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1.
Radiology ; 292(3): 608-617, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361205

RESUMO

BackgroundThe establishment of a timely and correct diagnosis in heart failure-like myocarditis remains one of the most challenging in clinical cardiology.PurposeTo assess the diagnostic potential of texture analysis in heart failure-like myocarditis with comparison to endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) as the reference standard.Materials and MethodsSeventy-one study participants from the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Myocarditis (MyoRacer) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT02177630) with clinical suspicion for myocarditis and symptoms of heart failure were prospectively included (from August 2012 to May 2015) in the study. Participants underwent biventricular EMB and cardiac MRI at 1.5 T, including native T1 and T2 mapping and standard Lake Louise criteria. Texture analysis was applied on T1 and T2 maps by using an open-source software. Stepwise dimension reduction was performed for selecting features enabling the diagnosis of myocarditis. Diagnostic performance was assessed from the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic analyses with 10-fold cross validation.ResultsIn participants with acute heart failure-like myocarditis (n = 31; mean age, 47 years ± 17; 10 women), the texture feature GrayLevelNonUniformity from T2 maps (T2_GLNU) showed diagnostic performance similar to that of mean myocardial T2 time (AUC, 0.69 for both). The combination of mean T2 time and T2_GLNU had the highest AUC (0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43, 0.95), with sensitivity of 81% (25 of 31) and specificity of 71% (22 of 31). In patients with chronic heart failure-like myocarditis (n = 40; mean age, 48 years ± 13; 12 women), the histogram feature T2_kurtosis demonstrated superior diagnostic performance compared to that of all other single parameters (AUC, 0.81; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96). The combination of the two texture features, T2_kurtosis and the GrayLevelNonUniformity from T1, had the highest diagnostic performance (AUC, 0.85; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.90; sensitivity, 90% [36 of 40]; and specificity, 72% [29 of 40]).ConclusionIn this proof-of-concept study, texture analysis applied on cardiac MRI T1 and T2 mapping delivers quantitative imaging parameters for the diagnosis of acute or chronic heart failure-like myocarditis and might be superior to Lake Louise criteria or averaged myocardial T1 or T2 values.© RSNA, 2019Online supplemental material is available for this article.See also the editorial by de Roos in this issue.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e841, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic cardiomyopathy with a prevalence of about 1:200. It is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis; HCM might lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD) especially in the young. Due to low autopsy frequencies of sudden unexplained deaths (SUD) the true prevalence of SCD and especially of HCM among SUD remains unclear. Even in cases of proven SCD genetic testing is not a routine procedure precluding appropriate risk stratification and counseling of relatives. METHODS: Here we report a case of SCD in a 19-year-old investigated by combined forensic and molecular autopsy. RESULTS: During autopsy of the index-patient HCM was detected. As no other possible cause of death could be uncovered by forensic autopsy the event was classified as SCD. Molecular autopsy identified two (probably) pathogenic genetic variants in FHL1 and MYBPC3. The MYBPC3 variant had an incomplete penetrance. The FHL1 variant was a de novo mutation. We detected reduced FHL1 mRNA levels and no FHL1 protein in muscle samples suggesting nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and/or degradation of the truncated protein in the SCD victim revealing a plausible disease mechanism. CONCLUSION: The identification of the genetic cause of the SCD contributed to the rational counseling of the relatives and risk assessment within the family. Furthermore our study revealed evidences for the pathomechanism of FHL1 mutations.

3.
Pediatr Transplant ; : e13548, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297930

RESUMO

Myocarditis represents an important cause for acute heart failure. MYKKE, a prospective multicenter registry of pediatric patients with myocarditis, aims to gain knowledge on courses, diagnostics, and therapy of pediatric myocarditis. The role of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in children with severe heart failure and myocarditis is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine characteristics and outcome of patients with severe heart failure requiring MCS and/or heart transplantation. The MYKKE cohort between September 2013 and 2016 was analyzed. A total of 195 patients were prospectively enrolled by 17 German hospitals. Twenty-eight patients (14%) received MCS (median 1.5 years), more frequently in the youngest age group (0-2 years) than in the older groups (P < 0.001; 2-12 and 13-18 years). In the MCS group, 50% received a VAD, 36% ECMO, and 14% both, with a survival rate of 79%. The weaning rate was 43% (12/28). Nine (32%) patients were transplanted, one had ongoing support, and six (21%) died. Histology was positive for myocarditis in 63% of the MCS group. Patients within the whole cohort with age <2 years and/or ejection fraction <30% had a significantly worse survival with high risk for MCS, transplantation, and death (P < 0.001). Myocarditis represents a life-threatening disease with an overall mortality of 4.6% in this cohort. The fulminant form more often affected the youngest, leading to significantly higher rate of MCS, transplantation, and mortality. MCS represents an important and life-saving therapeutic option in children with myocarditis with a weaning rate of 43%.

