Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 125
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10279-10287, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415154

RESUMO

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) remains an important traffic-related pollutant associated with both short- and long-term health effects. We aim to model daily average NO2 concentrations in Switzerland in a multistage framework with mixed-effect and random forest models to respectively downscale satellite measurements and incorporate local sources. Spatial and temporal predictor variables include data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, land use, and meteorological variables. We derived robust models explaining ∼58% (R2 range, 0.56-0.64) of the variation in measured NO2 concentrations using mixed-effect models at a 1 × 1 km resolution. The random forest models explained ∼73% (R2 range, 0.70-0.75) of the overall variation in the residuals at a 100 × 100 m resolution. This is one of the first studies showing the potential of using earth observation data to develop robust models with fine-scale spatial (100 × 100 m) and temporal (daily) variation of NO2 across Switzerland from 2005 to 2016. The novelty of this study is in demonstrating that methods originally developed for particulate matter can also successfully be applied to NO2. The predicted NO2 concentrations will be made available to facilitate health research in Switzerland.

3.
Thorax ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution accelerates lung function decline among adults, however, there are limited data about its role in the development and progression of early stages of interstitial lung disease. AIMS: To evaluate associations of long-term exposure to traffic and ambient pollutants with odds of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) and progression of ILA on repeated imaging. METHODS: We ascertained ILA on chest CT obtained from 2618 Framingham participants from 2008 to 2011. Among 1846 participants who also completed a cardiac CT from 2002 to 2005, we determined interval ILA progression. We assigned distance from home address to major roadway, and the 5-year average of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC, a traffic-related PM2.5 constituent) and ozone using spatio-temporal prediction models. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, packyears of smoking, household tobacco exposure, neighbourhood household value, primary occupation, cohort and date. RESULTS: Among 2618 participants with a chest CT, 176 (6.7%) had ILA, 1361 (52.0%) had no ILA, and the remainder were indeterminate. Among 1846 with a preceding cardiac CT, 118 (6.4%) had ILA with interval progression. In adjusted logistic regression models, an IQR difference in 5-year EC exposure of 0.14 µg/m3 was associated with a 1.27 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.55) times greater odds of ILA, and a 1.33 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.76) times greater odds of ILA progression. PM2.5 and O3 were not associated with ILA or ILA progression. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to EC may increase risk of progressive ILA, however, associations with other measures of ambient pollution were inconclusive.

4.
Epidemiology ; 30(5): 617-623, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) during pregnancy is associated with lower newborn birthweight, which is a risk factor for chronic disease. Existing studies typically report the average association related with PM2.5 increase, which does not offer information about potentially varying associations at different points of the birthweight distribution. METHODS: We retrieved all birth records in Massachusetts between 2001 and 2013 then restricted our analysis to full-term live singletons (n = 775,768). Using the birthdate, gestational age, and residential address reported at time of birth, we estimated the average maternal PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy of each birth. PM2.5 predictions came from a model that incorporates satellite, land use, and meteorologic data. We applied quantile regression to quantify the association between PM2.5 and birthweight at each decile of birthweight, adjusted for individual and neighborhood covariates. We considered effect modification by indicators of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). RESULTS: PM2.5 was negatively associated with birthweight. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 16 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = 13, 19] lower birthweight on average, 19 g (95% CI = 15, 23) lower birthweight at the lowest decile of birthweight, and 14 g (95% CI = 9, 19) lower birthweight at the highest decile. In general, the magnitudes of negative associations were larger at lower deciles. We did not find evidence of effect modification by individual or neighborhood SES. CONCLUSIONS: In full-term live births, PM2.5 and birthweight were negatively associated with more severe associations at lower quantiles of birthweight.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal oxidative balance (achieved when protective prenatal factors counteract sources of oxidative stress) might be critical for preventing asthma and allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: We examined prenatal intakes of hypothesized protective nutrients (including antioxidants) in conjunction with potential sources of oxidative stress in models of adolescent asthma and allergic disease. METHODS: We used data from 996 mother-child pairs in Project Viva. Exposures of interest were maternal prepregnancy body mass index and prenatal nutrients (energy-adjusted intakes of vitamins D, C, and E; ß-carotene; folate; choline; and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]), air pollutant exposures (residence-specific third-trimester black carbon or particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 µm [PM2.5]), acetaminophen, and smoking. Outcomes were offspring's current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergen sensitization at a median age of 12.9 years. We performed logistic regression. Continuous exposures were log-transformed and modeled as z scores. RESULTS: We observed protective associations for vitamin D (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.89] for allergic rhinitis), the sum of the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66-0.99] for current asthma), and the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95] for allergen sensitization and OR, 0.80 [95% CI 0.65-0.99] for current asthma). Black carbon and PM2.5 were associated with an approximately 30% increased risk for allergen sensitization. No multiplicative interactions were observed for protective nutrient intakes with sources of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potential protective prenatal nutrients (vitamin D and n-3 PUFAs), as well as adverse prenatal pro-oxidant exposures that might alter the risk of asthma and allergic disease into adolescence.

