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1.
Science ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616671

RESUMO

Versatile chemical transformations of surface functional groups in 2D transition-metal carbides (MXenes) open up a new design space for this broad class of functional materials. We introduce a general strategy to install and remove surface groups by performing substitution and elimination reactions in molten inorganic salts. Successful synthesis of MXenes with O, NH, S, Cl, Se, Br, and Te surface terminations, as well as bare MXenes (no surface termination) was demonstrated. These MXenes show distinctive structural and electronic properties. For example, the surface groups control interatomic distances in the MXene lattice, and Ti n +1C n (n = 1, 2) MXenes terminated with Te2- ligands show a giant, (>18%) in-plane lattice expansion compared to the bulk TiC lattice. Nb2C MXenes exhibited surface-group-dependent superconductivity.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e1907041, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449197

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs) alloys could have a wide range of physical and chemical properties, ranging from charge density waves to superconductivity and electrochemical activities. While many exciting behaviors of unary TMDCs have been demonstrated, the vast compositional space of TMDC alloys has remained largely unexplored due to the lack of understanding regarding their stability when accommodating different cations or chalcogens in a single-phase. Here, a theory-guided synthesis approach is reported to achieve unexplored quasi-binary TMDC alloys through computationally predicted stability maps. Equilibrium temperature-composition phase diagrams using first-principles calculations are generated to identify the stability of 25 quasi-binary TMDC alloys, including some involving non-isovalent cations and are verified experimentally through the synthesis of a subset of 12 predicted alloys using a scalable chemical vapor transport method. It is demonstrated that the synthesized alloys can be exfoliated into 2D structures, and some of them exhibit: i) outstanding thermal stability tested up to 1230 K, ii) exceptionally high electrochemical activity for the CO2 reduction reaction in a kinetically limited regime with near zero overpotential for CO formation, iii) excellent energy efficiency in a high rate Li-air battery, and iv) high break-down current density for interconnect applications. This framework can be extended to accelerate the discovery of other TMDC alloys for various applications.

3.
J Inorg Biochem ; 206: 110997, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169780

RESUMO

Several studies have focused on the antimicrobial effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NP) but few have focused on their effects on bacteria under initial biofilm formation conditions. Streptococcus mutans is a prolific biofilm former contributing to dental caries in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates and is a recognized target for therapeutic intervention. CeO2-NP derived solely from Ce(IV) salt hydrolysis were found to reduce adherent bacteria by approximately 40% while commercial dispersions of "bare" CeO2-NP (e.g., 3 nm, 10-20 nm, 30 nm diameter) and Ce(NO3)3·6H2O were either inactive or observed to slightly increase biofilm formation under similar in vitro conditions. Planktonic growth and dispersal assays support a non-bactericidal mode of biofilm inhibition active in the initial phases of S. mutans biofilm production. Human cell proliferation assays suggest only minor effects of hydrolyzed Ce(IV) salts on cellular metabolism at concentrations up to 1 mM Ce, with less observed toxicity compared to equimolar concentrations of AgNO3. The results presented herein have implications in clinical dentistry.

4.
Small ; 16(3): e1905892, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830372

RESUMO

2D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), graphene, and boron nitride, are seen as promising materials for future high power/high frequency electronics. However, the large difference in the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) between many of these 2D materials could impose a serious challenge for the design of monolayer-material-based nanodevices. To address this challenge, alloy engineering of TMDs is used to tailor their TECs. Here, in situ heating experiments in a scanning transmission electron microscope are combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy and first-principles modeling of monolayer Mo1- x Wx S2 with different alloying concentrations to determine the TEC. Significant changes in the TEC are seen as a function of chemical composition in Mo1- x Wx S2 , with the smallest TEC being reported for a configuration with the highest entropy. This study provides key insights into understanding the nanoscale phenomena that control TEC values of 2D materials.

5.
Adv Mater ; 31(40): e1902518, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441124

RESUMO

Lithium-CO2 batteries are attractive energy-storage systems for fulfilling the demand of future large-scale applications such as electric vehicles due to their high specific energy density. However, a major challenge with Li-CO2 batteries is to attain reversible formation and decomposition of the Li2 CO3 and carbon discharge products. A fully reversible Li-CO2 battery is developed with overall carbon neutrality using MoS2 nanoflakes as a cathode catalyst combined with an ionic liquid/dimethyl sulfoxide electrolyte. This combination of materials produces a multicomponent composite (Li2 CO3 /C) product. The battery shows a superior long cycle life of 500 for a fixed 500 mAh g-1 capacity per cycle, far exceeding the best cycling stability reported in Li-CO2 batteries. The long cycle life demonstrates that chemical transformations, making and breaking covalent CO bonds can be used in energy-storage systems. Theoretical calculations are used to deduce a mechanism for the reversible discharge/charge processes and explain how the carbon interface with Li2 CO3 provides the electronic conduction needed for the oxidation of Li2 CO3 and carbon to generate the CO2 on charge. This achievement paves the way for the use of CO2 in advanced energy-storage systems.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(34): 13487-13496, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379152

