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1.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sporadic degenerative ataxia patients fall into 2 major groups: multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and sporadic adult-onset ataxia (SAOA). Both groups have cerebellar volume loss, but little is known about the differential involvement of gray and white matter in MSA-C when compared with SAOA. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify structural differences of brain gray and white matter between both patient groups. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging to acquire T1-weighted images and diffusion tensor images from 12 MSA-C patients, 31 SAOA patients, and 55 healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with voxel-based-morphometry, tract-based spatial statistics, and tractography-based regional diffusion tensor images analysis. RESULTS: Whole-brain and cerebellar-focused voxel-based-morphometry analysis showed gray matter volume loss in both patient groups when compared with healthy controls, specifically in the cerebellar areas subserving sensorimotor functions. When compared with controls, the SAOA and MSA-C patients showed white matter loss in the cerebellum, whereas brainstem white matter was reduced only in the MSA-C patients. The tract-based spatial statistics revealed reduced fractional anisotropy within the pons and cerebellum in the MSA-C patients both in comparison with the SAOA patients and healthy controls. In addition, tractography-based regional analysis showed reduced fractional anisotropy along the corticospinal tracts in MSA-C, but not SAOA. CONCLUSION: Although in our cohort extent and distribution of gray and white matter loss were similar between the MSA-C and SAOA patients, magnetic resonance imaging data showed prominent microstructural white matter involvement in the MSA-C patients that was not present in the SAOA patients. Our findings highlight the significance of microstructural white matter changes in the differentiation between both conditions. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

2.
J Neurochem ; 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520481

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that both synaptic loss and neuroinflammation constitute early pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. A downstream event during inflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes is the induction of nitric oxide synthase type 2, resulting in an increased release of nitric oxide and the post-translational S-nitrosylation of protein cysteine residues. Both early events, inflammation and synaptic dysfunction, could be connected if this excess nitrosylation occurs on synaptic proteins. In the long term, such changes could provide new insight into patho-mechanisms as well as biomarker candidates from the early stages of disease progression. This study investigated S-nitrosylation in synaptosomal proteins isolated from APP/PS1 model mice in comparison to wild type and NOS2-/- mice, as well as human control, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease brain tissues. Proteomics data were obtained using an established protocol utilizing an isobaric mass tag method, followed by nanocapillary high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis identified the S-nitrosylation sites most likely derived from an increase in nitric oxide (NO) in dependence of presence of AD pathology, age and the key enzyme NOS2. The resulting list of candidate proteins is discussed considering function, previous findings in the context of neurodegeneration, and the potential for further validation studies.

3.
Brain ; 142(9): 2555-2557, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497860
4.
Cerebellum ; 18(5): 896-909, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441004

RESUMO

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a rare autosomal-recessive slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. As common clinical measures for this devastating disease lack sensitivity, we explored whether (a) the quantitative motor assessments of the Q-Motor battery can enhance clinical characterisation of FRDA; (b) clinical measures can predict Q-Motor outcomes and (c) Q-Motor is sensitive to longitudinal change. At baseline 29 patients and 23 controls and in a 1-year follow-up 14 patients and 6 controls were included. The Q-Motor included lift (manumotography), finger tapping (digitomotography) and pronate/supinate (dysdiadochomotography) tasks. To model responses, a search of generalised linear models was conducted, selecting best fitting models, using demographic and clinical data as predictors. Predictors from selected models were used in linear mixed models to investigate longitudinal changes. Patients with FRDA performed worse than controls on most measures. Modelling of the pronate/supinate task was dominated by SCAFI (SCA functional index) subtasks, while tapping task and lift task models suggested a complex relationship with clinical measures. Longitudinal modelling implied minor changes from baseline to follow-up, while clinical scales mainly showed no change in this sample. Overall Q-Motor likely has favourable properties for assessing distinct motor aspects in severe FRDA as it can be administered in wheelchair-bound patients. Further longitudinal research is warranted to fully characterise its relation to routinely used measures and scales for FRDA.

