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1.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International guidelines have endorsed the use of edoxaban or rivaroxaban as an alternative to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. Recently, a large randomized controlled trial of apixaban versus dalteparin in patients with cancer was completed. We performed an updated meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus LMWH in patients with cancer-associated VTE. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry) were systematically searched up to March 30, 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing DOACs versus LMWH for the treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. The two coprimary outcomes were recurrent VTE and major bleeding at 6 months. Data were pooled by the Mantel-Haenszel method and compared by relative risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Four randomized controlled studies (2,894 patients) comparing apixaban, edoxaban, or rivaroxaban with dalteparin were included in the meta-analysis. Recurrent VTE occurred in 75 of 1,446 patients (5.2%) treated with oral factor Xa inhibitors and in 119 of 1,448 patients (8.2%) treated with LMWH (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43-0.91; I 2, 30%). Major bleeding occurred in 62 (4.3%) and 48 (3.3%) patients receiving oral factor Xa inhibitors or LMWH, respectively (RR 1.31; 95% CI 0.83-2.08; I 2, 23%). CONCLUSION: In patients with cancer-associated VTE, oral factor Xa inhibitors reduced the risk of recurrent VTE without a significantly higher likelihood of major bleeding at 6 months compared with LMWH.

2.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395964

RESUMO

COVID-19 is associated with a high prevalence of activation of the coagulation cascade. It has been suggested that this so-called COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is predictive of a poor outcome and of mortality. Consensus documents on how to manage patients with COVID-19-associated coagulopathy are based on the limited number of mainly retrospective studies that is currently available, and for this reason the recommendations are not always consistent with one another. In this article, we review the first studies into COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and give the most important do's and don'ts for diagnostics and the daily management of coagulopathy and the prevention of complications in patients with, or with strongly-suspected, COVID-19 in Dutch clinical practice.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is not fully understood. Poor-quality anticoagulation may contribute to a higher risk of CTEPH after acute pulmonary embolism (PE), partly explaining the transition from acute PE to CTEPH. We assessed the association between the time in therapeutic range (TTR) of vitamin-K antagonist (VKA) treatment and incidence of CTEPH after a PE diagnosis. METHODS: Case-control study in which the time spent in, under and above therapeutic range was calculated in 44 PE patients who were subsequently diagnosed with CTEPH (cases). Controls comprised 150 consecutive PE patients in whom echocardiograms two years later did not show pulmonary hypertension. All patients were treated with VKA for at least 6 months after the PE diagnosis. Time in (TTR), under and above range were calculated. Mean differences between cases and controls were estimated by linear regression. RESULTS: Mean TTR during the initial 6-month treatment period was 72% in cases versus 78% in controls (mean difference -6%, 95%CI -12 to -0.1), mainly explained by more time above the therapeutic range in the cases. Mean difference of time under range was 0% (95%CI -6 to 7) and 2% (95CI% -3 to 7) during the first 3 and 6 months, respectively. In a multivariable model, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for CTEPH were around unity considering different thresholds for 'poor anticoagulation', i.e. TTR <50%, <60% and <70%. CONCLUSION: Subtherapeutic initial anticoagulation was not more prevalent among PE patients diagnosed with CTEPH than in those who did not develop CTEPH.

4.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268826

RESUMO

Introduction: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening disease, making an accurate and prompt diagnosis thus very important. However, the normally used diagnostic algorithms may not be as efficient and safe in special patient populations. The diagnostic management of suspected PE in these patients is particularly challenging.Areas covered: Current diagnostic strategies in patients with malignancy, elderly patients and patients with renal insufficiency are discussed in this review. A special focus is on reviewing the literature supporting the use of adjusted D-dimer cutoffs in these patient categories and the current guideline statements. Information is obtained through an extensive literature search of the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE Library and Emcare (searched September 2019).Expert opinion: A diagnostic strategy starting with clinical decision rules (CDRs) and D-dimer testing is clinically useful, also in these three patient categories, since it reduces the need for computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The use of adjusted D-dimer cutoffs is preferred over a fixed cutoff as it safely improves the yield of the CDR/D-dimer combination.

