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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16804, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033381

RESUMO

A detailed description of pathophysiological effects that viruses exert on their host is still challenging. For the first time, we report a highly controllable viral expression model based on an iPS-cell line from a healthy human donor. The established viral model system enables a dose-dependent and highly localized RNA-virus expression in a fully controllable environment, giving rise for new applications for the scientific community.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951037

RESUMO

The pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS) is a severe complication of Covid-19. Since impaired coagulation, thrombosis/endotheliitis are suspected pathomechanisms, we treated two patients with defibrotide (DF), a pro-fibrinolytic, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory oligonucleotide. Symptoms resolved during treatment. Moreover, coagulation parameters indicating hypofibrinolysis and complement activation normalized.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966582

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has emerged as a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to elevated markers of cardiac injury associated with higher risk of mortality. It is unclear whether cardiac injury is caused by direct infection of cardiomyocytes or is mainly secondary to lung injury and inflammation. Here, we investigate whether cardiomyocytes are permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two strains of SARS-CoV-2 infected human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs) as demonstrated by detection of intracellular double-stranded viral RNA and viral spike glycoprotein expression. Increasing concentrations of viral RNA are detected in supernatants of infected cardiomyocytes, which induced infections in Caco-2 cell lines, documenting productive infections. SARS-COV-2 infection and induced cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects associated with it abolished cardiomyocyte beating. RNA sequencing confirmed a transcriptional response to viral infection as demonstrated by the up-regulation of genes associated with pathways related to viral response and interferon signalling, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen stress. SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiotoxicity was confirmed in a 3D cardiosphere tissue model. Importantly, viral spike protein and viral particles were detected in living human heart slices after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Coronavirus particles were further observed in cardiomyocytes of a patient with COVID-19. Infection of iPS-CMs was dependent on cathepsins and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and was blocked by remdesivir. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infects cardiomyocytes in vitro in an ACE2- and cathepsin-dependent manner. SARS-CoV-2 infection of cardiomyocytes is inhibited by the antiviral drug remdesivir. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Although this study cannot address whether cardiac injury and dysfunction in COVID-19 patients is caused by direct infection of cardiomyocytes, the demonstration of direct cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes, organ mimics, human heart slices and human hearts warrants the further monitoring of cardiotoxic effects in COVID-19 patients.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(16): e015351, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787653

RESUMO

Background There is scarce data about the long-term mortality as well as the prognostic value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in patients with biopsy-proven viral myocarditis. We sought to investigate: (1) mortality and (2) prognostic value of LGEcardiovascular magnetic resonance (location, pattern, extent, and distribution) in a >10-year follow-up in patients with biopsy-proven myocarditis. Methods and Results Two-hundred three consecutive patients with biopsy-proven viral myocarditis and cardiovascular magnetic resonance were enrolled; 183 patients were eligible for standardized follow-up. The median follow-up was 10.1 years. End points were all-cause death, cardiac death, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We found substantial long-term mortality in patients with biopsy-proven myocarditis (39.3% all cause, 27.3% cardiac, and 10.9% SCD); 101 patients (55.2%) demonstrated LGE. The presence of LGE was associated with a more than a doubled risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 2.40; 95% CI], 1.30-4.43), escalating to a HR of 3.00 (95% CI, 1.41-6.42) for cardiac death, and a HR of 14.79 (95% CI, 1.95-112.00) for SCD; all P≤0.009. Specifically, midwall, (antero-) septal LGE, and extent of LGE were highly associated with death, all P<0.001. Septal LGE was the best independent predictor for SCD (HR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.38-15.24; P=0.01). Conclusions In patients with biopsy-proven viral myocarditis, the presence of midwall LGE in the (antero-) septal segments is associated with a higher rate of mortality (including SCD) compared with absent LGE or other LGE patterns, underlining the prognostic benefit of a distinct LGE analysis in these patients.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13211, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764735