5.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 149, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is the most common subtype among the autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, a group of neurodegenerative disorders for which currently no disease-specific therapy is available. Evidence-based options for symptomatic treatment of ataxia are also limited. Recent investigations in a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired ataxias showed promising, prolonged effects of a two-week course with daily sessions of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on ataxia severity, gait speed, and upper limb dexterity. The aim of the SCA3-tDCS study is to further examine whether tDCS improves ataxia severity and various (cerebellar) non-motor symptoms in a homogeneous cohort of SCA3 patients and to explore the time course of these effects. METHODS/DESIGN: An investigator-initiated, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled, single-center trial will be conducted. Twenty mildly to moderately affected SCA3 patients (Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score between 3 and 20) will be included and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either cerebellar anodal tDCS or sham cerebellar tDCS. Patients, investigators, and outcome assessors are unaware of treatment allocation. Cerebellar tDCS (20 min, 2 mA, ramp-up and down periods of 30 s each) will be delivered over ten sessions, distributed in two groups of five consecutive days with a two-day break in between. Outcomes are assessed after a single session of tDCS, after the tenth stimulation (T1), and after three, six, and twelve months. The primary outcome measure is the absolute change of the SARA score between baseline and T1. In addition, effects on a variety of other motor and neuropsychological functions in which the cerebellum is known to be involved will be evaluated using quantitative motor tests, static posturography, neurophysiological measurements, cognitive assessment, and questionnaires. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will inform us whether repeated sessions of cerebellar anodal tDCS benefit SCA3 patients and whether this form of non-invasive stimulation might be a novel therapeutic approach to consider in a neurorehabilitation setting. Combined with two earlier controlled trials, a positive effect of the SCA3-tDCS study will encourage implementation of this intervention and stimulate further research in other SCAs and heredodegenerative ataxias. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NL7321 , registered October 8, 2018.


Assuntos
Doença de Machado-Joseph/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Ataxia , Ataxia Cerebelar , Cerebelo , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Reabilitação Neurológica , Extremidade Superior
6.
Mov Disord ; 34(8): 1220-1227, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are rare dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases that lead to severe disability and premature death. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the impact of disease progression measured by the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia on survival, and to identify different profiles of disease progression and survival. METHODS: Four hundred sixty-two spinocerebellar ataxia patients from the EUROSCA prospective cohort study, suffering from spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, and who had at least two measurements of Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score, were analyzed. Outcomes were change over time in Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score and time to death. Joint model was used to analyze disease progression and survival. RESULTS: Disease progression was the strongest predictor for death in all genotypes: An increase of 1 standard deviation in total Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score increased the risk of death by 1.28 times (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.38) for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1; 1.19 times (1.12-1.26) for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2; 1.30 times (1.19-1.42) for spinocerebellar ataxia type 3; and 1.26 times (1.11-1.43) for spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. Three subgroups of disease progression and survival were identified for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1: "severe" (n = 13; 12%), "intermediate" (n = 31; 29%), and "moderate" (n = 62; 58%). Patients in the severe group were more severely affected at baseline with higher Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia scores and frequency of nonataxia signs compared to those in the other groups. CONCLUSION: Rapid ataxia progression is associated with poor survival of the most common spinocerebellar ataxia. Theses current results have implications for the design of future interventional studies of spinocerebellar ataxia. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