6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(7): 77002, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few studies suggest that air pollution may decrease fertility, but prospective studies and examinations of windows of susceptibility remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between time-varying exposure to nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), ozone ([Formula: see text]), fine particulate matter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and black carbon (BC) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. METHODS: We included 345 women (522 IVF cycles) for the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] analyses and 339 women (512 IVF cycles) for the BC analysis enrolled in a prospective cohort at a Boston fertility center (2004­2015). We used validated spatiotemporal models to estimate daily residential exposure to [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and BC. Multivariable discrete time Cox proportional hazards models with four periods [ovarian stimulation (OS), oocyte retrieval to embryo transfer (ET), ET to implantation, implantation to live birth] estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of failing at IVF. Time-dependent interactions were used to identify vulnerable periods. RESULTS: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and BC throughout the IVF cycle was associated with an elevated odds of failing at IVF prior to live birth ([Formula: see text], 95% CI: 0.95, 1.23 for [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text], 95% CI: 0.88, 1.28 for [Formula: see text]; and [Formula: see text], 95% CI: 0.96, 1.41 for BC). This relationship significantly varied across the IVF cycle such that the association with higher exposure to air pollution during OS was strongest for early IVF failures. An IQR increase in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and BC exposure during OS was associated with 1.42 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.69), 1.26 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.67), and 1.23 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.59) times the odds of failing prior to oocyte retrieval, and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.54), 1.27 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.65), and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.59) times the odds of failing prior to ET. CONCLUSION: Increased exposure to traffic-related pollutants was associated with higher odds of early IVF failure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4601.

7.
Environ Int ; 130: 104909, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272018

RESUMO

Various approaches have been proposed to model PM2.5 in the recent decade, with satellite-derived aerosol optical depth, land-use variables, chemical transport model predictions, and several meteorological variables as major predictor variables. Our study used an ensemble model that integrated multiple machine learning algorithms and predictor variables to estimate daily PM2.5 at a resolution of 1 km × 1 km across the contiguous United States. We used a generalized additive model that accounted for geographic difference to combine PM2.5 estimates from neural network, random forest, and gradient boosting. The three machine learning algorithms were based on multiple predictor variables, including satellite data, meteorological variables, land-use variables, elevation, chemical transport model predictions, several reanalysis datasets, and others. The model training results from 2000 to 2015 indicated good model performance with a 10-fold cross-validated R2 of 0.86 for daily PM2.5 predictions. For annual PM2.5 estimates, the cross-validated R2 was 0.89. Our model demonstrated good performance up to 60 µg/m3. Using trained PM2.5 model and predictor variables, we predicted daily PM2.5 from 2000 to 2015 at every 1 km × 1 km grid cell in the contiguous United States. We also used localized land-use variables within 1 km × 1 km grids to downscale PM2.5 predictions to 100 m × 100 m grid cells. To characterize uncertainty, we used meteorological variables, land-use variables, and elevation to model the monthly standard deviation of the difference between daily monitored and predicted PM2.5 for every 1 km × 1 km grid cell. This PM2.5 prediction dataset, including the downscaled and uncertainty predictions, allows epidemiologists to accurately estimate the adverse health effect of PM2.5. Compared with model performance of individual base learners, an ensemble model would achieve a better overall estimation. It is worth exploring other ensemble model formats to synthesize estimations from different models or from different groups to improve overall performance.

