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1.
Allergol Select ; 6: 148-166, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epithelial immune regulation is an essential and protective feature of the barrier function of the mucous membranes of the airways. Damage to the epithelial barrier can result in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) or bronchial asthma. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a central regulator in the epithelial barrier function and is associated with type 2 (T2) and non-T2 inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunology of chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis nasi (CRSwNP) was analyzed in a literature search, and the existing evidence was determined through searches in Medline, Pubmed as well as the national and international study and guideline registers and the Cochrane Library. Human studies or studies on human cells that were published between 2010 and 2020 and in which the immune mechanisms of TSLP in T2 and non-T2 inflammation were examined were considered. RESULTS: TSLP is an epithelial cytokine (alarmin) and a central regulator of the immune reaction, especially in the case of chronic airway inflammation. Induction of TSLP is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases like CRS and triggers a cascade of subsequent inflammatory reactions. CONCLUSION: Treatment with TSLP-blocking monoclonal antibodies could therefore open up interesting therapeutic options. The long-term safety and effectiveness of TSLP blockade has yet to be investigated.

2.
Allergo J ; 31(3): 3, 2022.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573258
3.
World Allergy Organ J ; : 100653, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578676

RESUMO

Olfactory dysfunction is common in COVID-19, and sudden-onset dysosmia is an early marker for wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection. Over 10,000 mutations of SARS-CoV-2 have been registered, with variants of concern (VOC) under particular scrutiny. We report a telemedicine-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study with quantitative olfaction testing comparing 79 patients with a confirmed VOC-Delta (n=21) or wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection led to significant decrease of olfactory function in both cohorts. A majority of patients suffered from hyposmia or anosmia at inclusion with only 26 individuals performing normosmic. Sniffin'Sticks total scores were significantly higher for VOC-Delta patients at onset of illness, compared to WT patients (p<0.001). At 4 weeks follow-up, olfaction scores recovered only partially for WT patients, thus odds of recovery were stronger in VOC-Delta patients. Also, subjective self-rating of chemosensory function was lower in WT, compared to VOC-Delta patients. The need for ongoing olfaction studies and their prognosis in SARS-CoV-2 background remains urgent, also in the light of increasing numbers of olfaction-related patient presentations.

4.
Allergy ; 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different treatments exist for allergic rhinitis (AR), including pharmacotherapy and allergen immunotherapy (AIT), but they have not been compared using direct patient data (i.e., "real-world data"). OBJECTIVE: To compare AR pharmacological treatments on (i) daily symptoms, (ii) frequency of use in co-medication, (iii) visual analogue scale (VAS) on allergy symptom control considering the minimal important difference (MID) and (iv) the effect of AIT. METHODS: We assessed the MASK-air® app data (May 2015 - December 2020) by users self-reporting AR (16-90 years). We compared eight AR medication schemes on reported VAS of allergy symptoms, clustering data by patient, and controlling for confounding factors. We compared (i) allergy symptoms between patients with and without AIT and (ii) different drug classes used in comedication. RESULTS: We analysed 269,837 days from 10,860 users. Most days (52.7%) involved medication use. Median VAS levels were significantly higher in co-medication than in monotherapy (including the fixed combination azelastine-fluticasone) schemes. In adjusted models, azelastine-fluticasone was associated with lower average VAS global allergy symptoms than all other medication schemes, while the contrary was observed for oral corticosteroids. AIT was associated with a decrease in allergy symptoms in some medication schemes. A difference larger than the MID compared to no treatment was observed for oral steroids. Azelastine-fluticasone was the drug class with the lowest chances of being used in co-medication (adjusted OR=0.75; 95%CI=0.71-0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Median VAS levels were higher in co-medication than in monotherapy. Patients with more severe symptoms report a higher treatment, which is currently not reflected in guidelines.

