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1.
Neurology ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893204

RESUMO

ObjectivesThis study was to develop an appropriate parametric survival model to predict patient's age at onset (AAO) for Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) populations from mainland China.MethodsWe compared the efficiency and performance of six parametric survival analysis methods (exponential, weibull, log-gaussian, gaussian, log-logistic and logistic) based on CAG repeat length at ATXN3 to predict the probability of AAO in the largest cohort of SCA3/MJD patients. A set of evaluation criteria, including -2 log-likelihood statistic, Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Nagelkerke R square (Nagelkerke R^2) and Cox-Snell residual plot, were used to indentify the best model.ResultsAmong these six parametric survival models, the logistic model had the lowest -2 log-likelihood (6560.12), AIC (6566.12), BIC (6566.14), and the highest value of Nagelkerke R^2 (0.54), with closest graph to the bisector Cox-Snell residual graph. Therefore, the logistic survival model was the best fit to the studied data. Based on the optimal logistic survival model, we indicated the age-specific probability distribution of AAO according to the CAG repeat size and current age.ConclusionsWe first demonstrated logistic survival model provided the best fit for AAO prediction in SCA3/MJD patients from mainland China. This optimal model can be valuable in clinical and research. However, the rigorous clinical testing and practice of other independent cohorts are needed for its clinical applications. A unified model across multi-ethnic cohorts is worth further exploration by identifying regional differences and significant modifiers in AAO determination.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 135, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient involvement in research increases the impact of research and the likelihood of adoption in clinical practice. A first step is to know which research themes are important for patients. We distributed a survey on research priorities to ERN-RND members, both patient representatives and healthcare professionals, asking them to prioritize five research themes for rare neurological diseases on a scale ranging from 1 (most important) to 5 (least important). A follow-up e-mail interview was conducted with patient representatives and professionals to assess potential reasons for differences in opinions between these two groups. RESULTS: In total, 156 responses were analysed: 61 from professionals and 95 from patient representatives. They covered all ERN-RND disease groups and came from 20 different EU countries. Almost half of the respondents considered 'Developing therapies and preventive strategies' the most important research theme. In particular, patient representatives prioritized this theme more often than professionals, while professionals prioritized 'Disease mechanisms and models'. Patient representatives indicated that therapies and prevention were of the utmost importance to them, because their lives are often heavily impacted by the disease and their main goal is to relief the burden of disease. Professionals indicated that investigating disease mechanisms will lead to more knowledge and is indispensable for finding new treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and professionals have different opinions on which research theme should have priority. A qualitative follow-up shows that they respect each others' view points. Different stakeholders involved in research should be aware of their differences in research theme priority. Explaining these differences to each other leads to more understanding, and could improve patient engagement in research.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(5): 362-372, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Friedreich's Ataxia Consortium for Translational Studies (EFACTS) investigates the natural history of Friedreich's ataxia. We aimed to assess progression characteristics and to identify patient groups with differential progression rates based on longitudinal 4-year data to inform upcoming clinical trials in Friedreich's ataxia. METHODS: EFACTS is a prospective, observational cohort study based on an ongoing and open-ended registry. Patients with genetically confirmed Friedreich's ataxia were seen annually at 11 clinical centres in seven European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK). Data from baseline to 4-year follow-up were included in the current analysis. Our primary endpoints were the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the activities of daily living (ADL). Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyse annual disease progression for the entire cohort and subgroups defined by age of onset and ambulatory abilities. Power calculations were done for potential trial designs. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02069509. FINDINGS: Between Sept 15, 2010, and Nov 20, 2018, of 914 individuals assessed for eligibility, 602 patients were included. Of these, 552 (92%) patients contributed data with at least one follow-up visit. Annual progression rate for SARA was 0·82 points (SE 0·05) in the overall cohort, and higher in patients who were ambulatory (1·12 [0·07]) than non-ambulatory (0·50 [0·07]). ADL worsened by 0·93 (SE 0·05) points per year in the entire cohort, with similar progression rates in patients who were ambulatory (0·94 [0·07]) and non-ambulatory (0·91 [0·08]). Although both SARA and ADL showed slightly greater worsening in patients with typical onset (symptom onset at ≤24 years) than those with late onset (symptom onset ≥25 years), differences in progression slopes were not significant. For a 2-year parallel-group trial, 230 (115 per group) patients would be required to detect a 50% reduction in SARA progression at 80% power: 118 (59 per group) if only individuals who are ambulatory are included. With ADL as the primary outcome, 190 (95 per group) patients with Friedreich's ataxia would be needed, and fewer patients would be required if only individuals with early-onset are included. INTERPRETATION: Our findings for stage-dependent progression rates have important implications for clinicians and researchers, as they provide reliable outcome measures to monitor disease progression, and enable tailored sample size calculation to guide upcoming clinical trial designs in Friedreich's ataxia. FUNDING: European Commission, Voyager Therapeutics, and EuroAtaxia.