8.
Epidemiology ; 30(4): 486-491, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have linked air pollution to decreased fertility. Whether this is due to an effect on ovarian reserve is unknown. METHOD: Our study included 632 women attending the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center (2004-2015) who had a measured antral follicle count. Validated spatiotemporal models estimated daily particulate matter <2.5 µg/m (PM2.5) (based on residential address) for the 3 months before the antral follicle count. We analyzed associations with Poisson regression. RESULTS: Every 2 µg/m increase in estimated PM2.5 exposure was associated with a -7.2% (95% confidence interval = -10.4%, -3.8%) lower antral follicle count adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, and year and season of the count. The association of PM2.5 with antral follicle count was stronger among women with female factor infertility (-16.3% per 2 µg/m). CONCLUSIONS: Among women from an infertility clinic, higher PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower ovarian reserve, raising concern that air pollution may accelerate reproductive aging.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(9): 1595-1604, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241127

RESUMO

Traffic-related air pollution has been linked to higher risks of infertility and miscarriage. We evaluated whether folate intake modified the relationship between air pollution and livebirth among women using assisted reproductive technology (ART). Our study included 304 women (513 cycles) presenting to a fertility center in Boston, Massachusetts (2005-2015). Diet and supplements were assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Spatiotemporal models estimated residence-based daily nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, fine particulate, and black carbon concentrations in the 3 months before ART. We used generalized linear mixed models with interaction terms to evaluate whether the associations between air pollutants and livebirth were modified by folate intake, adjusting for age, body mass index, race, smoking, education, infertility diagnosis, and ART cycle year. Supplemental folate intake significantly modified the association of NO2 exposure and livebirth (P = 0.01). Among women with supplemental folate intakes of <800 µg/day, the odds of livebirth were 24% (95% confidence interval: 2, 42) lower for every 20-parts-per-billion increase in NO2 exposure. There was no association among women with intakes of ≥800 µg/day. There was no effect modification of folate on the associations between other air pollutants and livebirth. High supplemental folate intake might protect against the adverse reproductive consequences of traffic-related air pollution.

12.
Environ Int ; 130: 104865, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radon is an inert gas formed from the decay of naturally-occurring materials in the earth's crust. It infiltrates into homes from soil, water, and construction materials. Its decay products are radionuclides, which attach to ambient particles. Residential radon is one of the leading risk factors for lung cancer. The scarce evidence for associations with other mortality causes originates mostly from occupational studies. METHODS: In a cohort study with 14 years of follow-up (2000-2013), we evaluated the association between chronic radon exposure and all-cause mortality, and explored whether there are subpopulations who are more vulnerable to radon effects. We included 87,296,195 person-years of follow-up from all Medicare beneficiaries in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. states. We examined the association between the logarithm of county-averaged radon (ln(Rn)) and mortality and assessed effect modification by chronic conditions. RESULTS: An interquartile range increase in the ln(Rn) was associated with a 2·62% increase (95% CI 2·52%; 2·73%) in mortality, independent of PM2.5 exposure. Larger mortality risks were observed among individuals with respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, with the highest associations observed among those with diabetes (4·98% increase), heart failure (4·58% increase), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (4·49% increase). CONCLUSION: We found an increased risk for all-cause mortality associated with increased radon exposure. The risk was enhanced among susceptible individuals with chronic conditions. We believe this is the first cohort study to identify populations at higher risk for non-malignant health consequences of radon exposure. Due to the limitations in exposure assessment and availability of individual confounders, these findings should be interpreted with caution.

13.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(9): 564-576, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242808

RESUMO

The effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution on adipose tissue have mainly been studied in animal models. The aim of this study was to examine the potential associations between PM exposure and 25 cellular markers in human omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue. The PM exposure assessments for both PM2.5 (PM <2.5 µm in diameter) and PM10 (<10 µm) were based upon a novel hybrid satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved model. We calculated the PM exposure above the background threshold for 1 week (acute phase), 3 and 6 months (intermediate phase), and 1 year (chronic phase) prior to tissue harvesting and tested the associations with adipose cell metabolic effects using multiple linear regressions and heat maps strategy. Chemokine levels were found to increase after acute and intermediate exposure duration to PM10. The levels of stress signaling biomarkers in the SC and OM tissues rose after acute exposure to PM10 and PM2.5. Macrophage and leucocyte counts were associated with severity of PM exposure in all three duration groups. Adipocyte diameter decreased in all exposure periods. Our results provide evidence for significant contribution of air pollutants exposure to adipose tissue inflammation as well as for pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic dysregulation that may be involved in the observed responses.

