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1.
iScience ; 25(1): 103596, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988410

RESUMO

Childhood-onset myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathic changes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in early life, particularly in patients with Noonan syndrome, a multisystemic genetic disorder caused by autosomal dominant mutations in genes of the Ras-MAPK pathway. Although the cardiomyopathy associated with Noonan syndrome (NS-CM) shares certain cardiac features with the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins (HCM), such as pathological myocardial remodeling, ventricular dysfunction, and increased risk for malignant arrhythmias, the clinical course of NS-CM significantly differs from HCM. This suggests a distinct pathophysiology that remains to be elucidated. Here, through analysis of sarcomeric myosin conformational states, histopathology, and gene expression in left ventricular myocardial tissue from NS-CM, HCM, and normal hearts complemented with disease modeling in cardiomyocytes differentiated from patient-derived PTPN11 N308S/+ induced pluripotent stem cells, we demonstrate distinct disease phenotypes between NS-CM and HCM and uncover cell cycle defects as a potential driver of NS-CM.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910083

RESUMO

Importance: Myocardial injury is a common feature of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the cardiac inflammatory processes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are not completely understood. Objective: To investigate the inflammatory cardiac phenotype associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with viral myocarditis, immune-mediated myocarditis, and noninflammatory cardiomyopathy by integrating histologic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiling. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series was a cooperative study between the Ludwig Maximilian University Hospital Munich and the Cardiopathology Referral Center at the University of Tübingen in Germany. A cohort of 19 patients with suspected myocarditis was examined; of those, 5 patients were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and May 2020. Cardiac tissue specimens from those 5 patients were compared with specimens from 5 patients with immune-mediated myocarditis, 4 patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 viral myocarditis, and 5 patients with noninflammatory cardiomyopathy, collected from January to August 2019. Exposures: Endomyocardial biopsy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The inflammatory cardiac phenotypes were measured by immunohistologic analysis, RNA exome capture sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of endomyocardial biopsy specimens. Results: Among 19 participants, the median age was 58 years (range, 37-76 years), and 15 individuals (79%) were male. Data on race and ethnicity were not collected. The abundance of CD163+ macrophages was generally higher in the cardiac tissue of patients with myocarditis, whereas lymphocyte counts were lower in the tissue of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection vs patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 virus-associated and immune-mediated myocarditis. Among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, components of the complement cascade, including C1q subunits (transcriptomic analysis: 2.5-fold to 3.6-fold increase; proteomic analysis: 2.0-fold to 3.4-fold increase) and serine/cysteine proteinase inhibitor clade G member 1 (transcriptomic analysis: 1.7-fold increase; proteomic analysis: 2.6-fold increase), belonged to the most commonly upregulated transcripts and differentially abundant proteins. In cardiac macrophages, the abundance of C1q was highest in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Assessment of important signaling cascades identified an upregulation of the serine/threonine mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Conclusions and Relevance: This case series found that the cardiac immune signature varied in inflammatory conditions with different etiologic characteristics. Future studies are needed to examine the role of these immune pathways in myocardial inflammation.

3.
EMBO Rep ; : e53865, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927793

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) requires continued development of effective therapeutics. Recently, we identified high-affinity neutralizing nanobodies (Nbs) specific for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Taking advantage of detailed epitope mapping, we generate two biparatopic Nbs (bipNbs) targeting a conserved epitope outside and two different epitopes inside the RBD:ACE2 interface. Both bipNbs bind all currently circulating VOCs with high affinities and are capable to neutralize cellular infection with VOC B.1.351 (Beta) and B.1.617.2 (Delta) in vitro. To assess if the bipNbs NM1267 and NM1268 confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo, human ACE2 transgenic mice are treated intranasally before infection with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV-2 B.1, B.1.351 (Beta) or B.1.617.2 (Delta). Nb-treated mice show significantly reduced disease progression and increased survival rates. Histopathological analyses further reveal a drastically reduced viral load and inflammatory response in lungs. These data suggest that both bipNbs are broadly active against a variety of emerging SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and represent easily applicable drug candidates.