7.
Neurology ; 92(23): e2679-e2690, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We took advantage of a large multinational recruitment to delineate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large, trans-European multicenter cohort of patients with spastic paraplegia gene 7 (SPG7). METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data from 241 patients with SPG7, integrating neurologic follow-up data. One case was examined neuropathologically. RESULTS: Patients with SPG7 had a mean age of 35.5 ± 14.3 years (n = 233) at onset and presented with spasticity (n = 89), ataxia (n = 74), or both (n = 45). At the first visit, patients with a longer disease duration (>20 years, n = 62) showed more cerebellar dysarthria (p < 0.05), deep sensory loss (p < 0.01), muscle wasting (p < 0.01), ophthalmoplegia (p < 0.05), and sphincter dysfunction (p < 0.05) than those with a shorter duration (<10 years, n = 93). Progression, measured by Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia evaluations, showed a mean annual increase of 1.0 ± 1.4 points in a subgroup of 30 patients. Patients homozygous for loss of function (LOF) variants (n = 65) presented significantly more often with pyramidal signs (p < 0.05), diminished visual acuity due to optic atrophy (p < 0.0001), and deep sensory loss (p < 0.0001) than those with at least 1 missense variant (n = 176). Patients with at least 1 Ala510Val variant (58%) were older (age 37.6 ± 13.7 vs 32.8 ± 14.6 years, p < 0.05) and showed ataxia at onset (p < 0.05). Neuropathologic examination revealed reduction of the pyramidal tract in the medulla oblongata and moderate loss of Purkinje cells and substantia nigra neurons. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest SPG7 cohort study to date and shows a spasticity-predominant phenotype of LOF variants and more frequent cerebellar ataxia and later onset in patients carrying at least 1 Ala510Val variant.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Paraplegia/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Adulto , Ataxia Cerebelar/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Eletromiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraplegia/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Transl Neurodegener ; 8: 11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984390

RESUMO

Background: IgG-class autoantibodies to N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors define a novel entity of autoimmune encephalitis. Studies examining the prevalence of NMDA IgA/IgM antibodies in patients with Parkinson disease with/without dementia produced conflicting results. We measured NMDA antibodies in a large, well phenotyped sample of Parkinson patients without and with cognitive impairment (n = 296) and controls (n = 295) free of neuropsychiatric disease. Detailed phenotyping and large numbers allowed statistically meaningful correlation of antibody status with diagnostic subgroups as well as quantitative indicators of disease severity and cognitive impairment. Methods: NMDA antibodies were analysed in the serum of patients and controls using well established validated assays. We used anti-NMDA antibody positivity as the main independent variable and correlated it with disease status and phenotypic characteristics. Results: The frequency of NMDA IgA/IgM antibodies was lower in Parkinson patients (13%) than in controls (22%) and higher than in previous studies in both groups. NMDA IgA/IgM antibodies were neither significantly associated with diagnostic subclasses of Parkinson disease according to cognitive impairment, nor with quantitative indicators of disease severity and cognitive impairment. A positive NMDA antibody status was positively correlated with age in controls but not in Parkinson patients. Conclusion: It is unlikely albeit not impossible that NMDA antibodies play a significant role in the pathogenesis or progression of Parkinson disease e.g. to Parkinson disease with dementia, while NMDA IgG antibodies define a separate disease of its own.

10.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 24, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975995

RESUMO

The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal dominantly inherited progressive disorders, the clinical hallmark of which is loss of balance and coordination accompanied by slurred speech; onset is most often in adult life. Genetically, SCAs are grouped as repeat expansion SCAs, such as SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), and rare SCAs that are caused by non-repeat mutations, such as SCA5. Most SCA mutations cause prominent damage to cerebellar Purkinje neurons with consecutive cerebellar atrophy, although Purkinje neurons are only mildly affected in some SCAs. Furthermore, other parts of the nervous system, such as the spinal cord, basal ganglia and pontine nuclei in the brainstem, can be involved. As there is currently no treatment to slow or halt SCAs (many SCAs lead to premature death), the clinical care of patients with SCA focuses on managing the symptoms through physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy. Intense research has greatly expanded our understanding of the pathobiology of many SCAs, revealing that they occur via interrelated mechanisms (including proteotoxicity, RNA toxicity and ion channel dysfunction), and has led to the identification of new targets for treatment development. However, the development of effective therapies is hampered by the heterogeneity of the SCAs; specific therapeutic approaches may be required for each disease.