RESUMO

MRI sensitivity for diagnosis and localization of early myocarditis is limited, although it is of central clinical interest. The aim of this project was to test a contrast agent targeting activated platelets consisting of microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) conjugated to a single-chain antibody directed against ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) of activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (= LIBS-MPIO). Myocarditis was induced by subcutaneous injection of an emulsion of porcine cardiac myosin and complete Freund's adjuvant in mice. 3D 7 T in-vivo MRI showed focal signal effects in LIBS-MPIO injected mice 2 days after induction of myocarditis, whereas in control-MPIO injected mice no signal was detectable. Histology confirmed CD41-positive staining, indicating platelet involvement in myocarditis in mice as well as in human specimens with significantly higher LIBS-MPIO binding compared to control-MPIO in both species. Quantification of the myocardial MRI signal confirmed a signal decrease after LIBS-MPIO injection and significant less signal in comparison to control-MPIO injection. These data show, that platelets are involved in inflammation during the course of myocarditis in mice and humans. They can be imaged non-invasively with LIBS-MPIO by molecular MRI at an early time point of the inflammation in mice, which is a valuable approach for preclinical models and of interest for both diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

7.
Virchows Arch ; 477(3): 349-357, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607684

RESUMO

The pandemia of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 355,000 confirmed deaths worldwide. However, publications on postmortem findings are scarce. We present the pulmonary findings in four cases of fatal COVID-19 with a spectrum of lung pathology reflecting disease course and duration, invasive therapies, and laboratory features. Early disease is characterized by neutrophilic, exudative capillaritis with microthrombosis and high levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. Later stages are associated with diffuse alveolar damage and ongoing intravascular thrombosis in small to medium-sized pulmonary vessels, occasionally with areas of infarction equivalents, accompanied by laboratory features of disseminated intravascular coagulation. In late stages, organizing pneumonia with extensive intra-alveolar proliferation of fibroblasts and marked metaplasia of alveolar epithelium can be observed. Viral RNA is encountered in the lung, with virus particles in endothelial cells and pneumocytes. In many patients, multi-organ failure with severe liver damage sets in finally, possibly as consequence of an early-onset pro-inflammatory cytokine storm and/or thrombotic microangiopathy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Idoso , Autopsia , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Trombose/patologia , Trombose/virologia
8.
Heart ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-536149

RESUMO

The initial mechanism for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of ACE2, which is mainly expressed in the lung. Since the heart and the vessels also express ACE2, they both could become targets of the virus. However, at present the extent and importance of this potential involvement are unknown. Cardiac troponin levels are significantly higher in patients with more severe infections, patients admitted to intensive care units or in those who have died. In the setting of COVID-19, myocardial injury, defined by an increased troponin level, occurs especially due to non-ischaemic myocardial processes, including severe respiratory infection with hypoxia, sepsis, systemic inflammation, pulmonary thrombosis and embolism, cardiac adrenergic hyperstimulation during cytokine storm syndrome, and myocarditis. At present, there are limited reports on definite diagnosis of myocarditis caused by SARS-CoV-2 in humans and limited demonstration of the virus in the myocardium. In conclusion, although the heart and the vessels are potential targets in COVID-19, there is currently limited evidence on the direct infection of the myocardium by SARS-CoV-2. Additional pathological studies and autopsy series will be very helpful to clarify the potentiality of COVID-19 to directly infect the myocardium and cause myocarditis.

9.
Heart ; 106(15): 1127-1131, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499236

RESUMO

The initial mechanism for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of ACE2, which is mainly expressed in the lung. Since the heart and the vessels also express ACE2, they both could become targets of the virus. However, at present the extent and importance of this potential involvement are unknown. Cardiac troponin levels are significantly higher in patients with more severe infections, patients admitted to intensive care units or in those who have died. In the setting of COVID-19, myocardial injury, defined by an increased troponin level, occurs especially due to non-ischaemic myocardial processes, including severe respiratory infection with hypoxia, sepsis, systemic inflammation, pulmonary thrombosis and embolism, cardiac adrenergic hyperstimulation during cytokine storm syndrome, and myocarditis. At present, there are limited reports on definite diagnosis of myocarditis caused by SARS-CoV-2 in humans and limited demonstration of the virus in the myocardium. In conclusion, although the heart and the vessels are potential targets in COVID-19, there is currently limited evidence on the direct infection of the myocardium by SARS-CoV-2. Additional pathological studies and autopsy series will be very helpful to clarify the potentiality of COVID-19 to directly infect the myocardium and cause myocarditis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Inflamação/virologia , Miocardite/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Troponina/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
11.
12.
Cells ; 9(5)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354159