6.
Thromb Res ; 189: 132-139, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220779

RESUMO

Cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) is a rare presentation of venous thromboembolism. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential as delayed recognition and treatment may lead to permanent disability or even death. Since no validated diagnostic algorithms exist, the diagnosis of CVT mainly relies on neuroimaging. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the historical diagnostic standard for CVT, but is rarely used nowadays and replaced by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). High quality studies to evaluate the diagnostic test characteristics of state of the art imaging modalities are however unavailable to date. This review provides an overview of the best available evidence regarding the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for the diagnosis of CVT. Notably, available studies are observational, mostly small, outdated, and with a high risk of bias. Therefore, direct comparison between studies is difficult due to large diversity in study design, imaging method, reference standard, patient selection and sample size. In general, contrast-enhanced techniques are more accurate for the diagnosis of CVT then non-contrast-enhanced techniques. CT venography and MRI have been both reported to be adequate for establishing a final diagnosis of CVT, but choice of modality as used in clinical practice depends on availability, local preference and experience, as well as patient characteristics. Our review underlines the need for high-quality diagnostic studies comparing CT venography and MRI in specific settings, to improve clinical care and standardize clinical trials.

8.
Blood ; 135(16): 1377-1385, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016390

RESUMO

The diagnosis of recurrent ipsilateral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is challenging, because persistent intravascular abnormalities after previous DVT often hinder a diagnosis by compression ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging (MRDTI), a technique without intravenous contrast and with a 10-minute acquisition time, has been shown to accurately distinguish acute recurrent DVT from chronic thrombotic remains. We have evaluated the safety of MRDTI as the sole test for excluding recurrent ipsilateral DVT. The Theia Study was a prospective, international, multicenter, diagnostic management study involving patients with clinically suspected acute recurrent ipsilateral DVT. Treatment of the patients was managed according to the result of the MRDTI, performed within 24 hours of study inclusion. The primary outcome was the 3-month incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after a MRDTI negative for DVT. The secondary outcome was the interobserver agreement on the MRDTI readings. An independent committee adjudicated all end points. Three hundred five patients were included. The baseline prevalence of recurrent DVT was 38%; superficial thrombophlebitis was diagnosed in 4.6%. The primary outcome occurred in 2 of 119 (1.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-5.9) patients with MRDTI negative for DVT and thrombophlebitis, who were not treated with any anticoagulant during follow-up; neither of these recurrences was fatal. The incidence of recurrent VTE in all patients with MRDTI negative for DVT was 1.1% (95% CI, 0.13%-3.8%). The agreement between initial local and post hoc central reading of the MRDTI images was excellent (κ statistic, 0.91). The incidence of VTE recurrence after negative MRDTI was low, and MRDTI proved to be a feasible and reproducible diagnostic test. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02262052.

9.
Blood ; 135(10): 724-734, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951652

RESUMO

For patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), prediction of bleeding is relevant throughout the course of treatment, although the means and goal of this prediction differ between the subsequent stages of treatment: treatment initiation, hospital discharge, 3-month follow-up, and long-term follow-up. Even in the absence of fully established risk prediction schemes and outcome studies using a prediction scheme for treatment decisions, the present evidence supports screening for and targeting of modifiable risk factors for major bleeding, as well as the application of decision rules to identify patients at low risk of bleeding complications, in whom long-term anticoagulant treatment is likely safe. Moving forward, prediction tools need to be incorporated in well-designed randomized controlled trials aiming to establish optimal treatment duration in patients at high risk of recurrent VTE. Moreover, the benefit of their longitudinal assessment rather than application as stand-alone baseline assessments should be studied, because changes in bleeding risk over time likely constitute the best predictor of major bleeding. We provide the state-of-the-art of assessing and managing bleeding risk in patients with acute VTE and highlight a practical approach for daily practice illustrated by 2 case scenarios.