Assuntos
Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/terapia , Fatores Etários , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Riluzol/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/epidemiologia
11.
J Neurol ; 266(6): 1351-1357, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent retrospective studies found sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea and its symptoms to occur more often in patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, but studies investigating the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients with diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] compared to other sleep disorders are missing. METHODS: To test our hypothesis that aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs more often in patients with OSA compared to other sleep disorders, we analyzed clinical data of 5514 patients with OSA, 4150 with other sleep disorders, and 964 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosed between 01/01/2007 and 12/31/2016. As a secondary outcome, location and size of the ruptured aneurysm were calculated based on computer tomography. Incidence of SAH, as well as size and location were compared between patients with OSA and patients with other sleep disorders, diagnosed by polysomnography. RESULTS: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred in 8.3 per 100,000 patients with sleep disorders per year. Its incidence was significantly higher in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (14.5 per 100,000 patients per year), compared to other sleep disorders (2.4 per 100,000 patients per year; RR = 6.8; p = 0.04). The size of the ruptured aneurysm was larger in patients with OSA (19.0 ± 5.7 mm vs. 8.5 ± 0.5 mm; p = 0.004). INTERPRETATION: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs more often in patients with diagnosed OSA compared to patients with other sleep disorders, possibly due to increased aneurysm enlargement. Obstructive sleep apnea might be a yet unrecognized risk factor for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and sleep apnea screening should be considered in patients with intracranial aneurysm.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101784, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925383