RESUMO

: Inhibition of proteasome function by small molecules is highly efficacious in cancer treatment. Other than non-selective proteasome inhibitors, immunoproteasome-specific inhibitors allow for specific targeting of the proteasome in immune cells and the profound anti-inflammatory potential of such compounds revealed implications for inflammatory scenarios. For pathogen-triggered inflammation, however, the efficacy of immunoproteasome inhibitors is controversial. In this study, we investigated how ONX 0914, an immunoproteasome-selective inhibitor, influences CoxsackievirusB3 infection in NMRI mice, resulting in the development of acute and chronic myocarditis, which is accompanied by formation of the immunoproteasome in heart tissue. In groups in which ONX 0914 treatment was initiated once viral cytotoxicity had emerged in the heart, ONX 0914 had no anti-inflammatory effect in the acute or chronic stages. ONX 0914 treatment initiated prior to infection, however, increased viral cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes, promoting infiltration of myeloid immune cells into the heart. At this stage, ONX 0914 completely inhibited the ß5 subunit of the standard cardiac proteasome and less efficiently blocked its immunoproteasome counterpart LMP7. In conclusion, ONX 0914 unselectively perturbs cardiac proteasome function in viral myocarditis of NMRI mice, reduces the capacity of the host to control the viral burden and promotes cardiac inflammation.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e015289, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410525

RESUMO

Background Variants of the desmosomal protein desmoplakin are associated with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, an important cause of ventricular arrhythmias in children and young adults. Disease penetrance of desmoplakin variants is incomplete and variant carriers may display noncardiac, dermatologic phenotypes. We describe a novel cardiac phenotype associated with a truncating desmoplakin variant, likely causing mechanical instability of myocardial desmosomes. Methods and Results In 2 young brothers with recurrent myocarditis triggered by physical exercise, screening of 218 cardiomyopathy-related genes identified the heterozygous truncating variant p.Arg1458Ter in desmoplakin. Screening for infections yielded no evidence of viral or nonviral infections. Myosin and troponin I autoantibodies were detected at high titers. Immunohistology failed to detect any residual DSP protein in endomyocardial biopsies, and none of the histologic criteria of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy were fulfilled. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed no features associated with right ventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, but multifocal subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement was present in the left ventricles of both brothers. Screening of adult cardiomyopathy cohorts for truncating variants identified the rare genetic variants p.Gln307Ter, p.Tyr1391Ter, and p.Tyr1512Ter, suggesting that over subsequent decades critical genetic/exogenous modifiers drive pathogenesis from desmoplakin truncations toward different end points. Conclusions The described novel phenotype of familial recurrent myocarditis associated with a desmoplakin truncation in adolescents likely represents a serendipitously revealed subtype of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. It may be caused by a distinctive adverse effect of the variant desmoplakin upon the mechanical stability of myocardial desmosomes. Variant screening is advisable to allow early detection of patients with similar phenotypes.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2695, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372101
17.
Sci Adv ; 6(11): eaay1109, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195343

RESUMO

Protein modification with ISG15 (ISGylation) represents a major type I IFN-induced antimicrobial system. Common mechanisms of action and species-specific aspects of ISGylation, however, are still ill defined and controversial. We used a multiphasic coxsackievirus B3 (CV) infection model with a first wave resulting in hepatic injury of the liver, followed by a second wave culminating in cardiac damage. This study shows that ISGylation sets nonhematopoietic cells into a resistant state, being indispensable for CV control, which is accomplished by synergistic activity of ISG15 on antiviral IFIT1/3 proteins. Concurrent with altered energy demands, ISG15 also adapts liver metabolism during infection. Shotgun proteomics, in combination with metabolic network modeling, revealed that ISG15 increases the oxidative capacity and promotes gluconeogenesis in liver cells. Cells lacking the activity of the ISG15-specific protease USP18 exhibit increased resistance to clinically relevant CV strains, therefore suggesting that stabilizing ISGylation by inhibiting USP18 could be exploited for CV-associated human pathologies.

