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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299987

RESUMO

(1) Background: It has been identified that schools that adopt at least two hours a week of physical education and plan specific contents and activities can achieve development goals related to physical level, such as promoting health, well-being, and healthy lifestyles, on a personal level, including bodily awareness and confidence in physical skills, as well as a general sense of well-being, greater security and self-esteem, sense of responsibility, patience, courage, and mental balance. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of physical education programs on the physical activity and emotional well-being of primary school children. (2) Methods: The experimental group comprised 45 girls and 44 boys aged 6-7 years (First Grade) and 48 girls and 46 boys aged 8-9 years (Second Grade), while the control group comprised 43 girls and 46 boys aged 6-7 years (First Grade) and 47 girls and 45 boys aged 8-9 years (Second Grade). All children attended the same school. The Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire was used, which is based on the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey questionnaire, which includes activities specific to young children (e.g., "playing in a playhouse"). Emotional well-being status was explored by estimating three main dimensions: somatic anxiety, personality anxiety, and social anxiety. The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) was used. (3) Results: When analysing the pre-test results of physical activity of the 6-7- and 8-9-year-old children, it turned out that both the First Grade (92.15 MET, min/week) and Second Grade (97.50 MET, min/week) participants in the experimental group were physically active during physical education lessons. When exploring the results of somatic anxiety in EG (4.95 ± 1.10 points), both before and after the experiment, we established that somatic anxiety in EG was 4.55 ± 1.00 points after the intervention program, demonstrating lower levels of depression, seclusion, somatic complaints, aggression, and delinquent behaviours (F = 4.785, p < 0.05, P = 0.540). (4) Conclusions: We established that the properly constructed and purposefully applied eight-month physical education program had positive effects on the physical activity and emotional well-being of primary school children (6-7 and 8-9 years) in three main dimensions: somatic anxiety, personality anxiety, and social anxiety. Our findings suggest that the eight-month physical education program intervention was effective at increasing levels of physical activity. Changes in these activities may require more intensive behavioural interventions with children or upstream interventions at the family and societal levels, as well as at the school environment level. These findings have relevance for researchers, policy makers, public health practitioners, and doctors who are involved in health promotion, policy making, and commissioning services.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Educação Física e Treinamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Technol Health Care ; 28(5): 561-571, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To avoid injuries in basketball players, they are recommended to pay more attention to improve their body balance. Therefore new training methods and equipment need to be devised. This study examined the effects of an 8-week basketball-specific proprioception training program while using a new developed one plane instability balance board during warm-up for improving balance ability in basketball players. Players who obtained basketball-specific balance training were compared to a control group. METHODS: Thirty-one male university basketball players (age: 21.35, SD = 0.605 years; height: 190.97, SD = 1.88; body mass: 86.95, SD = 2.61) participated in this study. Seventeen participants were assigned to the basketball-specific 8-week balance training group (BTG) while 14 participants served as a control group (CG). Both groups were tested with the Y balance test (YBT) and postural stability test (PST) at baseline and 8 weeks later. RESULTS: The results indicate significant improvements in the overall YBT for both legs in BTG, but not in CG. However, no group differences were found for dynamic balance performance, but static balance (i.e., postural stability) differed between groups after 8 weeks. A statistically significant moderate inverse correlation was computed between the total score of YBT and the total score of the overall stability index (r=-0.404; p= 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: An 8-week basketball-specific proprioception training program with a single-plane instability balance platform improved balance ability (Y balance test and postural stability test) of basketball players.

3.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 73: 17-27, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study compared the short- and long-term effects of different exercise programs on lumbar muscle function, cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle, functional disability and low back pain in people who perform sedentary work. METHODS: A total of 70 volunteer women with sedentary occupations suffering from low back pain were randomized to either the lumbar stabilization exercise program group or the lumbar muscle strengthening exercise program group. All subjects entered the 20-week exercise programs. The measurement of the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle was executed by using an ultrasound system, isokinetic peak torque was measured applying an isokinetic dynamometer. FINDINGS: The results indicated that the 20-week exercise programs reduced low back pain and functional disability. Positive effects for the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle, functional disability and low back pain lasted for 4 weeks after the application of lumbar muscle strengthening exercise program and for 12 weeks after the application of lumbar stabilization exercise program. The lumbar muscle strength increased and lasted for 8 weeks after both exercise programs. INTERPRETATION: The 20-week lumbar stabilization exercise and muscle strengthening exercise programs were efficacious in decreasing LBP and functional disability in people performing sedentary work, however the lumbar stabilization exercise program was more effective, and this effect lasted for 12 weeks after completion of the program.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Terapia por Exercício , Dor Lombar/terapia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Ultrassonografia
4.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 21(1): 124-132, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28167168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). PARTICIPANTS: Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). INTERVENTION: Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. RESULTS: The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p < 0.001) and 2 months (r = 0.779, p < 0.001) after the Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p < 0.05) in the EG, and this reduction persisted for 1 month after completion of the program. CONCLUSIONS: At 1 and 2 months after cessation of the Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Dor Lombar/reabilitação , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
5.
J Hum Kinet ; 46: 167-75, 2015 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26240660

