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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(23)2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885585

RESUMO

This paper presents the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of a new hybrid composite. Its main goals are evaluating the structure and studying the thermal and mechanical properties of the crosslinked polymeric materials based on varying chemical properties of the compounds. As an organic crosslinking monomer, bisphenol A glycerolate diacrylate (BPA.GDA) was used. Trimethoxyvinylsilane (TMVS) and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) were used as comonomers and active diluents. The inorganic fraction was the silica in the form of nanoparticles (NANOSiO2). The hybrid composites were obtained by the bulk polymerization method using the UV initiator Irqacure 651 with a constant weight ratio of the tetrafunctional monomer BPA.GDA to TMVS or NVP (7:3 wt.%) and different wt.% of silica nanoparticles (0, 1, 3%). The proper course of polymerization was confirmed by the ATR/FTIR spectroscopy and SEM EDAX analysis. In the composites spectra the signals correspond to the C=O groups from NVP at 1672-1675 cm-1, and the vibrations of Si-O-C and Si-O-Si groups at 1053-1100 cm-1 from TMVS and NANOSiO2 are visible. Thermal stabilities of the obtained composites were studied by a differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Compared to NVP the samples with TMVS degraded in one stage (422.6-425.3 °C). The NVP-derived materials decomposed in three stages (three endothermic effects on the DSC curves). The addition of NANOSiO2 increases the temperature of composites maximum degradation insignificantly. Additionally, the Shore D hardness test was carried out with original metrological measurements of changes in diameter after indentation in relation to the type of material. The accuracy analysis of the obtained test results was based on a comparative analysis of graphical curves obtained from experimental tests. The values of the changes course of similarity in the examined factors, represented by those of characteristic coefficients were determined based on the Fréchet's theory.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300725

RESUMO

In this paper, polymer composites based on polylactide (PLA) and epoxy resin (Epidian 5) were studied in terms of the influence of magnetic induction on their changes in physicochemical properties. The composites contained admixtures in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4) and crystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-1010) in the amount of 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight and starch in the amount of 10%. The admixtures of cellulose and starch were intended to result in the composites becoming biodegradable biopolymers to some extent. Changes in physical and chemical properties due to the impact of a constant magnetic field with a magnetic induction value B = 0.5 T were observed. The changes were observed during tests of tensile strength, bending, impact strength, water absorbency, frost resistance, chemical resistance to acids and bases, as well as through SEM microscopy and with studies of the composition of the composites that use the EDS method and of their structure with the XRD method. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the magnetic induction value changes the properties of composites. This therefore acts as one method of receiving new alternative materials, the degradation of which in the environment would take far less time.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918857

RESUMO

In the present work, extraction with a solvent (cold acetone) was used to extract the assimilation pigments from spinach leaves. Then, the sorption capacity of selected plastics granules (polyvinyl chloride-PVC, polypropylene-PP, polyethylene-PE of different densities) was tested for the selective isolation of chlorophylls. Quantification of chlorophylls by HPLC (Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column, the mobile phase: Acetonitrile/methanol/ethyl acetate 6:2:2, v/v) was based on chlorophyll-a content as the most common chlorophyll. The performed experiments prove that PVC containing electronegative chlorine exhibits favorable interactions toward chlorophyll by creating stable molecular complexes. The Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and the molecular modeling were used to elucidate the structure of the created complexes. The optimal extraction requirements, the mass of sorbent, water-acetone ratio, time, and the composition of the elution solvent were all established. The optimized extraction conditions ensured a maximum extraction yield of chlorophylls of 98%. The chlorophyll-rich sorbent was re-extracted by acetone, leading to the recovery of 91% of chlorophylls in one step, adding the possibility of its re-use. The proposed effective and ecological method of obtaining the green dye from plants is cheap, simple, and efficient, avoiding organic solvents, utilizing the most widely used synthetic polymers in the world, being products difficult for utilization. The possibility to remove chosen fungicides cyprodinil, chlorothalonil, and thiabendazone from plant extract by PVC was also examined. The described method proposes a new application of synthetic polymers, which meets the criteria of sustainable green chemistry, simultaneously reaching the growing demand for pure natural compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562178