18.
Circulation ; 141(23): 1885-1902, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is often accompanied by immune-related pathology, with an increasing occurrence of high-risk ICI-related myocarditis. Understanding the mechanisms involved in this side effect could enable the development of management strategies. In mouse models, immune checkpoints, such as PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1), control the threshold of self-antigen responses directed against cardiac TnI (troponin I). We aimed to identify how the immunoproteasome, the main proteolytic machinery in immune cells harboring 3 distinct protease activities in the LMP2 (low-molecular-weight protein 2), LMP7 (low-molecular-weight protein 7), and MECL1 (multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit 1) subunit, affects TnI-directed autoimmune pathology of the heart. METHODS: TnI-directed autoimmune myocarditis (TnI-AM), a CD4+ T-cell-mediated disease, was induced in mice lacking all 3 immunoproteasome subunits (triple-ip-/-) or lacking either the gene encoding LMP2 and LMP7 by immunization with a cardiac TnI peptide. Alternatively, before induction of TnI-AM or after establishment of autoimmune myocarditis, mice were treated with the immunoproteasome inhibitor ONX 0914. Immune parameters defining heart-specific autoimmunity were investigated in experimental TnI-AM and in 2 cases of ICI-related myocarditis. RESULTS: All immunoproteasome-deficient strains showed mitigated autoimmune-related cardiac pathology with less inflammation, lower proinflammatory and chemotactic cytokines, less interleukin-17 production, and reduced fibrosis formation. Protection from TnI-directed autoimmune heart pathology with improved cardiac function in LMP7-/- mice involved a changed balance between effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells in the spleen, with CD4+ T cells from LMP7-/- mice showing a higher expression of inhibitory PD-1 molecules. Blocked immunoproteasome proteolysis, by treatment of TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2)-engaged and TLR7 (Toll-like receptor 7)/TLR8 (Toll-like receptor 8)-engaged CD14+ monocytes with ONX 0914, diminished proinflammatory cytokine responses, thereby reducing the boost for the expansion of self-reactive CD4+ T cells. Correspondingly, in mice, ONX 0914 treatment reversed cardiac autoimmune pathology, preventing the induction and progression of TnI-AM when self-reactive CD4+ T cells were primed. The autoimmune signature during experimental TnI-AM, with high immunoproteasome expression, immunoglobulin G deposition, interleukin-17 production in heart tissue, and TnI-directed humoral autoimmune responses, was also present in 2 cases of ICI-related myocarditis, demonstrating the activation of heart-specific autoimmune reactions by ICI therapy. CONCLUSIONS: By reversing heart-specific autoimmune responses, immunoproteasome inhibitors applied to a mouse model demonstrate their potential to aid in the management of autoimmune myocarditis in humans, possibly including patients with ICI-related heart-specific autoimmunity.

19.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 57(5): 958-964, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of surgical septal myectomy performed during early childhood for severe, drug-refractory hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction on the extent of septal myocardial extracellular volume fraction and the potential risk of developing atrioventricular cardiac conduction system disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study, data from 30 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were reviewed including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with myocardial T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement, histopathology of myocardial specimens, transthoracic echocardiography, electrocardiography, 24-h Holter and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Eighteen patients without were compared to 12 patients with prior septal myectomy performed during childhood (non-operated versus myectomy patients). RESULTS: Late gadolinium enhancement on CMR as a correlate for focal myocardial fibrosis was found in 53% of patients, predominantly located in the septal region, with no difference between groups. As compared to non-operated patients, those after myectomy showed a similar amount of total and septal extracellular volume fraction, as calculated from pre- and post-contrast CMR T1 mapping, which is a correlate for diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis. PQ-intervals or the occurrence of higher degree conduction system disease were equal between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Data from CMR and electrocardiography suggest that surgical septal myectomy performed during early childhood for severe obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy does not cause an increased septal extracellular volume fraction or delayed atrioventricular conduction time on long-term follow-up.

20.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(1): 308-312, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate the technique of performing interatrial septum biopsy and to demonstrate its use for direct histological substrate characterization in atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Biopsies were performed in four patients who underwent AF catheter ablation. Bipal 7 bioptome was directed through a steerable sheath directly onto the septum. Fluoroscopic views as well as echocardiography-guided techniques were utilized to confirm that the tip was oriented towards the interatrial septum. The bioptome was then placed on the right atrial (RA) septum and maneuvered to obtain the specimens (at least 1 mm in size) from the posterior septal region of the RA, adjacent to the fossa ovalis. Bioptome placement and sample acquisition were successful in all patients at the first attempt. No patient developed any minor or major complications during the procedure and hospital stay. All the biopsy specimens had proper qualities for histological assessments and revealed a variety of pathologies including fibrosis, inflammation, and fatty infiltration. CONCLUSION: Atrial septum biopsies could be safely performed guided by fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography. The obtained specimens allowed for a detailed localized substrate characterization which is of great interest in AF.

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