4.
J Neurol ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656586

RESUMO

There is now robust evidence that the cerebellum-apart from its well-established role in motor control-is crucially involved in a wide spectrum of cognitive and affective functions. Clinical and neuropsychological studies together with evidence from anatomical studies and advanced neuroimaging have yielded significant insights into the specific features and clinical relevance of cerebellar involvement in normal cognition and mood.

6.
Mov Disord ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical scales such as the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) cannot be used to study ataxia at home or to assess daily fluctuations. The objective of the current study was to develop a video-based instrument, SARAhome , for measuring ataxia severity easily and independently at home. METHODS: Based on feasibility of self-application, we selected 5 SARA items (gait, stance, speech, nose-finger test, fast alternating hand movements) for SARAhome (range, 0-28). We compared SARAhome items with total SARA scores in 526 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, 3, and 6 from the EUROSCA natural history study. To prospectively validate the SARAhome , we directly compared the self-applied SARAhome and the conventional SARA in 50 ataxia patients. To demonstrate feasibility of independent home recordings in a pilot study, 12 ataxia patients were instructed to obtain a video each morning and evening over a period of 14 days. All videos were rated offline by a trained rater. RESULTS: SARAhome extracted from the EUROSCA baseline data was highly correlated with conventional SARA (r = 0.9854, P < 0.0001). In the prospective validation study, the SARAhome was highly correlated with the conventional SARA (r = 0.9254, P < 0.0001). Five of 12 participants of the pilot study obtained a complete set of 28 evaluable videos. Seven participants obtained 13-27 videos. The intraindividual differences between the lowest and highest SARAhome scores ranged from 1 to 5.5. CONCLUSION: The SARAhome and the conventional SARA are highly correlated. Application at home is feasible. There was a considerable degree of intraindividual variability of the SARAhome scores. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

7.
Neurology ; 96(9): e1369-e1382, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the full phenotypic spectrum, discriminative features, piloting longitudinal progression data, and sample size calculations of replication factor complex subunit 1 (RFC1) repeat expansions, recently identified as causing cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). METHODS: Multimodal RFC1 repeat screening (PCR, Southern blot, whole-exome/genome sequencing-based approaches) combined with cross-sectional and longitudinal deep phenotyping in (1) cross-European cohort A (70 families) with ≥2 features of CANVAS or ataxia with chronic cough (ACC) and (2) Turkish cohort B (105 families) with unselected late-onset ataxia. RESULTS: Prevalence of RFC1 disease was 67% in cohort A, 14% in unselected cohort B, 68% in clinical CANVAS, and 100% in ACC. RFC1 disease was also identified in Western and Eastern Asian individuals and even by whole-exome sequencing. Visual compensation, sensory symptoms, and cough were strong positive discriminative predictors (>90%) against RFC1-negative patients. The phenotype across 70 RFC1-positive patients was mostly multisystemic (69%), including dysautonomia (62%) and bradykinesia (28%) (overlap with cerebellar-type multiple system atrophy [MSA-C]), postural instability (49%), slow vertical saccades (17%), and chorea or dystonia (11%). Ataxia progression was ≈1.3 Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia points per year (32 cross-sectional, 17 longitudinal assessments, follow-up ≤9 years [mean 3.1 years]) but also included early falls, variable nonlinear phases of MSA-C-like progression (SARA points 2.5-5.5 per year), and premature death. Treatment trials require 330 (1-year trial) and 132 (2-year trial) patients in total to detect 50% reduced progression. CONCLUSIONS: RFC1 disease is frequent and occurs across continents, with CANVAS and ACC as highly diagnostic phenotypes yet as variable, overlapping clusters along a continuous multisystemic disease spectrum, including MSA-C-overlap. Our natural history data help to inform future RFC1 treatment trials. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that RFC1 repeat expansions are associated with CANVAS and ACC.