RESUMO

In contrast to molecular systems, which are defined with atomic precision, nanomaterials generally show some heterogeneity in size, shape, and composition. The sample inhomogeneity translates into a distribution of energy levels, band gaps, work functions, and other characteristics, which detrimentally affect practically every property of functional nanomaterials. We discuss a novel synthetic strategy, colloidal atomic layer deposition (c-ALD) with stationary reactant phases, which largely circumvents the limitations of traditional colloidal syntheses of nano-heterostructures with atomic precision. This approach allows for significant reduction of inhomogeneity in nanomaterials in complex nanostructures without compromising their structural perfection and enables the synthesis of epitaxial nano-heterostructures of unprecedented complexity. The improved synthetic control ultimately enables bandgap and strain engineering in colloidal nanomaterials with close to atomic accuracy. To demonstrate the power of the new c-ALD method, we synthesize a library of complex II-VI semiconductor nanoplatelet heterostructures. By combining spectroscopic and computational studies, we elucidate the subtle interplay between quantum confinement and strain effects on the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures.

7.
Nanoscale ; 11(31): 14698-14706, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343043

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide a plethora of novel condensed matter physics and are the new playground in materials science, offering potentially vast applications. One of the critical hurdles for many 2D systems is the synthesis of these low-dimensional systems as well as the prediction and identification of new candidates. Herein, a self-assembly of a monolayer tellurene by bonding CdTe wafers is demonstrated for the first time. The conventional applications of wafer-bonding range from the production of microelectromechanical systems to the synthesis of lattice-mismatched multi-junction photovoltaics. Due to the heterogeneous materials that are typically employed, the bond-interface usually contains a thin amorphous layer or arrays of dislocations. Such an interface is thus itself inactive and in many cases has detrimental effects on the device. The new material phase stabilized in this work consists of an undulating monolayer of tellurium atoms covalently bonded to {111} Cd-terminated CdTe wafer surfaces. First-principles calculations and experimentally observed changes in the localized plasmon excitation energy indicate the clear rearrangement of the underlying band-structure suggesting a metallic character, bands showing linear dispersion, and a significant asymmetric spin-band splitting. The I-V characteristics show the presence of a highly conductive pathway that lowers the resistivity by three orders of magnitude, as compared to bulk CdTe, which can be attributed to the tellurium monolayer. The findings indicate that suitably chosen crystallographic wafer surfaces can act as structural templates allowing the production of exotic phases. The presently stabilized monolayer is an addition to the family of tellurene variants, providing new insights into the fundamental properties of this and other emerging 2D materials, while attracting attention to the unusual side of the wafer-bonding technology exemplified in this study.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(13): 5092-5096, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882213

RESUMO

Zero-dimensional PbSe quantum dots are heterogeneously nucleated and grown onto two-dimensional zincblende CdSe nanoplatelets. Electron microscopy shows ad-grown dots predominantly decorate edges and corners of the nanoplatelets. Spectroscopic characterizations relate type I electronic alignment as demonstrated via photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy enhancement of near-infrared emission. Transient photoluminescence and absorption convey ultrafast transfer of excitons to the lower energy semiconductor dots. These structures combine benefits of large absorption cross sections of nanoplatelets and efficient near-infrared emission of PbSe with quantum confinement tuning of energy gap.