4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960605

RESUMO

The new WHO reference standard allows for the definition of serum antibodies against various SARS-CoV-2 antigens in terms of binding antibody units (BAU/mL) and thus to compare the results of different ELISA systems. In this study, the concentration of antibodies (ABs) against both the S- and the N-protein of SARS-CoV-2 as well as serum neutralization activity were evaluated in three patients after a mild course of COVID-19. Serum samples were collected frequently during a period of over one year. Furthermore, in two individuals, the effects of an additional vaccination with a mRNA vaccine containing the S1-RBD sequence on these antibodies were examined. After natural infection, the antibodies (IgA, IgG) against the S1-protein remained elevated above the established cut-off to positivity (S-IgA 60 BAU/mL and S-IgG 50 BAU/mL, respectively) for over a year in all patients, while this was not the case for ABs against the N-protein (cut-off N-IgG 40 BAU/mL, N-IgA 256 BAU/mL). Sera from all patients retained the ability to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 for more than a year. Vaccination resulted in a rapid boost of antibodies to S1-protein but, as expected, not to the N-protein. Most likely, the wide use of the WHO reference preparation will be very useful in determining the individual immune status of patients after an infection with SARS-CoV-2 or after vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/normas , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação
5.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696348

RESUMO

The coxsackievirus B3 strain PD-0 has been proposed as a new oncolytic virus for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. Here, we generated a cDNA clone of PD-0 and analyzed the virus PD-H, newly generated from this cDNA, in xenografted and syngenic models of colorectal cancer. Replication and cytotoxic assays revealed that PD-H replicated and lysed colorectal carcinoma cell lines in vitro as well as PD-0. Intratumoral injection of PD-H into subcutaneous DLD-1 tumors in nude mice resulted in strong inhibition of tumor growth and significantly prolonged the survival of the animals, but virus-induced systemic infection was observed in one of the six animals. In a syngenic mouse model of subcutaneously growing Colon-26 tumors, intratumoral administration of PD-H led to a significant reduction of tumor growth, the prolongation of animal survival, the prevention of tumor-induced cachexia, and the elevation of CD3+ and dendritic cells in the tumor microenvironment. No virus-induced side effects were observed. After intraperitoneal application, PD-H induced weak pancreatitis and myocarditis in immunocompetent mice. By equipping the virus with target sites of miR-375, which is specifically expressed in the pancreas, organ infections were prevented. Moreover, employment of this virus in a syngenic mouse model of CT-26 peritoneal carcinomatosis resulted in a significant reduction in tumor growth and an increase in animal survival. The results demonstrate that the immune status of the host, the route of virus application, and the engineering of the virus with target sites of suitable microRNAs are crucial for the use of PD-H as an oncolytic virus.

6.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 757642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646875

RESUMO

Background: Diagnosis of cardiac involvement in amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is challenging since AA amyloidosis is a rare disease and cardiac involvement even less frequent. The diagnostic yield of currently available non-invasive imaging methods is not well-studied and rather limited, and invasive endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is rarely performed due to the potential risk of this procedure. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-based myocardial tissue characterization by late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) imaging and novel-mapping approaches may increase the diagnostic yield in AA amyloidosis. Methods: Two patients with AA amyloidosis in whom cardiac involvement was suspected based on CMR findings and subsequently proven by biopsy work-up are presented. CMR studies were performed on a 1.5-T system and comprised a cine steady-state free precession pulse sequence for ventricular function and a late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) sequence for detection of myocardial pathology. Moreover, a modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1-mapping sequence was applied in basal, mid and apical short-axes prior to contrast agent administration and ~20 min thereafter to determine native T1 and ECV values. Results: Both patients showed slightly dilated left ventricles (LV) with mild to moderate LV hypertrophy and preserved systolic function. Only a very subtle pattern of LGE was observed in both patients with AA amyloidosis. However, markedly elevated native T1 (max. 1,108 and 1,112 ms, respectively) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) values (max. 39 and 48%, respectively) were measured in the myocardium suggesting the presence of cardiac involvement - with subsequent EMB-based proof of AA amyloidosis. Conclusion: We recommend a multi-parametric CMR approach in patients with AA amyloidosis comprising both LGE-based contrast-imaging and T1-mapping-based ECV measurement of the myocardium for non-invasive work-up of suspected cardiac involvement. The respective CMR findings may be used as gatekeeper for additional invasive procedures (such as EMB) and as a non-invasive monitoring tool regarding assessment and modification of ongoing treatments.