RESUMO

Many studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to unravel the neuronal underpinnings of motor system abnormalities in Parkinson's disease, indicating functional inhibition at the level of basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical motor networks. The study aim was to extend the characterization of functional motor changes in Parkinson's Disease by dissociating between two phases of action (i.e. motor planning and motor execution) during an automated unilateral finger movement sequence with the left and right hand, separately. In essence, we wished to identify neuronal dysfunction and potential neuronal compensation before (planning) and during (execution) automated sequential motor behavior in unmedicated early stage Parkinson's Disease patients. Twenty-two Parkinson's Disease patients (14 males; 53 ±â€¯11 years; Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ±â€¯0.6; UPDRS (part 3) motor score 16 ±â€¯6) and 22 healthy controls (14 males; 49 ±â€¯12 years) performed a pre-learnt four finger sequence (index, ring, middle and little finger, in order), either self-initiated (FREE) or externally triggered (REACT), within an 8-second time window. Findings were most pronounced during FREE with the clinically most affected side, where motor execution revealed significant underactivity of contralateral primary motor cortex, contralateral posterior putamen (sensorimotor territory), ipsilateral anterior cerebellum / cerebellar vermis, along with underactivity in supplementary motor area (based on ROI analyses only), corroborating previous findings in Parkinson's Disease. During motor planning, Parkinson's Disease patients showed a significant relative overactivity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), suggesting a compensatory overactivity. To a variable extent this relative overactivity in the DLPFC went along with a relative overactivity in the precuneus and the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum/cerebellar vermis Our study illustrates that a refined view of disturbances in motor function and compensatory processes can be gained from experimental designs that try to dissociate motor planning from motor execution, emphasizing that compensatory mechanisms are triggered in Parkinson's Disease when voluntary movements are conceptualized for action.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Putamen/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia
13.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 139(6): 533-539, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Friedreich's ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia, and pathogenesis is known to involve mitochondrial oxidative stress. Idebenone is a potent antioxidant which has already been evaluated in several clinical trials in FRDA, with reports of symptomatic benefit but inconclusive objective results. Following patient consultation on design, we have completed a treatment-withdrawal study to establish whether patients could correctly determine their treatment allocation to placebo or idebenone. Our aim was to capture subjective experiences of symptoms such as fatigue, which can be difficult to measure with questionnaires or semi-quantitative scales, particularly in chronic, slowly progressive conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients taking idebenone for at least 12 months as part of the open-label MICONOS Extension Study were randomized to receive either placebo or idebenone continuation for 2-month treatment cycles. The primary endpoint was patient assessment of treatment assignment. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients were randomized, forming the idebenone group (n = 16) and the placebo group (n = 13). No significant differences were detected between the idebenone and placebo groups on assessment of treatment assignment or early study withdrawal. A small but significant difference in ataxia rating scale scores was detected between treatment groups when considering ambulatory patients only. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no data to suggest that FRDA patients could correctly determine their treatment assignment over a 2-month period. We hope that this study design will help inform future trials so that patients' experiences of symptoms are more reliably measured.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia de Friedreich/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico
14.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the natural history of brain involvement in adult-onset myotonic dystrophies type 1 and 2 (DM1, DM2). METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal observational study to examine functional and structural cerebral changes in myotonic dystrophies. We enrolled 16 adult-onset DM1 patients, 16 DM2 patients, and 17 controls. At baseline and after 5.5 ± 0.4 years participants underwent neurological, neuropsychological, and 3T-brain MRI examinations using identical study protocols that included voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Data were analyzed by (i) group comparisons between patients and controls at baseline and follow-up, and (ii) group comparisons using difference maps (baseline-follow-up in each participant) to focus on disease-related effects over time. RESULTS: We found minor neuropsychological deficits with mild progression in DM1 more than DM2. Daytime sleepiness was restricted to DM1, whereas fatigue was present in both disease entities and stable over time. Comparing results of cross-sectional neuroimaging analyses at baseline and follow-up revealed an unchanged pattern of pronounced white matter alterations in DM1. There was mild additional gray matter reduction in DM1 at follow-up. In DM2, white matter reduction was of lesser extent, but there were some additional alterations at follow-up. Gray matter seemed unaffected in DM2. Intriguingly, longitudinal analyses using difference maps and comparing them between patients and controls did not reveal any significant differences of cerebral changes over time between patients and controls. CONCLUSION: The lack of significant disease-related progression of gray and white matter involvement over a period of five years in our cohort of DM1 and DM2 patients suggests either a rather slowly progressive process or even a stable course of cerebral changes in middle-aged adult-onset patients. Being the first longitudinal neuroimaging trial in DM1 and DM2, this study provides useful additional information regarding the natural history of brain involvement.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Distrofia Miotônica/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
17.
J Neurol ; 265(9): 2040-2051, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To study the long-term evolution of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), we analyzed 8 years follow-up data of the EUROSCA Natural History Study, a cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3 and SCA6. METHODS: To assess the functional capacity in daily living, we used the functional assessment (part IV) of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-IV), for health-related quality of life the visual analogue scale of the EuroQol Five Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D VAS), and for depressive symptoms the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Severity of ataxia was assessed using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and neurological symptoms other than ataxia with the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Signs (INAS). RESULTS: UHDRS-IV [SCA1: - 1.35 (0.12); SCA2: - 1.15 (0.11); SCA3: - 1.16 (0.11); SCA6: - 0.99 (0.12)] and EQ-5D [SCA1: - 2.88 (0.72); SCA2: - 1.97 (0.49); SCA3: - 2.06 (0.55); SCA6: - 1.03 (0.57)] decreased linearly, whereas PHQ-9 increased [SCA1: 0.15 (0.04); SCA2: 0.09 (0.03); SCA3: 0.06 (0.04); SCA6: 0.07 (0.04)] during the observational period. Standard response means (SRMs) of UHDRS-IV (0.473-0.707) and EQ-5D VAS (0.053-0.184) were lower than that of SARA (0.404-0.979). In SCA1, higher SARA scores [- 0.0288 (0.01), p = 0.0251], longer repeat expansions [- 0.0622 (0.02), p = 0.0002] and the presence of cognitive impairment at baseline [- 0.5381 (0.25), p = 0.0365] were associated with faster UHDRS-IV decline. In SCA3, higher INAS counts were associated with a faster UHDRS-IV decline [- 0.05 (0.02), p = 0.0212]. In SCA1, PHQ-9 progression was faster in patients with cognitive impairment [0.14 (0.07); p = 0.0396]. CONCLUSIONS: In the common SCAs, PROMs give complementary information to the information provided by neurological scales. This underlines the importance of PROMs as additional outcome measures in future interventional trials.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Qualidade de Vida , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/terapia , Idoso , Depressão , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/psicologia
19.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 155: 217-225, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891060