9.
ACS Nano ; 13(3): 3151-3161, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763075

RESUMO

Tooth enamel is a hard yet resilient biomaterial that derives its unique mechanical properties from decussating bundles of apatite crystals. To understand enamel crystal nucleation and growth at a nanoscale level and to minimize preparation artifacts, the developing mouse enamel matrix was imaged in situ using graphene liquid cells and atomic resolution scanning transmission electron and cryo-fracture electron microscopy. We report that 1-2 nm diameter mineral precipitates aggregated to form larger 5 nm particle assemblies within ameloblast secretory vesicles or annular organic matrix subunits. Further evidence for the fusion of 1-2 nm mineral precipitates into 5 nm mineral aggregates via particle attachment was provided by matrix-mediated calcium phosphate crystal growth studies. As a next step, aggregated particles organized into rows of 3-10 subunits and developed lattice suprastructures with 0.34 nm gridline spacings corresponding to the (002) planes of apatite crystals. Mineral lattice suprastructures superseded closely matched organic matrix patterns, suggestive of a combination of organic/inorganic templates guiding apatite crystal growth. Upon assembly of 2-5 nm subunits into crystal ribbons, lattice fringes indicative of the presence of larger ordered crystallites were observed surrounding elongating crystal ribbons, presumably guiding the c-axis growth of composite apatite crystals. Cryo-fracture micrographs revealed reticular networks of an organic matrix on the surface of elongating enamel crystal ribbons, suggesting that protein coats facilitate c-axis apatite crystal growth. Together, these data demonstrate (i) the involvement of particle attachment in enamel crystal nucleation, (ii) a combination of matrix- and lattice-guided crystal growth, and (iii) fusion of individual crystals via a mechanism similar to Ostwald ripening.

10.
ACS Nano ; 13(3): 3730-3738, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807693

RESUMO

Strain engineering of semiconductors is used to modulate carrier mobility, tune the energy bandgap, and drive growth of self-assembled nanostructures. Understanding strain-energy relaxation mechanisms including phase transformations, dislocation nucleation and migration, and fracturing is essential to both exploit this degree of freedom and avoid degradation of carrier lifetime and mobility, particularly in prestrained electronic devices and flexible electronics that undergo large changes in strain during operation. Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction are utilized to identify strain-energy release mechanisms of bent diamond-cubic silicon (Si) and zinc-blende GaAs nanowires, which were elastically strained to >6% at room temperature and then annealed at an elevated temperature to activate relaxation mechanisms. High-temperature annealing of bent Si-nanowires leads to the nucleation, glide, and climb of dislocations, which align themselves to form grain boundaries, thereby reducing the strain energy. Herein, Si nanowires are reported to undergo polygonization, which is the formation of polygonal-shaped grains separated by grain boundaries consisting of aligned edge dislocations. Furthermore, strain is shown to drive dopant diffusion. In contrast to the behavior of Si, GaAs nanowires release strain energy by forming nanocracks in regions of tensile strain due to the weakening of As-bonds. These insights into the relaxation behavior of highly strained crystals can inform the design of nanoelectronic devices and provide guidance on mitigating degradation.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(4): 3823-3833, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615410

RESUMO

Building a stable chemical environment at the cathode/electrolyte interface is directly linked to the durability of Li-ion batteries with high energy density. Recently, colloidal chemistry methods have enabled the design of core-shell nanocrystals of Li1+ xMn2- xO4, an important battery cathode, with passivating shells rich in Al3+ through a colloidal synthetic route. These heterostructures combine the presence of redox-inactive ions on the surface to minimize undesired reactions, with the coverage of each individual particle in an epitaxial manner. Although they improve electrode performance, the exact chemistry and structure of the shell as well as the precise effect of the ratio between the shell and the active core remain to be elucidated. Correlation of these parameters to electrode properties would serve to tailor the heterostructure design toward complete shutdown of undesired reactions. These knowledge gaps are the target of this study. Li1+ xMn2- xO4 nanocrystals with Al3+-rich shells of different thicknesses were synthesized. Multimodal characterization comprehensively revealed the elemental distribution, electronic state, and crystallinity in the heterostructures, which confirmed the potential of this approach to finely tune passivating layers. All of the modified nanocrystals improved the capacity retention while retaining charge storage compared to the bare counterpart, even under harsh conditions.

12.
Adv Mater ; 31(4): e1804453, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500098

RESUMO

The optimization of traditional electrocatalysts has reached a point where progress is impeded by fundamental physical factors including inherent scaling relations among thermokinetic characteristics of different elementary reaction steps, non-Nernstian behavior, and electronic structure of the catalyst. This indicates that the currently utilized classes of electrocatalysts may not be adequate for future needs. This study reports on synthesis and characterization of a new class of materials based on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides including sulfides, selenides, and tellurides of group V and VI transition metals that exhibit excellent catalytic performance for both oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in an aprotic medium with Li salts. The reaction rates are much higher for these materials than previously reported catalysts for these reactions. The reasons for the high activity are found to be the metal edges with adiabatic electron transfer capability and a cocatalyst effect involving an ionic-liquid electrolyte. These new materials are expected to have high activity for other core electrocatalytic reactions and open the way for advances in energy storage and catalysis.