7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2885-2899, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, advances in genetic techniques have resulted in the identification of rare hereditary disorders of renal magnesium and salt handling. Nevertheless, approximately 20% of all patients with tubulopathy lack a genetic diagnosis. METHODS: We performed whole-exome and -genome sequencing of a patient cohort with a novel, inherited, salt-losing tubulopathy; hypomagnesemia; and dilated cardiomyopathy. We also conducted subsequent in vitro functional analyses of identified variants of RRAGD, a gene that encodes a small Rag guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase). RESULTS: In eight children from unrelated families with a tubulopathy characterized by hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, salt wasting, and nephrocalcinosis, we identified heterozygous missense variants in RRAGD that mostly occurred de novo. Six of these patients also had dilated cardiomyopathy and three underwent heart transplantation. We identified a heterozygous variant in RRAGD that segregated with the phenotype in eight members of a large family with similar kidney manifestations. The GTPase RagD, encoded by RRAGD, plays a role in mediating amino acid signaling to the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). RagD expression along the mammalian nephron included the thick ascending limb and the distal convoluted tubule. The identified RRAGD variants were shown to induce a constitutive activation of mTOR signaling in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish a novel disease, which we call autosomal dominant kidney hypomagnesemia (ADKH-RRAGD), that combines an electrolyte-losing tubulopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. The condition is caused by variants in the RRAGD gene, which encodes Rag GTPase D; these variants lead to an activation of mTOR signaling, suggesting a critical role of Rag GTPase D for renal electrolyte handling and cardiac function.

8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 716198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568458

RESUMO

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a novel hyperinflammatory syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. It predominantly affects children (MIS-C) a few weeks after a usually asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and is only rarely seen in adults above 21 years (MIS-A). Only scarce data on histological findings in both pediatric and adult patients has been published so far. An 18-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital in a febrile state, which progressed to severe cardiogenic shock and multi-organ failure requiring extracorporeal life support. Myocardial biopsy revealed small vessel-associated immune cell infiltrates. Diagnosis of MIS-C was made after ruling out all potential differential diagnosis. Use of immunosuppressive treatment with steroids, interleukin-1 blockade and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins resulted in the patient's full recovery. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a new differential diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction in pediatric and adult patients. The lack of myocardial necrosis differentiates the disease from other viral myocarditis and offers an explanation for the fast response to immunomodulatory therapy and the favorable prognosis. The preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection might only have been mildly symptomatic or even asymptomatic.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502534

RESUMO

Rare pediatric non-compaction and restrictive cardiomyopathy are usually associated with a rapid and severe disease progression. While the non-compaction phenotype is characterized by structural defects and is correlated with systolic dysfunction, the restrictive phenotype exhibits diastolic dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Target genes encode among others, the cardiac troponin subunits forming the main regulatory protein complex of the thin filament for muscle contraction. Here, we compare the molecular effects of two infantile de novo point mutations in TNNC1 (p.cTnC-G34S) and TNNI3 (p.cTnI-D127Y) leading to severe non-compaction and restrictive phenotypes, respectively. We used skinned cardiomyocytes, skinned fibers, and reconstituted thin filaments to measure the impact of the mutations on contractile function. We investigated the interaction of these troponin variants with actin and their inter-subunit interactions, as well as the structural integrity of reconstituted thin filaments. Both mutations exhibited similar functional and structural impairments, though the patients developed different phenotypes. Furthermore, the protein quality control system was affected, as shown for TnC-G34S using patient's myocardial tissue samples. The two troponin targeting agents levosimendan and green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) stabilized the structural integrity of reconstituted thin filaments and ameliorated contractile function in vitro in some, but not all, aspects to a similar degree for both mutations.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Troponina I/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Adulto , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Miofibrilas/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibrilas/ultraestrutura , Sarcômeros/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Simendana/farmacologia , Tropomiosina/metabolismo , Troponina I/metabolismo
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 642891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504485