RESUMO

The synthesis, thermal, and mechanical properties of epoxy resin composites incorporating waste fibers of hemp were studied. Five different systems with increasing quantity of the eco-filler were obtained. For the synthesis of polymeric materials, the commercial epoxy resins Epidian® 5 and triethylenetetramine (TETA) were applied as crosslinking agents. The composites were obtained based on the polyaddition reaction of an amine group with an epoxide ring. ATR/FT-IR (Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared) analysis was used to confirm the chemical structure of the composites and the course of curing processes. Moreover, the influence of the eco-friendly components on the mechanical properties was determined, while thermal properties of the materials were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dynamic mechanical studies (DMA) and Shore hardness tests of the obtained polymers were also carried out. The DSC curves and DMA analysis revealed that all materials were characterized by a similar glass transition range. Furthermore, the DMA and hardness measurements of the composites demonstrated an increasing elasticity with the increase in the amount of eco-filler present in the compositions.

5.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334041

RESUMO

In this paper flammability tests and detailed investigations of lignin-containing polymer composites' properties are presented. Composites were obtained using bisphenol A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) diacrylate (BPA.GDA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and kraft lignin (lignin alkali, L) during UV curing. In order to evaluate the influence of lignin modification and the addition of flame retardant compounds on the thermal resistance of the obtained biocomposites, flammability tests have been conducted. After the modification with phosphoric acid (V) lignin, as well as diethyl vinylphosphonate, were used as flame retardant additives. The changes in the chemical structures (ATR-FTIR), as well as the influence of the different additives on the hardness, thermal (TG) and mechanical properties were discussed in detail. The samples after the flammability test were also studied to assess their thermal destruction.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/química , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Lignina/química , Dureza
6.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438552

RESUMO

The preparation and the thermal and mechanical characteristics of lignin-containing polymer biocomposites were studied. Bisphenol A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) diacrylate (BPA.GDA) was used as the main monomer, and butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) or styrene (St) was used as the reactive diluent. Unmodified lignin (L) or lignin modified with methacryloyl chloride (L-M) was applied as an ecofriendly component. The influences of the lignin, its modification, and of the type of reactive diluent on the properties of the composites were investigated. In the biocomposites with unmodified lignin, the lignin mainly acted as a filler, and it seemed that interactions occurred between the hydroxyl groups of the lignin and the carbonyl groups of the acrylates. When methacrylated lignin was applied, it seemed to take part in the creation of a polymer network. When styrene was added as a reactive diluent, the biocomposites had a more homogeneous structure, and their thermal resistance was higher than those with acrylate monomers. The use of lignin and its methacrylic derivative as a component in polymer composites promotes sustainability in the plastics industry and can have a positive influence on environmental problems related to waste generation.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(3)2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033128

RESUMO

In the presented work the influence of different 3MgO·4SiO2·H2O (talc) contents in polypropylene samples on the structure, hardness, elasticity, and friction of the surface layer was investigated. The talc content ranged from 0 to 25 wt.%, and all the samples were obtained in the same conditions by the injection molding process. The analysis of the microstructure was performed by X-ray diffraction. Changes in the hardness and elasticity were determined for three different depths (300, 800, and 4000 nm) using an ultra nano tester. For the purpose of the examination of the friction properties of the obtained compounds, a nano-scratch tester was applied. Increasing the talc content caused growth in the indentation modulus and hardness values. Simultaneously, an effect of decreasing hardness and elastic modulus with increasing indentation depth was observed. The smallest effect size was observed for 25 wt.% talc content, which might suggest that talc addition increased the homogeneity of the observed composites. Scratch tests showed increasing scratch resistance along with increasing talc content for both constant and progressive loads. The growth in talc concentration led to a decrease in the degree of the polypropylene (PP) crystallinity of the surface layer. The exfoliation process occurred in PP composites.

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