14.
Environ Res ; 172: 495-501, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852452

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In utero particulate matter exposure produces oxidative stress that impacts cellular processes that include telomere biology. Newborn telomere length is likely critical to an individual's telomere biology; reduction in this initial telomere setting may signal increased susceptibility to adverse outcomes later in life. We examined associations between prenatal particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measured in cord blood using a data-driven approach to characterize sensitive windows of prenatal PM2.5 effects and explore sex differences. METHODS: Women who were residents of Mexico City and affiliated with the Mexican Social Security System were recruited during pregnancy (n = 423 for analyses). Mothers' prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was estimated based on residence during pregnancy using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Leukocyte DNA was extracted from cord blood obtained at delivery. Duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to compare the relative amplification of the telomere repeat copy number to single gene (albumin) copy number. A distributed lag model incorporating weekly averages for PM2.5 over gestation was used in order to explore sensitive windows. Sex-specific associations were examined using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models. RESULTS: In models that included child's sex, mother's age at delivery, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age, birth season and assay batch, we found significant associations between higher PM2.5 exposure during early pregnancy (4-9 weeks) and shorter LTL in cord blood. We also identified two more windows at 14-19 and 34-36 weeks in which increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with longer LTL. In stratified analyses, the mean and cumulative associations between PM2.5 and shortened LTL were stronger in girls when compared to boys. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PM2.5 during specific prenatal windows was associated with shorter LTL and longer LTL. PM2.5 was more strongly associated with shortened LTL in girls when compared to boys. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to air pollution may provide unique insight into mechanisms.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845676

RESUMO

Features of the environment may modify the effect of particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on health. Therefore, we investigated how neighborhood sociodemographic and land-use characteristics may modify the association between PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality. We obtained residence-level geocoded cardiovascular mortality cases from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (n = 179,986), and PM2.5 predictions from a satellite-based model (2001⁻2011). We appended census block group-level information on sociodemographic factors and walkability, and calculated neighborhood greenness within a 250 m buffer surrounding each residence. We found a 2.54% (1.34%; 3.74%) increase in cardiovascular mortality associated with a 10 µg/m³ increase in two-day average PM2.5. Walkability or greenness did not modify the association. However, when stratifying by neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics, smaller PM2.5 effects were observed in greener areas only among cases who resided in neighborhoods with a higher population density and lower percentages of white residents or residents with a high school diploma. In conclusion, the PM2.5 effects on cardiovascular mortality were attenuated by higher greenness only in areas with sociodemographic features that are highly correlated with lower socioeconomic status. Previous evidence suggests health benefits linked to neighborhood greenness may be stronger among lower socioeconomic groups. Attenuation of the PM2.5⁻mortality relationship due to greenness may explain some of this evidence.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Massachusetts , Caminhada
16.
Environ Int ; 124: 170-179, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654325

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major causes of death worldwide, with demonstrated adverse effects from both short-term and long-term exposure. Most of the epidemiological studies have been conducted in cities because of the lack of reliable spatiotemporal estimates of particles exposure in nonurban settings. The objective of this study is to estimate daily PM10 (PM < 10 µm), fine (PM < 2.5 µm, PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM between 2.5 and 10 µm, PM2.5-10) at 1-km2 grid for 2013-2015 using a machine learning approach, the Random Forest (RF). Separate RF models were defined to: predict PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 concentrations in monitors where only PM10 data were available (stage 1); impute missing satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data using estimates from atmospheric ensemble models (stage 2); establish a relationship between measured PM and satellite, land use and meteorological parameters (stage 3); predict stage 3 model over each 1-km2 grid cell of Italy (stage 4); and improve stage 3 predictions by using small-scale predictors computed at the monitor locations or within a small buffer (stage 5). Our models were able to capture most of PM variability, with mean cross-validation (CV) R2 of 0.75 and 0.80 (stage 3) and 0.84 and 0.86 (stage 5) for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Model fitting was less optimal for PM2.5-10, in summer months and in southern Italy. Finally, predictions were equally good in capturing annual and daily PM variability, therefore they can be used as reliable exposure estimates for investigating long-term and short-term health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Florestas , Itália , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos de Interação Espacial , Estações do Ano
17.
Environ Int ; 124: 329-335, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The programming of sleep architecture begins in pregnancy and depends upon optimal in utero formation and maturation of the neural connectivity of the brain. Particulate air pollution exposure can disrupt fetal brain development but associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure during pregnancy and child sleep outcomes have not been previously explored. METHODS: Analyses included 397 mother-child pairs enrolled in a pregnancy cohort in Mexico City. Daily ambient prenatal PM2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Child sleep periods were estimated objectively using wrist-worn, continuous actigraphy over a 1-week period at age 4-5 years. Data-driven advanced statistical methods (distributed lag models (DLMs)) were employed to identify sensitive windows whereby PM2.5 exposure during gestation was significantly associated with changes in sleep duration or efficiency. Models were adjusted for maternal education, season, child's age, sex, and BMI z-score. RESULTS: Mother's average age was 27.7 years, with 59% having at least a high school education. Children slept an average of 7.7 h at night, with mean 80.1% efficiency. The adjusted DLM identified windows of PM2.5 exposure between 31 and 35 weeks gestation that were significantly associated with decreased sleep duration in children. In addition, increased PM2.5 during weeks 1-8 was associated with decreased sleep efficiency. In other exposure windows (weeks 39-40), PM2.5 was associated with increased sleep duration. CONCLUSION: Prenatal PM2.5 exposure is associated with altered sleep in preschool-aged children in Mexico City. Pollutant exposure during sensitive windows of pregnancy may have critical influence upon sleep programming.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Masculino , México , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estações do Ano
18.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 31(2): 244-250, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640891