RESUMO

Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) and multiorgan fibrosis. Animal studies pointed to bone marrow-derived cells as a potential source of pathological ECM-producing cells in immunofibrotic disorders. So far, involvement of monocytes and macrophages in the fibrogenesis of SSc remains poorly understood. Methods and Results: Immunohistochemistry analysis showed accumulation of CD14+ monocytes in the collagen-rich areas, as well as increased amount of alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive fibroblasts, CD68+ and mannose-R+ macrophages in the heart and lungs of SSc patients. The full genome transcriptomics analyses of CD14+ blood monocytes revealed dysregulation in cytoskeleton rearrangement, ECM remodeling, including elevated FN1 (gene encoding fibronectin) expression and TGF-ß signalling pathway in SSc patients. In addition, single cell RNA sequencing analysis of tissue-resident CD14+ pulmonary macrophages demonstrated activated profibrotic signature with the elevated FN1 expression in SSc patients with interstitial lung disease. Peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes obtained from either healthy subjects or SSc patients exposed to profibrotic treatment with profibrotic cytokines TGF-ß, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 increased production of type I collagen, fibronectin, and αSMA. In addition, CD14+ monocytes co-cultured with dermal fibroblasts obtained from SSc patients or healthy individuals acquired a spindle shape and further enhanced production of profibrotic markers. Pharmacological blockade of the TGF-ß signalling pathway with SD208 (TGF-ß receptor type I inhibitor), SIS3 (Smad3 inhibitor) or (5Z)-7-oxozeaenol (TGF-ß-activated kinase 1 inhibitor) ameliorated fibronectin levels and type I collagen secretion. Conclusions: Our findings identified activated profibrotic signature with elevated production of profibrotic fibronectin in CD14+ monocytes and CD14+ pulmonary macrophages in SSc and highlighted the capability of CD14+ monocytes to acquire a profibrotic phenotype. Taking together, tissue-infiltrating CD14+ monocytes/macrophages can be considered as ECM producers in SSc pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
12.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578416

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) belongs to the enteroviruses, which are a well-known cause of acute and chronic myocarditis, primarily infecting cardiac myocytes. As primary human cardiomyocytes are difficult to obtain, viral myocarditis is quite frequently studied in vitro in different non-cardiac and cardiac-like cell lines. Recently, cardiomyocytes that have been differentiated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells have been described as a new model system to study CVB3 infection. Here, we compared iCell® Cardiomyocytes with other cell lines that are commonly used to study CVB3 infection regarding their susceptibility and patterns of infection and the mode of cell death. iCell® Cardiomyocytes, HeLa cells, HL-1 cells and H9c2 cells were infected with CVB3 (Nancy strain). The viral load, CVB3 RNA genome localization, VP1 expression (including the intracellular localization), cellular morphology and the expression of cell death markers were compared. The various cell lines clearly differed in their permissiveness to CVB3 infection, patterns of infection, viral load, and mode of cell death. When studying the mode of cell death of CVB3-infected iCell® Cardiomyocytes in more detail, especially regarding the necroptosis key players RIPK1 and RIPK3, we found that RIPK1 is cleaved during CVB3 infection. iCell® Cardiomyocytes represent well the natural host of CVB3 in the heart and are thus the most appropriate model system to study molecular mechanisms of CVB3-induced myocarditis in vitro. Doubts are raised about the suitability of commonly used cell lines such as HeLa cells, HL-1 cells and H9c2 cells to evaluate molecular pathways and processes occurring in vivo in enteroviral myocarditis.

13.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578462

RESUMO

Evidence is emerging that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can infect various organs of the body, including cardiomyocytes and cardiac endothelial cells in the heart. This review focuses on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the heart after direct infection that can lead to myocarditis and an outline of potential treatment options. The main points are: (1) Viral entry: SARS-CoV-2 uses specific receptors and proteases for docking and priming in cardiac cells. Thus, different receptors or protease inhibitors might be effective in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiac cells. (2) Viral replication: SARS-CoV-2 uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for replication. Drugs acting against ssRNA(+) viral replication for cardiac cells can be effective. (3) Autophagy and double-membrane vesicles: SARS-CoV-2 manipulates autophagy to inhibit viral clearance and promote SARS-CoV-2 replication by creating double-membrane vesicles as replication sites. (4) Immune response: Host immune response is manipulated to evade host cell attacks against SARS-CoV-2 and increased inflammation by dysregulating immune cells. Efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy must be elucidated. (5) Programmed cell death: SARS-CoV-2 inhibits programmed cell death in early stages and induces apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis in later stages. (6) Energy metabolism: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to disturbed energy metabolism that in turn leads to a decrease in ATP production and ROS production. (7) Viroporins: SARS-CoV-2 creates viroporins that lead to an imbalance of ion homeostasis. This causes apoptosis, altered action potential, and arrhythmia.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Apoptose , Autofagia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Células Endoteliais/ultraestrutura , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/terapia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/terapia , Proteínas Viroporinas , Replicação Viral
14.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 6(7): 584-592, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368507