4.
Cell Rep ; 28(1): 172-189.e7, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269438

RESUMO

Two types of monocytes, Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo, infiltrate the heart in murine experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). We discovered a role for cardiac fibroblasts in facilitating monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation of both Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo cells, allowing these macrophages to perform divergent functions in myocarditis progression. During the acute phase of EAM, IL-17A is highly abundant. It signals through cardiac fibroblasts to attenuate efferocytosis of Ly6Chi monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and simultaneously prevents Ly6Clo monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. We demonstrated an inverse clinical correlation between heart IL-17A levels and efferocytic receptor expressions in humans with heart failure (HF). In the absence of IL-17A signaling, Ly6Chi MDMs act as robust phagocytes and are less pro-inflammatory, whereas Ly6Clo monocytes resume their differentiation into MHCII+ macrophages. We propose that MHCII+Ly6Clo MDMs are associated with the reduction of cardiac fibrosis and prevention of the myocarditis sequalae.

8.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a detrimental condition that ultimately results in right heart failure and death. The ubiquitin proteasome system has been identified as a major protein degradation system to regulate cardiac remodelling in the left heart. Its role in right heart hypertrophy, however, is still ambiguous. METHODS AND RESULTS: RVH was induced in mice by pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Both, expression and activity of the proteasome was found to be upregulated in the hypertrophied right ventricle compared to healthy controls. Catalytic inhibition of the proteasome by the two proteasome inhibitors Bortezomib (BTZ) and ONX-0912 partially improved RVH both in preventive and therapeutic applications. Native gel analysis revealed that specifically the 26S proteasome complexes were activated in experimental RVH. Increased assembly of 26S proteasomes was accompanied by elevated expression of Rpn6, a rate-limiting subunit of 26S proteasome assembly, in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes of the right heart. Intriguingly, patients with RVH also showed increased expression of Rpn6 in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes of the right ventricle as identified by immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that alterations in expression and activity of proteasomal subunits play a critical role in the development of RVH. Moreover, this study provides an improved understanding on the selective activation of the 26S proteasome in RVH that might be driven by the rate-limiting subunit Rpn6. In RVH, Rpn6 therefore represents a more specific target to interfere with proteasome function than the commonly used catalytic proteasome inhibitors.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 156-159, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiodepressant antibodies contribute to cardiac dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Changes in immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation modulate the activity of various autoimmune diseases and influence disease activity as well as severity of various autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that alterations in IgG glycosylation are involved in the disease course of DCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: IgG glycosylation was analyzed in plasma samples of 50 DCM patients using a lectin-based ELISA. Negative inotropic (cardiodepressant) activity (NIA) of antibodies was assessed by measuring the effect of purified DCM-IgG on the shortening of isolated rat cardiomyocytes by means of a video-edge detection system. IgG obtained from plasma of healthy blood donors served as control. DCM-IgG contained significantly less sialic acid (-25%) and galactose (-16%; both P < 0.001), but showed no significant differences in core-fucosylation compared to controls. Interestingly, IgG with NIA displayed a lower percentage of sialylation (-16%, P < 0.001) core-fucosylation (-15%, P = 0.015) and galactosylation (-10%, P = 0.129) than IgG without NIA. The extent of NIA was directly associated with IgG sialylation (r = 0.68; P < 0.001) and galactosylation (r = 0.37; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Reduced sialylation and galactosylation of IgGs enhances their cardiodepressant activity in DCM indicating that changes in IgG glycosylation may be involved in the pathogenesis of DCM.