Assuntos
Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/genética , Proteína de Replicação C/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Ataxia , Vestibulopatia Bilateral , Estudos de Coortes , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente) , Exoma , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Turquia , Doenças Vestibulares
10.
J Neurol ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106888

RESUMO

In view of upcoming clinical trials, quantitative molecular markers accessible in peripheral blood are of critical importance as prognostic or pharmacodynamic markers in genetic neurodegenerative diseases such as Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 (SCA3), in particular for signaling target engagement. In this pilot study, we focused on the quantification of ataxin-3, the protein altered in SCA3, in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) acquired from preataxic and ataxic SCA3 mutation carriers as well as healthy controls, as a molecular marker directly related to SCA3 pathophysiology. We established two different highly sensitive TR-FRET-based immunoassays to measure the protein levels of either total full-length, non-expanded and expanded, ataxin-3 or specifically polyQ-expanded ataxin-3. In PBMCs, a clear discrimination between SCA3 mutation carrier and controls were seen measuring polyQ-expanded ataxin-3 protein level. Additionally, polyQ-expanded ataxin-3 protein levels correlated with disease progression and clinical severity as assessed by the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia. Total full-length ataxin-3 protein levels were directly influenced by the expression levels of the polyQ-expanded ataxin-3 protein, but were not correlated with clinical parameters. Assessment of ataxin-3 levels in fibroblasts or induced pluripotent stem cells allowed to distinguish mutation carriers from controls, thus providing proof-of-principle validation of our PBMC findings across cell lines. Total full-length or polyQ-expanded ataxin-3 protein was not detectable by TR-FRET assays in other biofluids like plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, indicating the need for ultra-sensitive assays for these biofluids. Standardization studies revealed that tube systems, blood sampling, and PBMC preparation may influence ataxin-3 protein levels indicating a high demand for standardized protocols in biomarker studies. In conclusion, the polyQ-expanded ataxin-3 protein is a promising candidate as a molecular target engagement marker in SCA3 in future clinical trials, determinable even in-easily accessible-peripheral blood biomaterials. These results, however, require validation in a larger cohort and further standardization of modifying conditions.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039276

RESUMO

The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on motor signs is often preceded by several non-motor symptoms that can indicate early prodromal neurodegenerative processes. Such prodromal symptoms can aid the early detection of PD, but their specificity for prodromal PD in comparison to prodromes of other movement disorders is still largely unclear. We here aim to give a first insight into the published evidence of prodromal non-motor symptoms in PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), Huntington's disease (HD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). REM-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and autonomic dysfunction have been observed in the prodromes of PD, MSA, DLB and SCA. Depression and cognitive decline have been reported for prodromal PD, DLB, HD, SCA, and PSP. Olfactory loss has only been described in prodromal PD/DLB. However, estimating the specificity of prodromal non-motor symptoms in PD is so far complicated by scarce prospective evidence and study limitations. Information on marker specificity is a prerequisite for an accurate early (differential) diagnosis of prodromal diseases, as well as specific recruitment for targeted neuroprotective interventions. We here would like to raise awareness of these issues and encourage further prospective research of prodromal non-motor symptoms in neurodegenerative movement disorders and other diseases.