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low, high, extreme, and variable temperatures have been linked to multiple adverse health outcomes, particularly among the elderly and children. Recent models incorporating satellite remote sensing data have mitigated several limitations of previous studies, improving exposure assessment. This review focuses on these new temperature exposure models and their application in epidemiological studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Satellite observations of land surface temperature have been used to model air temperature across large spatial areas at high spatiotemporal resolutions. These models enable exposure assessment of entire populations and have been shown to reduce error in exposure estimates, thus mitigating downward bias in health effect estimates. SUMMARY: Satellite-based models improve our understanding of spatiotemporal variation in temperature and the associated health effects. Further research should focus on improving the resolution of these models, especially in urban areas, and increasing their use in epidemiological studies of direct temperature exposure and vector-borne diseases.

19.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 31(2): 237-243, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640892

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preterm birth is the leading cause of global child mortality, and survivors are at increased risk of multiple morbidities that can continue into adulthood. Recent studies have suggested that maternal exposure to air pollution and high and low ambient temperatures may increase the risk of preterm birth, whereas proximity to green space may decrease it. This review summarizes these findings and suggests avenues for further research. RECENT FINDINGS: Particulate matter may be associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, but the magnitude of the effect remains unclear. Heat and cold likely increase the risk of preterm birth, with stronger evidence for heat. The first and third trimesters may be sensitive periods for exposure to both temperature and particulate matter, but the underlying biological mechanisms are incompletely understood. Context-appropriate green space can substantially reduce particulate matter levels and mitigate urban heat islands. SUMMARY: In a warming, urbanizing world, exposure to unusual temperatures and elevated particulate matter levels represent an increasing risk for pregnant women. Green infrastructure might help mitigate this risk, but further research is needed to confirm its effects in complex urban environments and evaluate the contribution of both indoor and outdoor particulate matter and air temperature to personal exposure and preterm birth.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 53(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578386

RESUMO

Acute exposure to cold dry air is a trigger of bronchoconstriction, but little is known about how daily outdoor temperature influences lung function.We investigated associations of temperature from a model using satellite remote sensing data with repeated measures of lung function among 5896 participants of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts residing in the Northeastern US. We further tested if temperature modified previously reported associations between pollution and lung function. We constructed linear mixed-effects models, and assessed departures from linearity using penalised splines.In fully adjusted linear models, 1-, 2- and 7-day average temperatures were all associated with lower lung function: each 5°C higher previous-week temperature was associated with a 20 mL lower (95% CI -34---6) forced expiratory volume in 1 s. There was significant effect modification by season: negative associations of temperature and lung function were present in winter and spring only. Negative associations between previous-day fine particulate matter and lung function were present during unseasonably warm but not unseasonably cool days, with a similar pattern for other pollutants.We speculate that temperature-related differences in lung function may be explained by behavioural changes on relatively warm days, which may increase outdoor exposures.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA