linear inductance of the current-carrying electrodes. We show that the presence of a two-dimensional spatial current distribution in the SN electrodes leads to a modification of the current-phase relation and the critical current magnitude of the bridges. In particular, the critical current decreases as the overlap area of the SN parts of the electrodes decreases. We show that this is accompanied by a transformation of the SN-N-NS structure from an SNS-type weak link to a double-barrier SINIS contact. In addition, we find the range of interface transparency in order to optimise device performance. The features we have discovered should have a significant impact on the operation of small-scale superconducting electronic devices, and should be taken into account in their design.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 23(3)2023 Jan 31.*

##### RESUMO

We examine the effect of resonant absorption of electromagnetic signals in a silicon semiconductor plasma layer when the dielectric plate is placed behind it both experimentally and numerically. It is shown that such plate acts as a dielectric resonator and can significantly increase the electromagnetic energy absorption in the semiconductor for certain frequencies determined by the dielectric plate parameters. Numerical modelling of the effect is performed under the conditions of conducted experiment. The numerical results are found to be in qualitative agreement with experimental ones. This study confirms the proposed earlier method of increasing the efficiency of bolometric-type detectors of electromagnetic radiation.

*Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(24)2022 Dec 12.*

##### RESUMO

We theoretically investigated the proximity effect in SNSOF and SF'F structures consisting of a superconductor (S), a normal metal (NSO), and ferromagnetic (F',F) thin films with spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in the NSO layer. We show that a normal layer with spin-orbit interaction effectively suppresses triplet correlations generated in a ferromagnetic layer. Due to this effect, the critical temperature of the superconducting layer in the SNSOF multilayer turns out to be higher than in a similar multilayer without spin-orbit interaction in the N layer. Moreover, in the presence of a mixed type of spin-orbit interaction involving the Rashba and Dresselhaus components, the SNSOF structure is a spin valve, whose critical temperature is determined by the direction of the magnetization vector in the F layer. We calculated the control characteristics of the SNSOF spin valve and compared them with those available in traditional SF'F devices with two ferromagnetic layers. We concluded that SNSOF structures with one controlled F layer provide solid advantages over the broadly considered SF'F spin valves, paving the way for high-performance storage components for superconducting electronics.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 28.*

##### RESUMO

We have determined conditions when a pair of coupled waveguides, a common element for integrated room-temperature photonics, can act as a qubit based on a system with a double-well potential. Moreover, we have used slow-varying amplitude approximation (SVA) for the "classical" wave equation to study the propagation of electromagnetic beams in a couple of dielectric waveguides both analytically and numerically. As a part of an extension of the optical-mechanical analogy, we have considered examples of "quantum operations" on the electromagnetic wave state in a pair of waveguides. Furthermore, we have provided examples of "quantum-mechanical" calculations of nonlinear transfer functions for the implementation of the considered element in optical neural networks.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Aug 31.*

##### RESUMO

We study bifurcation behavior of a high-quality (high-Q) Josephson oscillator coupled to a superconducting qubit. It is shown that the probability of capture into the state of dynamic equilibrium is sensitive to qubit states. On this basis we present a new measurement method for the superposition state of a qubit due to its influence on transition probabilities between oscillator levels located in the energy region near the classical separatrix. The quantum-mechanical behavior of a bifurcation oscillator is also studied, which makes it possible to understand the mechanism of "entanglement" of oscillator and qubit states during the measurement process. The optimal parameters of the driving current and the state of the oscillator are found for performing one-qubit gates with the required precision, when the influence on the qubit from measurement back-action is minimal. A measurement protocol for state populations of the qubit entangled with the oscillator is presented.

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 13: 653-665, 2022.*

##### RESUMO

We explore the dynamics of an adiabatic neural cell of a perceptron artificial neural network in a quantum regime. This mode of cell operation is assumed for a hybrid system of a classical neural network whose configuration is dynamically adjusted by a quantum co-processor. Analytical and numerical studies take into account non-adiabatic processes as well as dissipation, which leads to smoothing of quantum coherent oscillations. The obtained results indicate the conditions under which the neuron possesses the required sigmoid activation function.

*Nano Lett ; 22(14): 5715-5722, 2022 Jul 27.*

##### RESUMO

Made of a thin non-superconducting metal (N) sandwiched by two superconductors (S), SNS Josephson junctions enable novel quantum functionalities by mixing up the intrinsic electronic properties of N with the superconducting correlations induced from S by proximity. Electronic properties of these devices are governed by Andreev quasiparticles (Andreev, A. Sov. Phys. JETP 1965, 20, 1490) which are absent in conventional SIS junctions whose insulating barrier (I) between the two S electrodes owns no electronic states. Here we focus on the Josephson vortex (JV) motion inside Nb-Cu-Nb proximity junctions subject to electric currents and magnetic fields. The results of local (magnetic force microscopy) and global (transport) experiments provided simultaneously are compared with our numerical model, revealing the existence of several distinct dynamic regimes of the JV motion. One of them, identified as a fast hysteretic entry/escape below the critical value of Josephson current, is analyzed and suggested for low-dissipative logic and memory elements.

*J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(28): 6400-6406, 2022 Jul 21.*

##### RESUMO

Thin films of diluted magnetic alloys are widely used in superconducting spintronics devices. Most studies rely on transport measurements and assume homogeneous magnetic layers. Here we examine on a local scale the electronic properties of the well-known two-layer superconductor/ferromagnet structure Nb/CuNi. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments demonstrated significant spatial variations of the tunneling conductance on nanoscale, with characteristic gapped, nongapped, and strongly zero-bias peaked spectra. The microscopic theory successfully reproduced the observed spectra and relied them to spatial variations of CuNi film thickness and composition, leading to strong variations of the effective exchange energy. The observed inhomogeneities put constraints on the use of diluted magnetic alloys in nanoscale devices.

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 13: 444-454, 2022.*

##### RESUMO

The hardware implementation of signal microprocessors based on superconducting technologies seems relevant for a number of niche tasks where performance and energy efficiency are critically important. In this paper, we consider the basic elements for superconducting neural networks on radial basis functions. We examine the static and dynamic activation functions of the proposed neuron. Special attention is paid to tuning the activation functions to a Gaussian form with relatively large amplitude. For the practical implementation of the required tunability, we proposed and investigated heterostructures designed for the implementation of adjustable inductors that consist of superconducting, ferromagnetic, and normal layers.

*Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 May 13.*

##### RESUMO

High-performance modeling of neurophysiological processes is an urgent task that requires new approaches to information processing. In this context, two- and three-junction superconducting quantum interferometers with Josephson weak links based on gold nanowires are fabricated and investigated experimentally. The studied cells are proposed for the implementation of bio-inspired neurons-high-performance, energy-efficient, and compact elements of neuromorphic processor. The operation modes of an advanced artificial neuron capable of generating the burst firing activation patterns are explored theoretically. A comparison with the Izhikevich mathematical model of biological neurons is carried out.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 05.*

##### RESUMO

We consider two of the most relevant problems that arise when modeling the properties of a tunnel radio communication channel through a plasma layer. First, we studied the case of the oblique incidence of electromagnetic waves on a layer of ionized gas for two wave polarizations. The resonator parameters that provide signal reception at a wide solid angle were found. We also took into account the unavoidable presence of a protective layer between the plasma and the resonator, as well as the conducting elements of the antenna system in the dielectric itself. This provides the first complete simulation for a tunnel communication channel. Noise immunity and communication range studies were conducted for a prospective spacecraft radio line.

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 12: 913-923, 2021.*

##### RESUMO

Employment of the non-trivial proximity effect in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) heterostructures for the creation of novel superconducting devices requires accurate control of magnetic states in complex thin-film multilayers. In this work, we study experimentally in-plane transport properties of microstructured Nb/Co multilayers. We apply various transport characterization techniques, including magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and the first-order-reversal-curves (FORC) analysis. We demonstrate how FORC can be used for detailed in situ characterization of magnetic states. It reveals that upon reduction of the external field, the magnetization in ferromagnetic layers first rotates in a coherent scissor-like manner, then switches abruptly into the antiparallel state and after that splits into the polydomain state, which gradually turns into the opposite parallel state. The polydomain state is manifested by a profound enhancement of resistance caused by a flux-flow phenomenon, triggered by domain stray fields. The scissor state represents the noncollinear magnetic state in which the unconventional odd-frequency spin-triplet order parameter should appear. The non-hysteretic nature of this state allows for reversible tuning of the magnetic orientation. Thus, we identify the range of parameters and the procedure for in situ control of devices based on S/F heterostructures.