5.
Internist (Berl) ; 63(5): 467-475, 2022 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391569

RESUMO

Various factors affect the maturation of the infantile immune system both prenatally and postnatally, including risk and protective factors from the environment, nutrition, genetics and epigenetics. The microbiome seems to play a substantial role. The complex interaction and regulation of all these factors is ultimately decisive for whether a child develops an allergy during the course of development of the immune system. The genetic components play a decisive role in the development of allergic diseases. The epigenetic regulation could represent a mechanism where environmental influences act upon the immune regulation in the emergence of allergic diseases. The main factors in the pathophysiology of allergic reactions are a dysregulation of various cells of the innate and acquired immune systems as well as their interaction. This review describes the role of various T helper cell types in allergic diseases. The incidence and duration of airway infections are clearly increased in allergic patients compared to nonallergic controls. In addition to functional aspects, the reason for the more frequent infections is an impairment of the immune defence by the allergy-related persisting inflammation of the mucous membranes. These mechanisms must be differentiated from a true immunodeficiency. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and bronchial asthma are nowadays no longer defined as separate diseases but as two forms of expression of an atopic entity with a similar pathology. Both diseases can be mediated by immunoglobulin E and be elicited by identical triggers. A bronchial hyperreactivity is detectable in the majority of patients with AR but without clinical asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Criança , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Inflamação
6.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(3): e12127, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344297

RESUMO

Vaccination is a highly effective preventive measure against COVID-19. However, complementary treatments are needed to better control the disease. Fermented vegetables and spices, agonists of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and TRPA1/V1 channels (Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 and Vanillin 1), may help in the control of COVID-19. Some preliminary clinical trials suggest that curcumin (spice) can prevent some of the COVID-19 symptoms. Before any conclusion can be drawn and these treatments recommended for COVID-19, the data warrant confirmation. In particular, the benefits of the foods need to be assessed in more patients, through research studies and large trials employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled design.

7.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(3): e12128, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the effectiveness of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) on allergic rhinitis has been provided mostly by randomised controlled trials, with little data from real-life studies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the reported control of allergic rhinitis symptoms in three groups of users of the MASK-air® app: those receiving sublingual AIT (SLIT), those receiving subcutaneous AIT (SCIT), and those receiving no AIT. METHODS: We assessed the MASK-air® data of European users with self-reported grass pollen allergy, comparing the data reported by patients receiving SLIT, SCIT and no AIT. Outcome variables included the daily impact of allergy symptoms globally and on work (measured by visual analogue scales-VASs), and a combined symptom-medication score (CSMS). We applied Bayesian mixed-effects models, with clustering by patient, country and pollen season. RESULTS: We analysed a total of 42,756 days from 1,093 grass allergy patients, including 18,479 days of users under AIT. Compared to no AIT, SCIT was associated with similar VAS levels and CSMS. Compared to no AIT, SLIT-tablet was associated with lower values of VAS global allergy symptoms (average difference = 7.5 units out of 100; 95% credible interval [95%CrI] = -12.1;-2.8), lower VAS Work (average difference = 5.0; 95%CrI = -8.5;-1.5), and a lower CSMS (average difference = 3.7; 95%CrI = -9.3;2.2). When compared to SCIT, SLIT-tablet was associated with lower VAS global allergy symptoms (average difference = 10.2; 95%CrI = -17.2;-2.8), lower VAS Work (average difference = 7.8; 95%CrI = -15.1;0.2), and a lower CSMS (average difference = 9.3; 95%CrI = -18.5;0.2). CONCLUSION: In patients with grass pollen allergy, SLIT-tablet, when compared to no AIT and to SCIT, is associated with lower reported symptom severity. Future longitudinal studies following internationally-harmonised standards for performing and reporting real-world data in AIT are needed to better understand its 'real-world' effectiveness.

8.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(3): e12134, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When the coronavirus pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) emerged, concerns were also raised regarding the safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT). The German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) conducted a survey to collect real-world data on the daily routine of administering subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) and sublingual AIT (SLIT) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web-based retrospective survey using the online platform survio with 26 standardized questions was used to survey physicians treating allergic patients during the pandemic. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-five physicians who regularly offer and perform AIT in German-speaking countries responded to the questions. 70.4% of the respondents stated that they regularly initiated and dosed up SCIT for inhalant allergies (41.4% venom-SCIT, 73.6% SLIT), and 85.2% of the respondents stated that they continued SCIT for inhalant allergies during the maintenance phase in a regular way (59.1% venom-SCIT, 90.4% SLIT) in healthy patients without current symptoms indicating an infection with COVID-19. With regard to tolerability, there was no evidence for increased occurrence of adverse events in patients without current symptoms of COVID-19 infection during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study demonstrated adherence to national and international position papers of AIT during the COVID-19 pandemic in German-speaking countries. Besides, the survey has confirmed a good tolerability of AIT for both SCIT and SLIT.

