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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(23): 9330-9337, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117654

RESUMO

We present an in situ powder X-ray diffraction study on the phase stability and polymorphism of the metal-organic framework ZIF-4, Zn(imidazolate)2, at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature, up to 8 GPa and 600 °C. The resulting pressure-temperature phase diagram reveals four, previously unknown, high-pressure-high-temperature ZIF phases. The crystal structures of two new phases-ZIF-4-cp-II and ZIF-hPT-II-were solved by powder diffraction methods. The total energy of ZIF-4-cp-II was evaluated using density functional theory calculations and was found to lie in between that of ZIF-4 and the most thermodynamically stable polymorph, ZIF- zni. ZIF-hPT-II was found to possess a doubly interpenetrated diamondoid topology and is isostructural with previously reported Cd(Imidazolate)2 and Hg(Imidazolate)2 phases. This phase exhibited extreme resistance to both temperature and pressure. The other two new phases could be assigned with a unit cell and space group, although their structures remain unknown. The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ZIF-4 is strikingly complicated when compared with that of the previously investigated, closely related ZIF-62 and demonstrates the ability to traverse complex energy landscapes of metal-organic systems using the combined application of pressure and temperature.

2.
Nat Mater ; 18(4): 370-376, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886398

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are microporous materials with huge potential for chemical processes. Structural collapse at high pressure, and transitions to liquid states at high temperature, have recently been observed in the zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) family of MOFs. Here, we show that simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions result in complex behaviour in ZIF-62 and ZIF-4, with distinct high- and low-density amorphous phases occurring over different regions of the pressure-temperature phase diagram. In situ powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy reveal that the stability of the liquid MOF state expands substantially towards lower temperatures at intermediate, industrially achievable pressures and first-principles molecular dynamics show that softening of the framework coordination with pressure makes melting thermodynamically easier. Furthermore, the MOF glass formed by melt quenching the high-temperature liquid possesses permanent, accessible porosity. Our results thus imply a route to the synthesis of functional MOF glasses at low temperatures, avoiding decomposition on heating at ambient pressure.

3.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 25(Pt 6): 1860-1868, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407199

RESUMO

In this article, the specification and application of the new double-sided YAG laser-heating system built on beamline I15 at Diamond Light Source are presented. This system, combined with diamond anvil cell and X-ray diffraction techniques, allows in situ and ex situ characterization of material properties at extremes of pressure and temperature. In order to demonstrate the reliability and stability of this experimental setup over a wide range of pressure and temperature, a case study was performed and the phase diagram of lead was investigated up to 80 GPa and 3300 K. The obtained results agree with previously published experimental and theoretical data, underlining the quality and reliability of the installed setup.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4735, 2018 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549265

RESUMO

Absolute measurements of the radiolytic yield of Fe3+ in a ferrous sulphate dosimeter formulation (6 mM Fe2+), with a 20 keV x-ray monoenergetic beam, are reported. Dose-rate suppression of the radiolytic yield was observed at dose rates lower than and different in nature to those previously reported with x-rays. We present evidence that this effect is most likely to be due to recombination of free radicals radiolytically produced from water. The method used to make these measurements is also new and it provides radiolytic yields which are directly traceable to the SI standards system. The data presented provides new and exacting tests of radiation chemistry codes.

5.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4176, 2014 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24946837

RESUMO

Throughout much of condensed matter science, correlated disorder is a key to material function. While structural and compositional defects are known to exist within a variety of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the prevailing understanding is that these defects are only ever included in a random manner. Here we show--using a combination of diffuse scattering, electron microscopy, anomalous X-ray scattering and pair distribution function measurements--that correlations between defects can in fact be introduced and controlled within a hafnium terephthalate MOF. The nanoscale defect structures that emerge are an analogue of correlated Schottky vacancies in rocksalt-structured transition metal monoxides and have implications for storage, transport, optical and mechanical responses. Our results suggest how the diffraction behaviour of some MOFs might be reinterpreted, and establish a strategy of exploiting correlated nanoscale disorder as a targetable and desirable motif in MOF design.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 52(40): 10458-62, 2013 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23913399

RESUMO

The first pressure-induced solid-phase synthesis of a zeolite has been found through compression of a common zeolite, ITQ-29 (see scheme, Si yellow, O red). The new microporous structure, ITQ-50, has a unique structure and improved performance for propene/propane separation with respect the parent material ITQ-29.

7.
Nature ; 416(6876): 76-81, 2002 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11882895

RESUMO

Structures resembling remarkably preserved bacterial and cyanobacterial microfossils from about 3,465-million-year-old Apex cherts of the Warrawoona Group in Western Australia currently provide the oldest morphological evidence for life on Earth and have been taken to support an early beginning for oxygen-producing photosynthesis. Eleven species of filamentous prokaryote, distinguished by shape and geometry, have been put forward as meeting the criteria required of authentic Archaean microfossils, and contrast with other microfossils dismissed as either unreliable or unreproducible. These structures are nearly a billion years older than putative cyanobacterial biomarkers, genomic arguments for cyanobacteria, an oxygenic atmosphere and any comparably diverse suite of microfossils. Here we report new research on the type and re-collected material, involving mapping, optical and electron microscopy, digital image analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy and other geochemical techniques. We reinterpret the purported microfossil-like structure as secondary artefacts formed from amorphous graphite within multiple generations of metalliferous hydrothermal vein chert and volcanic glass. Although there is no support for primary biological morphology, a Fischer--Tropsch-type synthesis of carbon compounds and carbon isotopic fractionation is inferred for one of the oldest known hydrothermal systems on Earth.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Cianobactérias , Fósseis , Artefatos , Isótopos de Carbono , Cristalização , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Minerais/análise , Análise Espectral Raman , Tempo
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