RESUMO

Sporadic adult-onset ataxia (SAOA) is a nongenetic neurodegenerative disorder of the cerebellum of unknown cause which manifests with progressive ataxia. It is distinguished from hereditary ataxias and from acquired ataxias. SAOA also needs to be differentiated from multiple system atrophy of cerebellar type (MSA-C). Thus, the diagnosis of SAOA can only be made by exclusion. Although cerebellar ataxia is the prominent symptom in SAOA, patients often have additional nonataxia signs, including pyramidal tracts signs, decreased or absent ankle reflexes, sensory disturbances, mainly in the form of reduced vibration sense, and mild urinary symptoms that do not the fulfill the criteria for severe autonomic failure required for the diagnosis of MSA-C. Disease progression in SAOA is considerably slower than in MSA-C. Brain imaging typically shows isolated cerebellar atrophy. Nerve conduction studies provide evidence for polyneuropathy in about one-third of SAOA patients. As the etiology and pathogenesis of SAOA are unknown, there is no specific treatment approach to this condition.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Ataxia Cerebelar/epidemiologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Células de Purkinje/patologia , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(4): 327-334, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias. Survival was defined as the time from enrolment to death for any reason. We used the Cox regression model adjusted for age at baseline to analyse survival. We used prognostic factors with a p value less than 0·05 from a multivariate model to build nomograms and assessed their performance based on discrimination and calibration. The EUROSCA study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02440763. FINDINGS: Between July 1, 2005, and Aug 31, 2006, 525 patients with SCA1 (n=117), SCA2 (n=162), SCA3 (n=139), or SCA6 (n=107) were enrolled and followed up. The 10-year survival rate was 57% (95% CI 47-69) for SCA1, 74% (67-81) for SCA2, 73% (65-82) for SCA3, and 87% (80-94) for SCA6. Factors associated with shorter survival were: dysphagia (hazard ratio 4·52, 95% CI 1·83-11·15) and a higher value for the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) score (1·26, 1·19-1·33) for patients with SCA1; older age at inclusion (1·04, 1·01-1·08), longer CAG repeat length (1·16, 1·03-1·31), and higher SARA score (1·15, 1·10-1·20) for patients with SCA2; older age at inclusion (1·44, 1·20-1·74), dystonia (2·65, 1·21-5·53), higher SARA score (1·26, 1·17-1·35), and negative interaction between CAG and age at inclusion (0·994, 0·991-0·997) for patients with SCA3; and higher SARA score (1·17, 1·08-1·27) for patients with SCA6. The nomogram-predicted probability of 10-year survival showed good discrimination (c index 0·905 [SD 0·027] for SCA1, 0·822 [0·032] for SCA2, 0·891 [0·021] for SCA3, and 0·825 [0·054] for SCA6). INTERPRETATION: Our study provides quantitative data on the survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias, based on a long follow-up period. These results have implications for the design of future interventional studies of spinocerebellar ataxias; for example, the prognostic survival nomogram could be useful for selection and stratification of patients. Our findings need validation in an external population before they can be used to counsel patients and their families. FUNDING: European Union 6th Framework programme, German Ministry of Education and Research, Polish Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology, European Union 7th Framework programme, and Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale.


Assuntos
Ataxias Espinocerebelares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
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