12.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926343

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Retrospective studies indicate that obstructive sleep apnea occurs often after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We aim to investigate if obstructive sleep apnea is associated with impaired blood pressure control early after subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were recruited and screened for sleep apnea using cardiorespiratory polygraphy within 48 h after intensive care unit admission, and 6 months after hospital discharge at home. Blood pressure was continuously measured using intra-arterial catheter within the first 24 h after admission. Time between hospital admission and first blood pressure below 140 mmHg, and time with elevated blood pressure within the first 24 h after admission were compared between patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea. RESULTS: Of 60 patients, 55 successfully completed the study. Obstructive sleep apnea (AHI > 5/h) was diagnosed in 32% of men and 24% of women. While the time to reach a blood pressure of 140 mmHg did not differ (60.0 ± 26.2 min vs. 49.7 ± 16.4 min; p = 0.74), obstructive sleep apnea patients spent more time with blood pressure above 140 mmHg (292.0 ± 114.0 vs. 96.9 ± 28.3 min per 24 h; p = 0.025, CI 95 -363.6 to -26.5) within the observational period. Only AHI and diagnosed hypertension were significant predictors for elevated blood pressure (R2 0.42;p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated in our study with poor blood pressure control early after subarachnoid hemorrhage. These patients may need advanced management for blood pressure including management for OSA following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Screening for sleep apnea in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage is recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClincalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02724215, registered on March 31, 2016.

13.
Neurology ; 95(23): e3138-e3144, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a fraction of patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) had been cured by systemic and intraventricular methotrexate- and cytarabine-based chemotherapy (Bonn protocol) after a very long-term follow-up of nearly 20 years. METHODS: Sixty-five patients (median age 62 years, range 27-75; median Karnofsky performance score 70, range 20-90) had been treated with systemic and intraventricular polychemotherapy without whole brain radiotherapy from September 1995 until December 2001. All patients still alive in 2019 were contacted and interviewed on their current life situation. RESULTS: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 19.6 years (17.5-23.3 years). Out of 65 patients, 11 (17%) were still alive. Six of those never experienced any relapse. For the whole study population, median overall survival (OS) was 4.4 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-5.9); for patients ≤60 years, 11.0 years (95% CI 4.8-17.0). The 10-year OS rate for the entire cohort was 29% and the estimated 20-year OS rate was 19%. Four late relapses were observed after 9.8, 10.3, 13.3, and 21.0 years. CONCLUSION: At a median follow-up of 19.6 years, 17% of patients were alive and free of tumor; however, even after response for decades, an inherent risk of relapse, either systemic or cerebral, characterizes the biology of PCNSL. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This work provides Class III evidence that PCNSL treatment with methotrexate-based polychemotherapy including intraventricular therapy is associated with long-term disease control in some patients.

14.
Neurodegener Dis ; : 1-6, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rivastigmine is an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor which is commonly used as therapy for dementia in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, a randomized controlled trial demonstrated a positive effect of rivastigmine on gait function in nondemented PD patients. Disturbed gait is a shared hallmark of PD and ataxias. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the effect of rivastigmine could be translated to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) improving gait function. METHOD: Five patients with SCA type 3 were treated with transdermal rivastigmine for 8 weeks. The patients were monitored using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and an electronic walkway system (GAITRite®). RESULTS: Gait function was not changed by treatment, but 4 patients who continued treatment for 8 weeks showed improved coordination of extremities. The SARA sum score, which was 7.6 ± 2.2 at baseline, had dropped by 1.5 ± 1.9 after 4 weeks and by 2.1 ± 1.4 after 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed no improvement of gait parameters as assessed by SARA and GAIT-Rite®, but coordination abilities were improved. Rivastigmine was well tolerated, but known side effects of rivastigmine, such as deterioration of asthma, may appear. Further trials in larger cohorts are needed to confirm our findings.

15.
J Neurol ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964331

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis confronted us, like many researchers worldwide, with an unforeseen challenge during the final stages of a randomized controlled trial involving ataxia patients. Institutional guidelines suddenly no longer allowed regular follow-up visits to take place, impeding the clinical evaluation of long-term outcomes. Here, we discuss the various scenarios that we considered in response to these imposed restrictions and share our experience of home video recording by dedicated, extensively instructed family members. Albeit somewhat unconventional at first glance, this last resort strategy enabled us to reliably assess the study's primary endpoint at the predefined point in time and hopefully encourages researchers in other ongoing ataxia trials to continue their activities. Remote assessments of ataxia severity may serve as a reasonable substitute in interventional trials beyond the current exceptional situation generated by the COVID-19 pandemic, but will require further investigation.