13.
Ultramicroscopy ; 196: 99-110, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388698

RESUMO

High-energy electrons that are used as a probe of specimens in transmission electron microscopy exhibit a complex and rich behavior due to multiple scattering. Among other things, understanding the dynamical effects is needed for a quantitative analysis of atomic-resolution images and spectroscopic data. In this study, state-correlation functions are computed within the multislice approach that allow to elucidate behaviors of transversely bound states in crystals. These states play an important role as a large fraction of current density can be coupled into them via focused electron probes. We show that bound states are generically unstable and decay monoexponentially with crystal depth. Their attenuation is accompanied by a resonant intensity transfer to Bessel-like wavefunctions that appear as Laue rings in the far-field diffraction patterns. Behaviors of bound states are also quantified when thermal effects are included, as well as point defects. This approach helps to bridge the Bloch wave and multisliced electron propagation pictures of dynamical scattering providing new insights into fundamental solutions of the wave equation, and may assist in developing quantitative STEM/TEM imaging techniques.

14.
Adv Mater ; 30(43): e1801629, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252179

RESUMO

Van der Waals interactions in 2D materials have enabled the realization of nanoelectronics with high-density vertical integration. Yet, poor energy transport through such 2D-2D and 2D-3D interfaces can limit a device's performance due to overheating. One long-standing question in the field is how different encapsulating layers (e.g., contact metals or gate oxides) contribute to the thermal transport at the interface of 2D materials with their 3D substrates. Here, a novel self-heating/self-sensing electrical thermometry platform is developed based on atomically thin, metallic Ti3 C2 MXene sheets, which enables experimental investigation of the thermal transport at a Ti3 C2 /SiO2 interface, with and without an aluminum oxide (AlOx ) encapsulating layer. It is found that at room temperature, the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) increases from 10.8 to 19.5 MW m-2 K-1 upon AlOx encapsulation. Boltzmann transport modeling reveals that the TBC can be understood as a series combination of an external resistance between the MXene and the substrate, due to the coupling of low-frequency flexural acoustic (ZA) phonons to substrate modes, and an internal resistance between ZA and in-plane phonon modes. It is revealed that internal resistance is a bottle-neck to heat removal and that encapsulation speeds up the heat transfer into low-frequency ZA modes and reduces their depopulation, thus increasing the effective TBC.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(40): 34443-34454, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212175

RESUMO

Surface modifications of a biomaterial like collagen are crucial in improving the surface properties and thus enhancing the functionality and performance of such a material for a variety of biomedical applications. In this study, a commercially available collagen membrane's surface was functionalized by depositing an ultrathin film of titania or titanium dioxide (TiO2) using a room temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. A novel titanium precursor-oxidizer combination was used for this process in a custom-made ALD reactor. Surface characterizations revealed successful deposition of uniform, conformal TiO2 thin film on the collagen fibrillar surface, and consequently, the fibers became thicker making the membrane pores smaller. The in vitro bioactivity of the ALD-TiO2 thin film coated collagen was investigated for the first time using cell proliferation and a calcium phosphate mineralization assay. The TiO2-coated collagen demonstrated improved biocompatibility promoting higher growth and proliferation of human osteoblastic and mesenchymal stem cells when compared to that of noncoated collagen. A higher level of calcium phosphate or apatite formation was observed on ALD modified collagen surface as compared to that on noncoated collagen. Therefore, this novel material can be promising in bone tissue engineering applications.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Colágeno , Teste de Materiais , Membranas Artificiais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Titânio , Linhagem Celular , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/farmacologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(38): 12144-12151, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125092

RESUMO

Control of composition, stoichiometry, and defects in colloidal quantum dots (QDs) of III-V semiconductors has proven to be difficult due to their covalent character. Whereas the synthesis of colloidal indium pnictides such as InP, InAs, and InSb has made significant progress, gallium-containing colloidal III-V QDs still remain largely elusive. Gallium pnictides represent an important class of semiconductors due to their excellent optoelectronic properties in the bulk; however, the difficulty with the synthesis of gallium-containing colloidal III-V QDs has largely prohibited their exploration as solution-processed semiconductors. Here we introduce molten inorganic salts as high-temperature solvents for the synthesis and manipulation of III-V QDs. We demonstrate cation exchange reactions on presynthesized InP and InAs QDs to form In1- xGa xP and In1- xGa xAs QDs at temperatures above 380 °C. This approach produces novel ternary alloy QDs with controllable compositions that show size- and composition-dependent absorption and emission features. Emission quantum yields of up to ∼50% can be obtained for In1- xGa xP/ZnS core-shell QDs. A comparison of the optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shells with In1- xGa xP/ZnS core-shells reveals that Ga incorporation leads to significant improvement in the optical properties of III-V/II-VI core-shell emitters which is of great importance for quantum dot-based lighting and display applications. This work also demonstrates the potential of molten inorganic salts as versatile solvents for the synthesis and processing of colloidal nanomaterials at temperatures inaccessible for traditional solvents.