10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 151-161, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are more susceptible than men to several forms of pulmonary hypertension, but have better survival. Sparse data are available on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). METHODS: We investigated sex-specific differences in the clinical presentation of CTEPH, performance of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), and survival. RESULTS: Women constituted one-half of the study population of the European CTEPH registry (N = 679) and were characterized by a lower prevalence of some cardiovascular risk factors, including prior acute coronary syndrome, smoking habit, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but more prevalent obesity, cancer, and thyroid diseases. The median age was 62 (interquartile ratio, 50-73) years in women and 63 (interquartile ratio, 53-70) in men. Women underwent PEA less often than men (54% vs 65%), especially at low-volume centers (48% vs 61%), and were exposed to fewer additional cardiac procedures, notably coronary artery bypass graft surgery (0.5% vs 9.5%). The prevalence of specific reasons for not being operated, including patient's refusal and the proportion of proximal vs distal lesions, did not differ between sexes. A total of 57 (17.0%) deaths in women and 70 (20.7%) in men were recorded over long-term follow-up. Female sex was positively associated with long-term survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.94). Short-term mortality was identical in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Women with CTEPH underwent PEA less frequently than men, especially at low-volume centers. Furthermore, they had a lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and were less often exposed to additional cardiac surgery procedures. Women had better long-term survival.

11.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(3): 248-256, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between 16% and 51% of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension will have residual pulmonary hypertension (PH) after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Whether residual PH is related to remaining (sub-)segmental macrovascular lesions or to microvascular disease is unknown. New imaging techniques can provide detailed information about (sub-)segmental pulmonary arteries and parenchymal perfusion. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence after PEA of remaining (sub-)segmental vascular lesions on electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and parenchymal hypoperfusion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to relate these imaging abnormalities to the presence or absence of residual PH after PEA. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of patients with operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, hemodynamics, CTPA, and lung perfusion MRI were performed before and 6 months after PEA. The percentage of (sub-)segmental vascular lesions was calculated on CTPA and parenchymal hypoperfusion on lung perfusion MRI. RESULTS: PEA led to significant improvements in hemodynamics and a reduction of imaging abnormalities. Residual PH was present in 45% of patients after PEA, whereas remaining (sub-)segmental vascular lesions and parenchymal hypoperfusion were present in 20% and 21% of the pulmonary vasculature, respectively. Patients with and without residual PH after PEA had similar percentages of remaining (sub-)segmental vascular lesions (25% ± 14% vs 17% ± 15%; p = 0.16) and similar degrees of parenchymal hypoperfusion (20% ± 7% vs 19% ± 6%; p = 0.63). CONCLUSIONS: After successful PEA, advanced imaging shows that around 20% of the pulmonary vasculature remains abnormal, independent of the presence of residual PH. This may suggest that microvascular disease, rather than residual macrovascular lesions, plays a prominent role in residual PH after PEA.

12.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 21(Suppl I): I1-I13, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777451

RESUMO

Haemodynamic instability and right ventricular dysfunction are the key determinants of short-term prognosis in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Residual thrombi and persistent right ventricular dysfunction may contribute to post-PE functional impairment, and influence the risk of developing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Patients with haemodynamic instability at presentation (high-risk PE) require immediate primary reperfusion to relieve the obstruction in the pulmonary circulation and increase the chances of survival. Surgical removal of the thrombi or catheter-directed reperfusion strategies is alternatives in patients with contraindications to systemic thrombolysis. For haemodynamically stable patients with signs of right ventricular overload or dysfunction (intermediate-risk PE), systemic standard-dose thrombolysis is currently not recommended, because the risk of major bleeding associated with the treatment outweighs its benefits. In such cases, thrombolysis should be considered only as a rescue intervention if haemodynamic decompensation develops. Catheter-directed pharmaco-logical and pharmaco-mechanical techniques ensure swift recovery of echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters and may be characterized by better safety profile than systemic thrombolysis. For survivors of acute PE, little is known on the effects of reperfusion therapies on the risk of chronic functional and haemodynamic impairment. In intermediate-risk PE patients, available data suggest that systemic thrombolysis may have little impact on long-term symptoms and functional limitation, echocardiographic parameters, and occurrence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Ongoing and future interventional studies will clarify whether 'safer' reperfusion strategies may improve early clinical outcomes without increasing the risk of bleeding and contribute to reducing the burden of long-term complications after intermediate-risk PE.