RESUMO

Impairments in certain cardiac genes confer risk for myocarditis in children. To determine the extent of this association, we performed genomic sequencing in predominantly adult patients with acute myocarditis and matched control subjects. Putatively deleterious variants in a broad set of cardiac genes were found in 19 of 117 acute myocarditis cases vs 34 of 468 control subjects (P = 0.003). Thirteen genes classically associated with cardiomyopathy or neuromuscular disorders with cardiac involvement were implicated, including >1 associated damaging variant in DYSF, DSP, and TTN. Phenotypes of subjects who have acute myocarditis with or without deleterious variants were similar, indicating that genetic testing is necessary to differentiate them.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4957, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400653

RESUMO

Influenza during pregnancy can affect the health of offspring in later life, among which neurocognitive disorders are among the best described. Here, we investigate whether maternal influenza infection has adverse effects on immune responses in offspring. We establish a two-hit mouse model to study the effect of maternal influenza A virus infection (first hit) on vulnerability of offspring to heterologous infections (second hit) in later life. Offspring born to influenza A virus infected mothers are stunted in growth and more vulnerable to heterologous infections (influenza B virus and MRSA) than those born to PBS- or poly(I:C)-treated mothers. Enhanced vulnerability to infection in neonates is associated with reduced haematopoetic development and immune responses. In particular, alveolar macrophages of offspring exposed to maternal influenza have reduced capacity to clear second hit pathogens. This impaired pathogen clearance is partially reversed by adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages from healthy offspring born to uninfected dams. These findings suggest that maternal influenza infection may impair immune ontogeny and increase susceptibility to early life infections of offspring.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Parto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hematopoese , Humanos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mães , Poli I-C , Gravidez
16.
Resuscitation ; 168: 176-185, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetics of sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) remains frequently undetected. Genetic analysis is recommended in undefined selected cases in the 2021 ERC-guideline. The emergency medical service and physicians (EMS) may play a pivotal role for unraveling SCD by saving biomaterial for later molecular autopsy. Since for high-throughput DNA-sequencing (NGS) high quality genomic DNA is needed. We investigated in a prospective proof-of-concept study the role of the EMS for the identification of genetic forms of SCDs in the young. METHODS: We included patients aged 1-50 years with need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts (CPR). Cases with non-natural deaths were excluded. In two German counties with 562,904 residents 39,506 services were analysed. Paired end panel-sequencing was performed, and variants were classified according to guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG). RESULTS: 769 CPR-attempts were recorded (1.95% of all EMS-services; CPR-incidence 68/100,000). In 103 cases CPR were performed in patients < 50y. 58% died on scene, 26% were discharged from hospital. 24 subjects were included for genotyping. Of these 33% died on scene, 37.5% were discharged from hospital. 25% of the genotyped patients were carriers of (likely) pathogenic (ACMG-4/-5) variants. 67% carried variants with unknown significance (ACMG-3). 2 of them had familial history for arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy or had to be re-classified as ACMG-4 carriers due to whole exome sequencing. CONCLUSION: The EMS contributes especially in fatal OHCA-cases to increase the yield of identified genetic conditions by collecting a blood sample on scene. Thus, the EMS can contribute significantly to primary and secondary prophylaxis in affected families.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/genética , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 366-370, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391209

RESUMO

Diagnosing myocarditis is still challenging due to its varying presentation ranging from none or mild symptoms to sudden cardiac death. Clinical presentation, electrocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers seem not to be sufficient for a reliable diagnosis. In fact, an unequivocal myocardial characterization is needed, applying endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), a technique which demonstrates high accuracy to histology. Besides the assessment of functional parameters (volumes, ejection fraction), established late gadolinium enhancement and recent T1 and T2 mapping techniques including the calculation of extracellular volume fraction allow distinct myocardial tissue analysis by a noninvasive approach without the need of radiation. However, EMB is the only method which allows the identification of the underlying etiology of cardiac inflammation. Since myocardial damage and inflammation seem to be prevalent in a considerable number of patients even in the mid-term range after COVID-19, CMR and EMB seem to be adequate tools to further investigate these findings. In this article, we will (1) review current knowledge about the role of CMR in the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) report about our own EMB findings in COVID-19 patients in the Cardiopathology Center of our University Hospital.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia/métodos , Endocárdio/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio/patologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1807-1818, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402750