10.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 52(3): 435-438, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tachycardiomyopathy (TCM) is a largely reversible form of non-ischemic heart failure. The underlying mechanism are, however, still today poorly understood. Recent data indicate distinct changes in mitochondrial distribution in these patients, compared to other non-ischemic cardiomyopathies.This study investigated underlying mechanisms in mitochondrial dynamics in endomyocardial biopsy samples (EMB) from patients with TCM and compared them to patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), which show similar clinical features. METHODS: Focused mRNA analyses were performed on routinely obtained paraffinfixed EMB specimen from patients fulfilling TCM diagnosis criteria, as well as patients with DCM to elucidate regulatory changes in mitochondrial fusion, fission and mitophagy. RESULTS: In patients with TCM we were able to identify mRNA of Mitofusin 1 and 2, two effector proteins regulating mitochondrial fusion, to be strongly upregulated compared to patients with DCM. Conclusively, we did not find differences in the mRNA expression of mitochondrial fission regulators including DRP1, Fis1, MFF, MiD49, and MiD51. Furthermore, we did not find significant changes in PINK1 expression, an important mediator for mitochondrial autophagy. CONCLUSION: The mRNA upregulation of Mitofusin 1 and 2 provides first insight into the complex changes of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiomyocytes of patients with reversible heart failure due to TCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Biópsia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/classificação , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Degradação Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
13.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(2): 11, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673858

RESUMO

Coxsackieviruses of group B (CVB) are well-known causes of acute and chronic myocarditis. Chronic myocarditis can evolve into dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) characterized by fibrosis and cardiac remodeling. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) plays a decisive role in the induction of the inflammatory response as a consequence of viral replication. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IL-1ß neutralization on the transition of acute to chronic myocarditis in a mouse model of CVB3 myocarditis. Mice were treated with an anti-murine IL-1ß antibody as a surrogate for Canakinumab at different time points post CVB3 infection. Treatment was performed in the early phase (day 1-14 pi, day 3-14 pi) or at a later stage of myocarditis (day 14-28 pi). Subsequently, the hearts were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and by molecular biology. A significant reduction of viral replication, cardiac damage and inflammation was found after administration of the antibody in the early phase and in the later phase of infection. Furthermore, less collagen I deposition and a considerable reduction of fibrosis were found in antibody-treated mice. Using microarray analysis, a significant upregulation of various extracellular matrix and fibrosis-associated molecules was found in CVB3-infected mice, including TGF-ß, TIMP-1 and MMP12, as well as diverse matricellular proteins, whereas, these molecules were significantly downregulated in all IL-1ß antibody-treated infected mice. Neutralization of IL-1ß at different stages of enteroviral infection prevents the development of chronic viral myocarditis by reducing inflammation, interstitial fibrosis and adverse cardiac remodeling. These findings are relevant for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic myocarditis.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Miocardite/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/patologia , Enterovirus Humano B , Camundongos , Miocardite/metabolismo , Miocardite/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
14.
J Exp Med ; 216(2): 350-368, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647120

RESUMO

Heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy is frequently caused by myocarditis. However, the pathogenesis of myocarditis remains incompletely understood. Here, we report the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in cardiac tissue of patients and mice with myocarditis. Inhibition of NET formation in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) of mice substantially reduces inflammation in the acute phase of the disease. Targeting the cytokine midkine (MK), which mediates NET formation in vitro, not only attenuates NET formation in vivo and the infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) but also reduces fibrosis and preserves systolic function during EAM. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) acts as the functionally relevant receptor for MK-induced PMN recruitment as well as NET formation. In summary, NETosis substantially contributes to the pathogenesis of myocarditis and drives cardiac inflammation, probably via MK, which promotes PMN trafficking and NETosis. Thus, MK as well as NETs may represent novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiac inflammation.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 274: 132-137, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory heart disease is known to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and impaired ventricular function at presentation or during follow-up. We aimed to investigate the need for implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) due to ventricular dysfunction and occurrence of VA during long-term follow-up in patients admitted with suspected myocarditis. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2016, 191 patients (age 43 ±â€¯13 years, 71% male, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 33 ±â€¯15%) with clinically suspected myocarditis, who underwent endomyocardial biopsies (EMB), were prospectively enrolled and followed up in 6-months-intervals (median follow-up was 83 (49-156) months). The primary endpoint was deterioration of cardiac function (LVEF ≤ 35%) or occurrence of VA leading to ICD implantation. RESULTS: According to EMB results, patients were stratified in three diagnostic groups: acute myocarditis (5%), chronic myocarditis (50%) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (45%). An ICD implantation was performed in 58 patients (30%, n = 38 for primary prevention). Besides LVEF at baseline, chronic myocardial inflammation was the only independent predictor of ICD implantation for primary prevention (hazard ratio 2.48 (95% confidence interval 1.02-5.5); p = 0.045). VA requiring ICD therapy occurred in 29 of 58 patients (50%) after a median of 14 (2-37) months without a significant difference between presence and absence of myocardial inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one third of patients with suspected myocarditis require an ICD due to impaired LVEF or occurrence of VA. Half of these patients experienced VA with adequate ICD therapy.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/complicações , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2303, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349538