13.
Thromb Res ; 184: 122-128, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is challenging due to the high risk of adverse events. While home treatment is quite agreeable to cancer patients, studies evaluating the safety of VTE home treatment in this setting are largely unavailable. METHODS: This was an observational study in patients with cancer-associated VTE. The main outcomes were the proportion of patients treated at home (hospital discharge <24 h after diagnosis) and the 3-month incidence of VTE-related adverse events (major bleeding, recurrent VTE and/or suspected VTE-related mortality) in patients managed in hospital versus at home. RESULTS: A total of 183 outpatients were diagnosed with cancer-associated VTE: 69 had deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and 114 had pulmonary embolism (PE ±â€¯DVT). Of those, 120 (66%) were treated at home; this was 83% for patients with DVT and 55% for patients with PE (±DVT). The 3-month incidence of any VTE-related adverse event was 13% in those treated at home versus 19% in the hospitalized patients (HR 0.48; 95%CI 0.22-1.1), independent of initial presentation as PE or DVT. All-cause 3-month mortality occurred in 33 patients treated as inpatient (54%) compared to 29 patients treated at home (24%; crude HR 3.1 95%CI 1.9-5.0). CONCLUSIONS: Two-third of patients with cancer-associated VTE - including PE - were selected to start anticoagulant treatment at home. Cancer-associated VTE is associated with high rates of VTE-related adverse events independent of initial in hospital or home treatment. However, home treatment may be a good option for selected patients with cancer-associated DVT or PE.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031639, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Combined with patient history and physical examination, a negative D-dimer can safely rule-out pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the D-dimer test is frequently false positive, leading to many (with hindsight) 'unneeded' referrals to secondary care. Recently, the novel YEARS algorithm, incorporating flexible D-dimer thresholds depending on pretest risk, was developed and validated, showing its ability to safely exclude PE in the hospital environment. Importantly, this was accompanied with 14% fewer computed tomographic pulmonary angiography than the standard, fixed D-dimer threshold. Although promising, in primary care this algorithm has not been validated yet. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PECAN (Diagnosing Pulmonary Embolism in the context of Common Alternative diagNoses in primary care) study is a prospective diagnostic study performed in Dutch primary care. Included patients with suspected acute PE will be managed by their general practitioner according to the YEARS diagnostic algorithm and followed up in primary care for 3 months to establish the final diagnosis. To study the impact of the use of the YEARS algorithm, the primary endpoints are the safety and efficiency of the YEARS algorithm in primary care. Safety is defined as the proportion of false-negative test results in those not referred. Efficiency denotes the proportion of patients classified in this non-referred category. Additionally, we quantify whether C reactive protein measurement has added diagnostic value to the YEARS algorithm, using multivariable logistic and polytomous regression modelling. Furthermore, we will investigate which factors contribute to the subjective YEARS item 'PE most likely diagnosis'. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee Utrecht, the Netherlands. Patients eligible for inclusion will be asked for their consent. Results will be disseminated by publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented at (inter)national meetings and congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTR 7431.

15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European estimates of the burden imposed by pulmonary embolism are not available to this date. We aimed to assess pulmonary embolism-related mortality and time trends in the WHO European Region. METHODS: We analysed vital registration data from the WHO Mortality Database (2000-15) covering subregions of the WHO European Region: Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, and Central Asia. Deaths were considered pulmonary embolism-related if International Classification of Disease-10 code for acute pulmonary embolism (I26) or any code for deep or superficial vein thrombosis was listed as the primary cause of death. We used locally estimated scatterplot smoothing weighted by size of the Member State population to calculate proportionate mortality and time trends in age-standardised mortality. FINDINGS: In the 3-year period between 2013 and 2015, an average of 38 929 pulmonary embolism-related deaths occurred annually in the 41 Member States with available data and a population of 650 950 921; among individuals aged 15-55 years, pulmonary embolism accounted for 8-13 per 1000 deaths in women and 2-7 per 1000 deaths in men. Between 2000 and 2015, age-standardised annual pulmonary embolism-related mortality rates decreased linearly from 12·8 (95% CI 11·4-14·2) to 6·5 (5·3-7·7) deaths per 100 000 population without substantial sex-specific differences. INTERPRETATION: The observed decreasing trends in pulmonary embolism-related mortality might reflect improved management of the disease, in line with case fatality data from cohort studies. Additional, or alternative, explanations might include the absence of a uniform case definition and changes in coding practices and performing autopsy. Pulmonary embolism still imposes a relevant medical and societal burden. Continuing efforts are warranted to improve awareness and implement effective preventive and therapeutic measures. FUNDING: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.