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 11: 1336-1345, 2020.*

##### RESUMO

We present both theoretical and experimental investigations of the proximity effect in a stack-like superconductor/ferromagnetic (S/F) superlattice, where ferromagnetic layers with different thicknesses and coercive fields are made of Co. Calculations based on the Usadel equations allow us to find the conditions at which switching from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment of the neighboring F-layers leads to a significant change of the superconducting order parameter in superconductive thin films. We experimentally study the transport properties of a lithographically patterned Nb/Co multilayer. We observe that the resistive transition of the multilayer structure has multiple steps, which we attribute to the transition of individual superconductive layers with the critical temperature, T c, depending on the local magnetization orientation of the neighboring F-layers. We argue that such superlattices can be used as tunable kinetic inductors designed for artificial neural networks representing the information in a "current domain".

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 10: 1548-1558, 2019.*

##### RESUMO

A theoretical approach to the consistent full quantum description of the ultrafast population transfer and magnetization reversal in superconducting meta-atoms induced by picosecond unipolar pulses of a magnetic field is developed. A promising scheme based on the regime of stimulated Raman Λ-type transitions between qubit states via upper-lying levels is suggested in order to provide ultrafast quantum operations on the picosecond time scale. The experimental realization of a circuit-on-chip for the discussed ultrafast control is presented.

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 10: 833-839, 2019.*

##### RESUMO

We present a study of magnetic structures with controllable effective exchange energy for Josephson switches and memory applications. As a basis for a weak link we propose to use a periodic structure composed of ferromagnetic (F) layers spaced by thin superconductors (s). Our calculations based on the Usadel equations show that switching from parallel (P) to antiparallel (AP) alignment of neighboring F layers can lead to a significant enhancement of the critical current through the junction. To control the magnetic alignment we propose to use a periodic system whose unit cell is a pseudo spin valve of structure F1/s/F2/s where F1 and F2 are two magnetic layers having different coercive fields. In order to check the feasibility of controllable switching between AP and P states through the whole periodic structure, we prepared a superlattice [Co(1.5 nm)/Nb(8 nm)/Co(2.5 nm)/Nb(8 nm)]6 between two superconducting layers of Nb(25 nm). Neutron scattering and magnetometry data showed that parallel and antiparallel alignment can be controlled with a magnetic field of only several tens of Oersted.

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 8: 2689-2710, 2017.*

##### RESUMO

The predictions of Moore's law are considered by experts to be valid until 2020 giving rise to "post-Moore's" technologies afterwards. Energy efficiency is one of the major challenges in high-performance computing that should be answered. Superconductor digital technology is a promising post-Moore's alternative for the development of supercomputers. In this paper, we consider operation principles of an energy-efficient superconductor logic and memory circuits with a short retrospective review of their evolution. We analyze their shortcomings in respect to computer circuits design. Possible ways of further research are outlined.

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 7: 1397-1403, 2016.*

##### RESUMO

We propose the concept of using superconducting quantum interferometers for the implementation of neural network algorithms with extremely low power dissipation. These adiabatic elements are Josephson cells with sigmoid- and Gaussian-like activation functions. We optimize their parameters for application in three-layer perceptron and radial basis function networks.

*Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 6: 1946-56, 2015.*

##### RESUMO

We present our approach for a consistent, fully quantum mechanical description of the magnetization reversal process in natural and artificial atomic systems by means of short magnetic pulses. In terms of the simplest model of a two-level system with a magnetic moment, we analyze the possibility of a fast magnetization reversal on the picosecond timescale induced by oscillating or short unipolar magnetic pulses. We demonstrate the possibility of selective magnetization reversal of a superconducting flux qubit using a single flux quantum-based pulse and suggest a promising, rapid Λ-scheme for resonant implementation of this process. In addition, the magnetization reversal treatment is fulfilled within the framework of the macroscopic theory of the magnetic moment, which allows for the comparison and explanation of the quantum and classical behavior.