RESUMO

Male sex was repeatedly identified as a risk factor for death and intensive care admission. However, it is yet unclear whether sex hormones are associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we analysed sex hormone levels (estradiol and testosterone) of male and female COVID-19 patients (n = 50) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison to control non-COVID-19 patients at the ICU (n = 42), non-COVID-19 patients with the most prevalent comorbidity (coronary heart diseases) present within the COVID-19 cohort (n = 39) and healthy individuals (n = 50). We detected significantly elevated estradiol levels in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to all control cohorts. Testosterone levels were significantly reduced in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to control cohorts. No statistically significant differences in sex hormone levels were detected in critically ill female COVID-19 patients, albeit similar trends towards elevated estradiol levels were observed. Linear regression analysis revealed that among a broad range of cytokines and chemokines analysed, IFN-γ levels are positively associated with estradiol levels in male and female COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, male COVID-19 patients with elevated estradiol levels were more likely to receive ECMO treatment. Thus, we herein identified that disturbance of sex hormone metabolism might present a hallmark in critically ill male COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , Estradiol/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/patologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interferon gama/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo
19.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003250, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis is one of the most common causes leading to heart failure in children and a possible genetic background has been postulated. We sought to characterize the clinical and genetic characteristics in patients with myocarditis ≤18 years of age to predict outcome. METHODS: A cohort of 42 patients (Genetics in Pediatric Myocarditis) with biopsy-proven myocarditis underwent genetic testing with targeted panel sequencing of cardiomyopathy-associated genes. Genetics in Pediatric Myocarditis patients were divided into subgroups according to the phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) at presentation, resulting in 22 patients without DCM (myocarditis without phenotype of DCM) and 20 patients with DCM (myocarditis with phenotype of DCM). RESULTS: Myocarditis with phenotype of DCM patients (median age 1.4 years) were younger than myocarditis without phenotype of DCM patients (median age 16.1 years; P<0.001) and were corresponding to heart failure-like and coronary syndrome-like phenotypes, respectively. At least one likely pathogenic/pathogenic variant was identified in 9 out of 42 patients (22%), 8 of them were heterozygous, and 7 out of 9 were in myocarditis with phenotype of DCM. Likely pathogenic/pathogenic variants were found in genes validated for primary DCM (BAG3, DSP, LMNA, MYH7, TNNI3, TNNT2, and TTN). Rare variant enrichment analysis revealed significant accumulation of high-impact disease variants in myocarditis with phenotype of DCM versus healthy individuals (P=0.0003). Event-free survival was lower (P=0.008) in myocarditis with phenotype of DCM patients compared with myocarditis without phenotype of DCM and primary DCM. CONCLUSIONS: We report heterozygous likely pathogenic/pathogenic variants in biopsy-proven pediatric myocarditis. Myocarditis patients with DCM phenotype were characterized by early-onset heart failure, significant enrichment of likely pathogenic/pathogenic variants, and poor outcome. These phenotype-specific and age group-specific findings will be useful for personalized management of these patients. Genetic evaluation in children newly diagnosed with myocarditis and DCM phenotype is warranted.

20.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202636

RESUMO

Infection of mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) triggers inflammation of the heart and this mouse model is commonly used to investigate underlying mechanisms and therapeutic aspects for viral myocarditis. Virus-triggered cytotoxicity and the activity of infiltrating immune cells contribute to cardiac tissue injury. In addition to cardiac manifestation, CVB3 causes cell death and inflammation in the pancreas. The resulting pancreatitis represents a severe burden and under such experimental conditions, analgesics may be supportive to improve the animals' well-being. Notably, several known mechanisms exist by which analgesics can interfere with the immune system and thereby compromise the feasibility of the model. We set up a study aiming to improve animal welfare while ensuring model integrity and investigated how tramadol, an opioid, affects virus-induced pathogenicity and immune response in the heart. Tramadol was administered seven days prior to a CVB3 infection in C57BL/6 mice and treatment was continued until the day of analysis. Tramadol had no effect on the virus titer or viral pathogenicity in the heart tissue and the inflammatory response, a hallmark of myocardial injury, was maintained. Our results show that tramadol exerts no disruptive effects on the CVB3 myocarditis mouse model and, therefore, the demonstrated protocol should be considered as a general analgesic strategy for CVB3 infection.

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