16.
Thromb Res ; 181 Suppl 1: S1-S5, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477219

RESUMO

Optimal management of hormonal contraception in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) requires an individualized approach considering its potential benefits and complications during and after anticoagulant treatment. Potential benefits include prevention of pregnancy and mitigation of menstrual bleeding that is often worsened after start of anticoagulation therapy. Current evidence suggests that patients may opt for a continuation of (all forms of) hormonal contraception during anticoagulant treatment, provided that they are adequately informed by the treating physicians. Combined oral contraceptives should be stopped before anticoagulant therapy may be discontinued, preferably after the second last menstrual cycle of the intended anticoagulant treatment period. If hormonal contraceptive treatment needs to be initiated in patients with a history of VTE, oral prostagen-only therapy or intra-uterine devices are to be preferred: this may be independent of the anticoagulation status and in light of a negligible risk of (recurrent) VTE associated with their use.

17.
Thromb Res ; 182: 192-193, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358303
19.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 3(3): 364-371, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294323

RESUMO

Introduction: VTE-BLEED is a validated score for identification of patients at increased risk of major bleeding during extended anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is unknown whether VTE-BLEED high-risk patients also have an increased risk for recurrent VTE, which would limit the potential usefulness of the score. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled PADIS-PE trial that randomized patients with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism (PE) initially treated during 6 months to receive an additional 18-month of warfarin vs. placebo. The primary outcome of this analysis was recurrent VTE during 2-year follow-up after anticoagulant discontinuation, that is, after the initial 6-month treatment in the placebo arm and after 24 months of anticoagulation in the active treatment arm. This rate, adjusted for study treatment allocation, was compared between patients in the high- vs. low-risk VTE-BLEED group. Results: In complete case analysis (n = 308; 82.4% of total population), 89 (28.9%) patients were classified as high risk; 44 VTE events occurred after anticoagulant discontinuation during 668 patient-years. The cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE was 16.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0%-26.1%; 14 events) and 14.6% (95% CI, 10.4%-20.3%; 30 events) in the high-risk and low-risk VTE-BLEED groups, respectively, for an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.62-2.19). Conclusion: In this study, patients with unprovoked PE classified at high risk of major bleeding by VTE-BLEED did not have a higher incidence of recurrent VTE after cessation of anticoagulant therapy, supporting the potential yield of the score for making management decisions on the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy.

20.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(11): 1923-1934, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the importance of patients' quality of life (QoL) in chronic cardiac or pulmonary disease is uncontroversial, the burden of an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) on QoL has received little attention thus far. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to validate the German PEmb-QoL questionnaire, identify associations between QoL and clinical/functional parameters, and investigate the prognostic relevance of QoL for long-term survival in survivors of an acute PE episode. PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients were invited for a clinical follow-up visit including assessment of QoL using the German PEmb-QoL questionnaire 6 months after an objectively confirmed PE at a single center. Internal consistency reliability, construct-related validity, and regressions between PEmb-QoL and clinical patient-characteristics were assessed using standard scale construction techniques. RESULTS: Overall, 101 patients [median age, 69 ([interquartile range] IQR 57-75) years; women, 48.5%] were examined 208 (IQR 185-242) days after PE. Internal consistency reliability and construct-related validity of the PEmb-QoL questionnaire were acceptable. As many as 47.0% of patients reported dyspnea, 27.5% had right ventricular (RV) dysfunction on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and 25.3% were diagnosed with post-PE impairment (PPEI) at 6-month follow-up. Furthermore, 15.9% of patients were diagnosed with depression 6 months after an acute PE. The QoL was affected by dyspnea, preexisting pulmonary disease, and PPEI, and a reduced QoL was associated with an increased risk for long-term mortality after an observation period of 3.6 years. CONCLUSIONS: The German PEmb-QoL questionnaire is a reliable instrument for assessing QoL 6 months after PE. The QoL was affected by dyspnea, preexisting pulmonary disease, and PPEI and was associated with long-term mortality.

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