RESUMO

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle most commonly caused by viral infection and often maintained by autoimmunity. Virus-induced tissue damage triggers chemokine production and, subsequently, immune cell infiltration with pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokine production follows. In patients, the overall inflammatory burden determines the disease outcome. Following the aim to define specific molecules that drive both immunopathology and/or autoimmunity in inflammatory heart disease, here we report on increased expression of colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) in patients with myocarditis. CSF-1 controls monocytes originating from hematopoietic stem cells and subsequent progenitor stages. Both, monocytes and macrophages are centrally involved in mediating tissue damage and fibrotic scarring in the heart. CSF-1 influences monocytes via engagement of CSF-1 receptor, and it is also produced by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system themselves. Based on this, we sought to modulate the virus-triggered inflammatory response in an experimental model of Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis by silencing the CSF-1 axis in myeloid cells using nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA. siCSF-1 inverted virus-mediated immunopathology as reflected by lower troponin T levels, a reduction of accumulating myeloid cells in heart tissue and improved cardiac function. Importantly, pathogen control was maintained and the virus was efficiently cleared from heart tissue. Since viral heart disease triggers heart-directed autoimmunity, in a second approach we investigated the influence of CSF-1 upon manifestation of heart tissue inflammation during experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). EAM was induced in Balb/c mice by immunization with a myocarditogenic myosin-heavy chain-derived peptide dissolved in complete Freund's adjuvant. siCSF-1 treatment initiated upon established disease inhibited monocyte infiltration into heart tissue and this suppressed cardiac injury as reflected by diminished cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function at later states. Mechanistically, we found that suppression of CSF-1 production arrested both differentiation and maturation of monocytes and their precursors in the bone marrow. In conclusion, during viral and autoimmune myocarditis silencing of the myeloid CSF-1 axis by nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA is beneficial for preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the heart and preserving cardiac function without compromising innate immunity's critical defense mechanisms.

17.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 143(18): 1335-1343, 2018 09.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199915

RESUMO

A fast and reliable diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis requires a significant amount of clinical awareness. It is especially important to come to an early diagnosis in patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis in order to improve the otherwise unfavourable clinical course in these patients. There is a significant increase in the number of patients with cardiac amyloidosis of the ATTR wild-type variety. These patients are often elderly males presenting with predominantly right sided heart failure. We present a diagnostic pathway enabling a structured approach to these patients using multimodality cardiac imaging and endomyocardial biopsy. Early chemotherapy is the key to improving symptoms in patients with AL amyloidosis. In contrast, pharmacologic approaches for treating cardiac ATTR amyloidosis need further research and clinical trials.

18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 5(5): 846-857, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168657