RESUMO

Despite extensive data regarding the demands of playing basketball, the relative importance of factors that cause fatigue and muscle potentiation has been explored only tentatively and remains unclear. The aim of this experimental field study was to assess changes in leg muscle power and relate these changes to body temperature modifications and indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in response to a simulated basketball game. College-level male basketball players (n=10) were divided into two teams to play a simulated basketball game. Ten-meter sprint and vertical counter-movement jump tests, core body temperature and creatine-kinase activity were measured within 48 h after the game. The participants' body temperatures increased after a warm-up (1.9%, p<0.05), continued to increase throughout the game, and reached 39.4 ± 0.4ºC after the fourth quarter (p<0.05). The increase in temperature during the warm-up was accompanied by an improvement in the 10-meter sprint time (5.5%, p<0.05) and jump height (3.8%, p<0.05). The players were able to maintain leg power up to the fourth quarter, i.e., during the major part of the basketball game. There was a significant increase in creatine-kinase at 24 h (>200%, p<0.05) and 48 h (>30%, p<0.05) after the game, indicating damage to the players' muscles. The basketball players' sprint and jump performance appear to be at least in part associated with body temperature changes, which might contribute to counteract fatigue during the larger part of a basketball game.

6.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil ; 28(4): 841-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25881694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low-back pain (LBP) may be related to decreased lumbar multifidus muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). OBJECTIVE: In this study, core stabilization exercises were designed to enhance neuromuscular control and correct multifidus dysfunction. METHODS: The subjects were healthy women (n = 11) and women with chronic LBP (n = 17). Lumbar multifidus muscle CSAs were measured by ultrasonography. Tests were carried out before training exercises for lumbar stability, and again 4 months and 8 months after training. RESULTS: In women with LBP, the mean multifidus muscle CSA increased by 22% on the right side and 23% on the left side after 8 months of lumbar stabilization training, compared with baseline measurements. In healthy women, mean multifidus muscle CSA increased by 24% on the right side and 23% on the left side, compared with baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: A core stabilization exercise program significantly increased multifidus muscle CSAs in both healthy women and women with chronic LBP.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Dor Lombar/reabilitação , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos Paraespinais/fisiologia , Adulto , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Região Lombossacral
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2013: 243572, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24151587

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n = 18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7 yr) participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72 h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue) between the two menstrual cycle phases were small.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual , Exercício Pliométrico/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Torque , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 48(9): 465-71, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23168921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to establish the changes in psychosocial adjustment of adolescent girls in the modified lessons of physical education. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experimental design was used in the study. The experimental group included 14- to 15-year-old adolescent girls (n=128), and the control group comprised adolescent girls of the same school and the same age (n=137). The girls of the experimental group participated in modified physical education lessons. Once a month, they had a theory class where they received knowledge on communication disorders among adolescents and ways of preventing them by means of physical activities. In practical classes, the girls of the experimental group had sports games (basketball, volleyball, and football), enhancing physical abilities, and Pilates exercises. For the estimation of the level of adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and its components (self-esteem and domination), an adapted questionnaire developed by Rogers and Dymond was applied. An adapted questionnaire developed by Huebner was administered to measure students' satisfaction with life. RESULTS: The analysis of the data demonstrated that when comparing the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent girls in the experimental group before and after the experiment, a significant differences in the score of the psychosocial adjustment scale was established (53.81±8.34 vs. 59.41±7.66, P<0.05). After the experiment, high life satisfaction was reported by 42.19% of the girls (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: After the educational experiment, the index of the psychosocial adjustment scale in the experimental group improved statistically significantly.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Atividade Motora , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Esportes/psicologia
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