16.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(9): 738-747, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases. Our aim was to study the conversion to manifest ataxia among apparently healthy carriers of mutations associated with the most common SCAs (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6), and the sensitivity of clinical and functional measures to detect change in these individuals. METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study, based at 14 referral centres in seven European countries, we enrolled children or siblings of patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6. Eligible individuals were those without ataxia, defined by a score on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) of less than 3; participants had to be aged 18-50 years for children or siblings of patients with SCA1, SCA2, or SCA3, and 35-70 years for children or siblings of patients with SCA6. Study visits took place at recruitment and after 2, 4, and 6 years (plus or minus 3 months). We did genetic testing to identify mutation carriers, with results concealed to the participant and clinical investigator. We assessed patients with clinical scales, questionnaires of patient-reported outcome measures, a rating of the examiner's confidence of presence of ataxia, and performance-based coordination tests. Conversion to ataxia was defined by an SARA score of 3 or higher. We analysed the association of factors at baseline with conversion to ataxia and the evolution of outcome parameters on temporal scales (time from inclusion and time to predicted age at ataxia onset) in the context of mutation status and conversion status. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01037777. FINDINGS: Between Sept 13, 2008, and Oct 28, 2015, 302 participants were enrolled. We analysed data for 252 participants with at least one follow-up visit. 83 (33%) participants were from families affected by SCA1, 99 (39%) by SCA2, 46 (18%) by SCA3, and 24 (10%) by SCA6. In participants who carried SCA mutations, 26 (52%) of 50 SCA1 carriers, 22 (59%) of 37 SCA2 carriers, 11 (42%) of 26 SCA3 carriers, and two (13%) of 15 SCA6 carriers converted to ataxia. One (3%) of 33 SCA1 non-carriers and one (2%) of 62 SCA2 non-carriers converted to ataxia. Owing to the small number of people who met our criteria for ataxia, subsequent analyses could not be done in carriers of the SCA6 mutation. Baseline factors associated with conversion were age (hazard ratio 1·13 [95% CI 1·03-1·24]; p=0·011), CAG repeat length (1·25 [1·11-1·41]; p=0·0002), and ataxia confidence rating (1·72 [1·23-2·41]; p=0·0015) for SCA1; age (1·08 [1·02-1·14]; p=0·0077) and CAG repeat length (1·65 [1·27-2·13]; p=0·0001) for SCA2; and age (1·27 [1·09-1·50]; p=0·0031), confidence rating (2·60 [1·23-5·47]; p=0·012), and double vision (14·83 [2·15-102·44]; p=0·0063) for SCA3. From the time of inclusion, the SARA scores of SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 mutation carriers increased, whereas they remained stable in non-carriers. On a timescale defined by the predicted time of ataxia onset, SARA progression in SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 mutation carriers was non-linear, with marginal progression before ataxia and increasing progression after ataxia onset. INTERPRETATION: Our study provides quantitative data on the conversion of non-ataxic SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 mutation carriers to manifest ataxia. Our data could prove useful for the design of preventive trials aimed at delaying the onset of ataxia by aiding sample size calculations and stratification of study participants. FUNDING: European Research Area Network for Research Programmes on Rare Diseases, Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Italian Ministry of Health, European Community's Seventh Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Mutação/genética , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neurology ; 95(22): e2977-e2987, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum neurofilament light protein (sNfL) levels in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and to determine whether they are associated with disease severity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 185 healthy controls and 235 ATXN3 mutation carriers (17 asymptomatic stage, 20 preclinical stage, and 198 ataxic stage). We measured sNfL levels with the single molecule array (Simoa) platform. Clinical disease severity was assessed using the Scale of Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the Inventory of Nonataxia Signs (INAS). In a subgroup of 50 ataxic stage patients, we further evaluated the gray matter volume and the integrity of white matter fibers by MRI. RESULTS: sNfL concentrations were elevated in asymptomatic, preclinical, and ataxic ATXN3 mutation carriers compared to controls (12.18 [10.20-13.92], 21.84 [18.37-23.45], 36.06 [30.04-45.90], and 8.24 [5.92-10.84] pg/mL, median [interquartile range], respectively, p < 0.001). sNfL correlated with SARA (r = 0.406, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.284-0.515, p < 0.0001) and INAS (r = 0.375, 95% CI 0.250-0.487, p < 0.0001), and remained significant after adjustment for age and CAG repeats. In addition, we observed negative correlations of the sNfL with gray matter volume in the left precentral gyrus and the left paracentral lobule as well as with the mean diffusivity in widespread white matter tracts. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that sNfL levels are increased in SCA3 and are associated with clinical disease severity, which supports sNfL as a biomarker for disease severity in SCA3. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with SCA3, sNfL elevations are associated with clinical disease severity.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 364-373, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707086