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to analyse the prognostic value of complement anaphylatoxin receptors in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy undergoing endomyocardial biopsy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 102 patients (72.5% male patients, median age 54 years) with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, myocardial expression of C3aR was assessed among other parameters. The primary study endpoint was a composite of death, heart transplantation, heart failure-related re-hospitalization, and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction within a mean follow-up of 11.9 months. The number of cells, which stained positive for C3aR, was significantly increased in patients with inflammatory compared with non-inflammatory cardiomyopathy (1.75 ± 0.31 cells in inflammatory cardiomyopathy vs. 0.94 ± 0.26 in non-inflammatory cardiomyopathy, P = 0.049). Subsequently, positive expression for C3aR was judged based on a semi-quantitative scoring system. Significantly, more patients with positive MHCII and CD68 expression showed an increased number of C3aR-positive cells. C3aR expression based on this score was more pronounced in patients with human herpesvirus 6 viral genome detection. Kaplan-Meier curves illustrate that the C3aR-negative group reached the primary endpoint significantly more often (mean follow-up 11.9 months, log rank 5.963, P = 0.015). Lack of C3aR expression was a strong independent predictor for the primary endpoint in Cox regression analysis [hazard ratio 0.46 (0.26-0.82, P = 0.009)]. CONCLUSIONS: C3aR-positive cells are found more often in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy. The relevance of C3aR-positive cells in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy should be further evaluated as potential predictors or modulators of adverse cardiac remodelling, the substrate of progressive heart failure.

19.
Int J Cardiol ; 270: 278-286, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) has been shown to be an important modulator of the innate immune system, but its role in cardiac diseases is unknown. We investigated whether MD-2 plays a role as risk predictor and contributor in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 174 patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF <45%) due to DCM. Coronary artery disease and severe valvular diseases were excluded in all patients by angiography or echocardiography. Cardiac inflammation, viral infection and MD-2 expression were analyzed from right ventricular endomyocardial biopsies. MD-2 was quantified by ELISA in serum upon first hospital admission. Myocyte contractility and inflammatory response after stimulation with recombinant MD-2 protein were analyzed in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Median follow-up of the patients was 3.51 years (2.73; 4.48) with 34 deaths. Absolute mortality risk increases in patients displaying a MD-2 serum concentration greater than the median (302 ng/ml) was 23% (P < 0.0001). Age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression analyses demonstrated that mortality risk was highly related to MD-2 concentrations (P < 0.001), but not to age or sex. An increase of 100 ng/ml in the MD-2 level was associated with an absolute mortality risk increase of 50.4%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed no difference between MD-2 and nterminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), while the combination of both MD-2 and NT-pro-BNP resulted in a significantly increased capability of risk prediction when compared to NT-pro-BNP alone (P = 0.014). In-vitro, recombinant MD-2 decreases cell shortening and modulates cytokine activation in isolated cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION: MD-2 predicts long-term outcome in DCM patients and improves mortality risk prediction capability compared to NT-pro-BNP alone. In addition, MD-2 exerts direct negative inotropic effects on isolated cardiomyocytes in-vitro. Further randomized trials should confirm MD-2 as a diagnostic and therapeutic target.

20.
Radiology ; 289(2): 357-365, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084736

RESUMO

Purpose To assess the diagnostic potential of texture analysis applied to T1 and T2 maps obtained with cardiac MRI for the diagnosis of acute infarctlike myocarditis. Materials and Methods This prospective study from August 2012 to May 2015 included 39 participants (overall mean age ± standard deviation, 34.7 years ± 12.2 [range, 18-63 years]; mean age of women, 46.1 years ± 10.8 [range, 24-63 years]; mean age of men, 29.8 years ± 9.2 [range, 18-56 years]) from the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Myocarditis (MyoRacer) trial with clinical suspicion of acute myocarditis and infarctlike presentation. Participants underwent biventricular endomyocardial biopsy, cardiac catheterization, and cardiac MRI at 1.5 T, in which native T1 and T2 mapping as well as Lake Louise criteria (LLC) were assessed. Texture analysis was applied on T1 and T2 maps by using a freely available software package. Stepwise dimension reduction and texture feature selection was performed for selecting features enabling the diagnosis of myocarditis by using endomyocardial biopsy as the reference standard. Results Endomyocardial biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute myocarditis in 26 patients, whereas 13 participants had no signs of acute inflammation. Mean T1 and T2 values and LLC showed a low diagnostic performance, with area under the curve in receiver operating curve analyses as follows: 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45, 0.85) for T1, 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.85) for T2, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.79) for LLC. Combining the texture features T2 run-length nonuniformity and gray-level nonuniformity resulted in higher diagnostic performance with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.00) (P < .001) and a sensitivity and specificity of 89% [95% CI: 81%, 93%] and 92% [95% CI: 77%, 93%], respectively. Conclusion Texture analysis of T2 maps shows high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of acute infarctlike myocarditis. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

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