10.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a small number of apps addressing allergic rhinitis (AR) patients have been evaluated. This makes their selection difficult. We aimed to introduce a new approach to market research for AR apps, based on the automatic screening of Apple App and Google Play stores. METHODS: A JavaScript programme was devised for automatic app screening, and applied in a market assessment of AR self-management apps. We searched the Google Play and Apple App stores of three countries (USA, UK and Australia) with the following search terms: "hay fever", "hayfever", "asthma", "rhinitis", "allergic rhinitis". Apps were eligible if symptoms were evaluated. Results obtained with the automatic programme were compared to those of a blinded manual search. As an example, we used the search to assess apps that can be used to design a combined medication score for AR. RESULTS: The automatic search programme identified 39 potentially eligible apps out of a total of 1593 retrieved apps. Each of the 39 apps was individually checked, with 20 being classified as relevant. The manual search identified 19 relevant apps (out of 6750 screened apps). Combining both methods, a total of 21 relevant apps were identified, pointing to a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 99% for the automatic method. Among these 21 apps, only two could be used for the combined symptom-medication score for AR. CONCLUSIONS: The programmed algorithm presented herein is able to continuously retrieve all relevant AR apps in the Apple App and Google Play stores, with high sensitivity and specificity. This approach has the potential to unveil the gaps and unmet needs of the apps developed so far.

11.
Allergy ; 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-medication is common among patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), but its dimension and patterns are unknown. This is particularly relevant since AR is understood differently across European countries, as reflected by rhinitis-related search patterns in Google Trends. This study aims to assess AR co-medication and its regional patterns in Europe, using real-world data. METHODS: We analysed 2015-2020 MASK-air® European data. We compared days under no medication, monotherapy and co-medication using the visual analogue scale (VAS) levels for overall allergic symptoms ('VAS Global Symptoms') and impact of AR on work. We assessed the monthly use of different medication schemes, performing separate analyses by region (defined geographically or by Google Trends patterns). We estimated the average number of different drugs reported per patient within 1 year. RESULTS: We analysed 222,024 days (13,122 users), including 63,887 days (28.8%) under monotherapy and 38,315 (17.3%) under co-medication. The median 'VAS Global Symptoms' was 7 for no medication days, 14 for monotherapy and 21 for co-medication (p < .001). Medication use peaked during the spring, with similar patterns across different European regions (defined geographically or by Google Trends). Oral H1 -antihistamines were the most common medication in single and co-medication. Each patient reported using an annual average of 2.7 drugs, with 80% reporting two or more. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinitis medication patterns are similar across European regions. One third of treatment days involved co-medication. These findings suggest that patients treat themselves according to their symptoms (irrespective of how they understand AR) and that co-medication use is driven by symptom severity.

12.
Allergol Select ; 6: 61-97, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The persistently high prevalence of allergic diseases in Western industrial nations and the limited possibilities of causal therapy make evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention necessary. METHODS: The recommendations of the S3 guideline Allergy Prevention, published in its last version in 2014, were revised and consulted on the basis of a current systematic literature search. The evidence search was conducted for the period 06/2013 - 11/2020 in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE, as well as in the reference lists of current reviews and through references from experts. The literature found was screened in two filtering processes, first by title and abstract, and the remaining papers were screened in the full text for relevance. The studies included after this were sorted by level of evidence, and the study quality was indicated in terms of potential bias (low/high). The revised recommendations were formally agreed and consented upon with the participation of representatives of the relevant professional societies and (self-help) organizations (nominal group process). Of 5,681 hits, 286 studies were included and assessed. RESULTS: Recommendations on maternal nutrition during pregnancy and breastfeeding as well as on infant nutrition in the first months of life again play an important role in the updated guideline: Many of the previous recommendations were confirmed by the current data. It was specified that breastfeeding should be exclusive for the first 4 - 6 months after birth, if possible, and that breastfeeding should continue with the introduction of complementary foods. A new recommendation is that supplementary feeding of cow's milk-based formula should be avoided in the first days of life if the mother wishes to breastfeed. Furthermore, it was determined that the evidence for a clear recommendation for hydrolyzed infant formula in non-breastfed infants at risk is currently no longer sufficient. It is therefore currently recommended to check whether an infant formula with proven efficacy in allergy prevention studies is available until the introduction of complementary feeding. Finally, based on the EAACI guideline, recommendations were made for the prevention of chicken egg allergy by introducing and regularly giving thoroughly heated (e.g., baked or hard-boiled) but not "raw" chicken egg (also no scrambled egg) with the complementary food. The recommendation to introduce peanut in complementary feeding was formulated cautiously for the German-speaking countries: In families who usually consume peanut, the regular administration of peanut-containing foods in age-appropriate form (e.g., peanut butter) with the complementary diet can be considered for the primary prevention of peanut allergy in infants with atopic dermatitis (AD). Before introduction, a clinically relevant peanut allergy must be ruled out, especially in infants with moderate to severe AD. There is still insufficient evidence for an allergy-preventive efficacy of prebiotics or probiotics, vitamin D, or other vitamins in the form of supplements so that recommendations against their supplementation were adopted for the first time in the current guideline. Biodiversity plays an important role in the development of immunological tolerance to environmental and food allergens: there is clear evidence that growing up on a farm is associated with a lower risk of developing asthma and allergic diseases. This is associated with early non-specific immune stimulation due to, among other things, the greater microbial biodiversity of house dust in this habitat. This aspect is also reflected in the recommendations on animal husbandry, on which a differentiated statement was made: In families without a recognizable increased allergy risk, pet keeping with cats or dogs should not generally be restricted. Families with an increased allergy risk or with children with already existing AD should not acquire a new cat - in contrast, however, dog ownership should not be discouraged. Interventions to reduce exposure to dust mite allergens in the home, such as the use of mite allergen-proof mattress covers ("encasings"), should be restricted to patients with already proven specific sensitization against house dust mite allergen. Children born by caesarean section have a slightly increased risk of asthma - this should be taken into account when advising on mode of delivery outside of emergency situations. Recent work also supports the recommendations on air pollutants: Active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke increase the risk of allergies, especially asthma, and should therefore be avoided. Exposure to nitrogen oxides, ozone, and small particles (PM 2.5) is associated with an increased risk, especially for asthma. Therefore, exposure to emissions of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and small particles (PM 2.5) should be kept low. The authors of this guideline are unanimously in favor of enacting appropriate regulations to minimize these air pollutants. There is no evidence that vaccinations increase the risk of allergies, but conversely there is evidence that vaccinations can reduce the risk of allergies. All children, including children at risk, should be vaccinated according to the current recommendations of the national public health institutes, also for reasons of allergy prevention. CONCLUSION: The consensus of recommendations in this guideline is based on an extensive evidence base. The update of the guideline enables evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for the prevention of allergic diseases including asthma and atopic dermatitis.

13.
Allergy ; 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102560

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most widely used recreational drug in the world. Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica have been selectively bred to develop their psychoactive properties. The increasing use in many countries has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Cannabis can provoke both type 1 and type 4 allergic reactions. Officially recognized allergens include a pathogenesis-related class 10 allergen, profilin, and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein. Other allergens may also be relevant, and recognition of allergens may vary between countries and continents. Cannabis also has the potential to provoke allergic cross-reactions to plant foods. Since cannabis is an illegal substance in many countries, research has been hampered, leading to challenges in diagnosis since no commercial extracts are available for testing. Even in countries such as Canada, where cannabis is legalized, diagnosis may rely solely on the purchase of cannabis for prick-to-prick skin tests. Management consists of avoidance, with legal issues hindering the development of other treatments such as immunotherapy. Education of healthcare professionals is similarly lacking. This review aimed to summarize the current status of cannabis allergy and proposes recommendations for the future management of this global issue.

14.
Allergy ; 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis, which is rare, has been reported after COVID-19 vaccination, but its management is not standardized. METHOD: Members of the European Network for Drug Allergy and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology interested in drug allergy participated in an online questionnaire on pre-vaccination screening and management of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines, and literature was analysed. RESULTS: No death due to anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines has been confirmed in scientific literature. Potential allergens, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polysorbate and tromethamine are excipients. The authors propose allergy evaluation of persons with the following histories: 1-anaphylaxis to injectable drug or vaccine containing PEG or derivatives; 2-anaphylaxis to oral/topical PEG containing products; 3-recurrent anaphylaxis of unknown cause; 4-suspected or confirmed allergy to any mRNA vaccine; and 5-confirmed allergy to PEG or derivatives. We recommend a prick-to-prick skin test with the left-over solution in the suspected vaccine vial to avoid waste. Prick test panel should include PEG 4000 or 3500, PEG 2000 and polysorbate 80. The value of in vitro test is arguable. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations will lead to a better knowledge of the management and mechanisms involved in anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines and enable more people with history of allergy to be vaccinated.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183784

RESUMO

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease that affects >10% of the adult population in Europe and the United States. It has been delineated phenotypically into CRS without nasal polyps and CRS with nasal polyps. Both have a high disease burden and an overlapping spectrum of symptoms such as nasal obstruction, olfactory dysfunction, facial pain, pressure, and nasal discharge. Primary assessment includes evaluation of patient symptoms and impact on quality of life, nasal endoscopic examination, and imaging. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of CRS pathophysiology. There is a move toward describing CRS in terms of the predominant endotype or inflammatory pattern pathomechanism rather than the traditional classification of patients with and without nasal polyps. An increased elucidation of the disease endotypes, as characterized by their inflammatory pathways and mediators, is leading to a tailored more personalized treatment approach to the different disease subtypes.

17.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(1): e12097, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35070270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected health care systems unexpectedly. However, data focusing on practical considerations experienced by health care professionals (HCPs) providing care to allergic patients is scarce. METHODS: Under the framework of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), a panel of experts in the field of immunotherapy developed a 42-question online survey, to evaluate real-life consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in allergy practice. RESULTS: The respondents in the survey were 618. About 80% of HCPs indicated being significantly affected in their allergy practice. A face-to-face visit reduction was reported by 93% of HCPs and about a quarter completely interrupted diagnostic challenges. Patients with severe uncontrolled asthma (59%) and anaphylaxis (47%) were prioritized for in-person care. About 81% maintained an unaltered prescription of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthmatics. About 90% did not modify intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) in patients with allergic rhinitis. Nearly half of respondents kept biological prescriptions unmodified for asthma. About 50% of respondents kept their allergen immunotherapy (AIT) prescription patterns unchanged for respiratory allergies; 60% for insect venom allergies. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergies was initiated by 27%. About 20% kept carrying out up-dosing without modifications and 14% changed to more prolonged intervals. Telemedicine practice was increased. CONCLUSIONS: HCPs providing care to allergic patients were affected during the pandemic in diagnostic, management, and therapeutic approaches, including AIT for respiratory, insect-venom, and food allergies. Most HCPs maintained controller treatments for both asthma, and allergic rhinitis consistent with international recommendations, as well as biological agents in asthma. Remote tools are valuable in delivering allergy care.

18.
Allergy ; 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978085

RESUMO

Allergic asthma (AA) is a common asthma phenotype, and its diagnosis requires both the demonstration of IgE-sensitization to aeroallergens and the causative role of this sensitization as a major driver of asthma symptoms. Therefore, a bronchial allergen challenge (BAC) would be occasionally required to identify AA patients among atopic asthmatics. Nevertheless, BAC is usually considered a research tool only, with existing protocols being tailored to mild asthmatics and research needs (eg long washout period for inhaled corticosteroids). Consequently, existing BAC protocols are not designed to be performed in moderate-to-severe asthmatics or in clinical practice. The correct diagnosis of AA might help select patients for immunomodulatory therapies. Allergen sublingual immunotherapy is now registered and recommended for controlled or partially controlled patients with house dust mite-driven AA and with FEV1 ≥ 70%. Allergen avoidance is costly and difficult to implement for the management of AA, so the proper selection of patients is also beneficial. In this position paper, the EAACI Task Force proposes a methodology for clinical BAC that would need to be validated in future studies. The clinical implementation of BAC could ultimately translate into a better phenotyping of asthmatics in real life, and into a more accurate selection of patients for long-term and costly management pathways.

19.
Int Immunol ; 34(4): 177-188, 2022 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788827

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic causes an overwhelming number of hospitalization and deaths with a significant socioeconomic impact. The vast majority of studies indicate that asthma and allergic diseases do not represent a risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility nor cause a more severe course of disease. This raises the opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the interaction between an allergic background and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The majority of patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, food allergies and drug allergies exhibit an over-expression of type 2 immune and inflammatory pathways with the contribution of epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, dendritic cells, T cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-31. The potential impact of type 2 inflammation-related allergic diseases on susceptibility to COVID-19 and severity of its course have been reported. In this review, the prevalence of asthma and other common allergic diseases in COVID-19 patients is addressed. Moreover, the impact of allergic and non-allergic asthma with different severity and control status, currently available asthma treatments such as inhaled and oral corticosteroids, short- and long-acting ß2 agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists and biologicals on the outcome of COVID-19 patients is reviewed. In addition, possible protective mechanisms of asthma and type 2 inflammation on COVID-19 infection, such as the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, antiviral activity of eosinophils and cross-reactive T-cell epitopes, are discussed. Potential interactions of other allergic diseases with COVID-19 are postulated, including recommendations for their management.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Rinite Alérgica , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Linfócitos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
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