17.
Adv Mater ; : e1802702, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062804

RESUMO

The ability to examine the vibrational spectra of liquids with nanometer spatial resolution will greatly expand the potential to study liquids and liquid interfaces. In fact, the fundamental properties of water, including complexities in its phase diagram, electrochemistry, and bonding due to nanoscale confinement are current research topics. For any liquid, direct investigation of ordered liquid structures, interfacial double layers, and adsorbed species at liquid-solid interfaces are of interest. Here, a novel way of characterizing the vibrational properties of liquid water with high spatial resolution using transmission electron microscopy is reported. By encapsulating water between two sheets of boron nitride, the ability to capture vibrational spectra to quantify the structure of the liquid, its interaction with the liquid-cell surfaces, and the ability to identify isotopes including H2 O and D2 O using electron energy-loss spectroscopy is demonstrated. The electron microscope used here, equipped with a high-energy-resolution monochromator, is able to record vibrational spectra of liquids and molecules and is sensitive to surface and bulk morphological properties both at the nano- and micrometer scales. These results represent an important milestone for liquid and isotope-labeled materials characterization with high spatial resolution, combining nanoscale imaging with vibrational spectroscopy.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 57(14): 8634-8638, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969255

RESUMO

Magnesium-ion batteries are a promising energy storage technology because of their higher theoretical energy density and lower cost of raw materials. Among the major challenges has been the identification of cathode materials that demonstrate capacities and voltages similar to lithium-ion systems. Thiospinels represent an attractive choice for new Mg-ion cathode materials owing to their interconnected diffusion pathways and demonstrated high cation mobility in numerous systems. Reported magnesium thiospinels, however, contain redox inactive metals such as scandium or indium, or have low voltages, such as MgTi2S4. This article describes the direct synthesis and structural and electrochemical characterization of MgCr2S4, a new thiospinel containing the redox active metal chromium and discusses its physical properties and potential as a magnesium battery cathode. However, as chromium(III) is quite stable against oxidation in sulfides, removing magnesium from the material remains a significant challenge. Early attempts at both chemical and electrochemical demagnesiation are discussed.

19.
Nature ; 555(7697): 502-506, 2018 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565358

RESUMO

Lithium-air batteries are considered to be a potential alternative to lithium-ion batteries for transportation applications, owing to their high theoretical specific energy. So far, however, such systems have been largely restricted to pure oxygen environments (lithium-oxygen batteries) and have a limited cycle life owing to side reactions involving the cathode, anode and electrolyte. In the presence of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour, these side reactions can become even more complex. Moreover, because of the need to store oxygen, the volumetric energy densities of lithium-oxygen systems may be too small for practical applications. Here we report a system comprising a lithium carbonate-based protected anode, a molybdenum disulfide cathode and an ionic liquid/dimethyl sulfoxide electrolyte that operates as a lithium-air battery in a simulated air atmosphere with a long cycle life of up to 700 cycles. We perform computational studies to provide insight into the operation of the system in this environment. This demonstration of a lithium-oxygen battery with a long cycle life in an air-like atmosphere is an important step towards the development of this field beyond lithium-ion technology, with a possibility to obtain much higher specific energy densities than for conventional lithium-ion batteries.

20.
Nanoscale ; 10(15): 6954-6961, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595859

RESUMO

Stabilization of electrode-electrolyte interfaces is required to increase the energy stored in battery electrodes. Introducing redox-inactive ions on the electrode surface minimizes deleterious side reactions without affecting the bulk properties. A synthetic challenge exists to grow such layers conformally at each primary particle, to fully passivate interfaces that are buried in the final electrode architecture. The development of methods of sequential colloidal growth of complex oxides and overlayers, enabled by surfactant interactions, would provide novel means to advance toward this goal. Here, nanocrystals composed of LiCoO2, a commercially relevant material for high energy devices, were grown with a shell enriched in Al3+, deposited conformally through a one-pot colloidal synthetic method. The effects of synthetic conditions on the composition of the Al-rich shell and the corresponding electrochemical performance were investigated. The modified nanocrystals showed enhanced electrochemical properties, while maintaining carrier transport.

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