RESUMO

We report bi-allelic pathogenic HPDL variants as a cause of a progressive, pediatric-onset spastic movement disorder with variable clinical presentation. The single-exon gene HPDL encodes a protein of unknown function with sequence similarity to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Exome sequencing studies in 13 families revealed bi-allelic HPDL variants in each of the 17 individuals affected with this clinically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive neurological disorder. HPDL levels were significantly reduced in fibroblast cell lines derived from more severely affected individuals, indicating the identified HPDL variants resulted in the loss of HPDL protein. Clinical presentation ranged from severe, neonatal-onset neurodevelopmental delay with neuroimaging findings resembling mitochondrial encephalopathy to milder manifestation of adolescent-onset, isolated hereditary spastic paraplegia. All affected individuals developed spasticity predominantly of the lower limbs over the course of the disease. We demonstrated through bioinformatic and cellular studies that HPDL has a mitochondrial localization signal and consequently localizes to mitochondria suggesting a putative role in mitochondrial metabolism. Taken together, these genetic, bioinformatic, and functional studies demonstrate HPDL is a mitochondrial protein, the loss of which causes a clinically variable form of pediatric-onset spastic movement disorder.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(7): e11803, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510847

RESUMO

With molecular treatments coming into reach for spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), easily accessible, cross-species validated biomarkers for human and preclinical trials are warranted, particularly for the preataxic disease stage. We assessed serum levels of neurofilament light (NfL) and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy (pNfH) in ataxic and preataxic subjects of two independent multicentric SCA3 cohorts and in a SCA3 knock-in mouse model. Ataxic SCA3 subjects showed increased levels of both NfL and pNfH. In preataxic subjects, NfL levels increased with proximity to the individual expected onset of ataxia, with significant NfL elevations already 7.5 years before onset. Cross-sectional NfL levels correlated with both disease severity and longitudinal disease progression. Blood NfL and pNfH increases in human SCA3 were each paralleled by similar changes in SCA3 knock-in mice, here also starting already at the presymptomatic stage, closely following ataxin-3 aggregation and preceding Purkinje cell loss in the brain. Blood neurofilaments, particularly NfL, might thus provide easily accessible, cross-species validated biomarkers in both ataxic and preataxic SCA3, associated with earliest neuropathological changes, and serve as progression, proximity-to-onset and, potentially, treatment-response markers in both human and preclinical SCA3 trials.

20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 76: 238-240, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307300

RESUMO

The hot cross bun (HCB) sign describes cruciform-shaped T2-weighted hyperintensities of pontocerebellar fibers within the pons and is a typical, but not specific imaging hallmark of the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C). We report a case of a 51-year-old woman who was first diagnosed with MSA-C based on progressive cerebellar ataxia, the HCB sign and T2-weighted hyperintensities in middle cerebellar peduncles on MRI. However, further diagnostic work-up revealed positive anti-amphiphysin antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid and subsequently breast cancer. This report of a paraneoplastic rhombencephalitis which initially mimicked MSA-C imaging features stresses the importance of considering immune-mediated rhombencephalitis as differential diagnosis in cases of progressive cerebellar ataxia and the HCB sign on T2-weighted MRI, especially in the absence of pontocerebellar atrophy.


Assuntos
Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedúnculo Cerebelar Médio/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico por imagem , Degenerações Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem
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