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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2087, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution is the main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the world. Exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, as well as with lung cancer, and there is evidence to suggest that it is also associated with type II diabetes (DM). The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is home to more than 20 million people, where PM2.5 levels exceed national and international standards every day. Likewise, DM represents a growing public health problem with prevalence around 12%. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the association between exposure to PM2.5 and DM in adults living in the MCMA. METHODS: Data from the 2006 or 2012 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (ENSANUT) were used to identify subjects with DM and year of diagnosis. We estimated PM2.5 exposure at a residence level, based on information from the air quality monitoring system (monitors), as well as satellite measurements (satellite). We analyzed the relationship through a cross-sectional approach and as a case - control study. RESULTS: For every 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 we found an OR = 3.09 (95% CI 1.17-8.15) in the 2012 sample. These results were not conclusive for the 2006 data or for the case - control approach. CONCLUSIONS: Our results add to the evidence linking PM2.5 exposure to DM in Mexican adults. Studies in low- and middle-income countries, where PM2.5 atmospheric concentrations exceed WHO standards, are required to strengthen the evidence.

2.
Mitochondrion ; 62: 102-110, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785263

RESUMO

Prenatal ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure impacts infant development and alters placental mitochondrial DNA abundance. We investigated whether the timing of PM2.5 exposure predicts placental mitochondrial mutational load using NextGen sequencing in 283 multi-ethnic mother-infant dyads. We observed increased PM2.5exposure, particularly during mid- to late-pregnancy and among genes coding for NADH dehydrogenase and subunits of ATP synthase, was associated with a greater amount of nonsynonymous mutations. The strongest associations were observed for participants of African ancestry. Further work is needed to tease out the role of mitochondrial genetics and its impact on offspring development and emerging disease disparities.

3.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112062, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537199

RESUMO

Air pollution exposure, especially particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), is associated with poorer kidney function in adults and children. Perinatal exposure may occur during susceptible periods of nephron development. We used distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs) to examine time-varying associations between early life daily PM2.5 exposure (periconceptional through age 8 years) and kidney parameters in preadolescent children aged 8-10 years. Participants included 427 mother-child dyads enrolled in the PROGRESS birth cohort study based in Mexico City. Daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated at each participant's residence using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Kidney function parameters included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum cystatin C, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Models were adjusted for child's age, sex and body mass index (BMI) z-score, as well as maternal education, indoor smoking report and seasonality (prenatal models were additionally adjusted for average first year of life PM2.5 exposure). We also tested for sex-specific effects. Average perinatal PM2.5 was 22.7 µg/m3 and ranged 16.4-29.3 µg/m3. Early pregnancy PM2.5 exposures were associated with higher eGFR in preadolescence. Specifically, we found that PM2.5 exposure between weeks 1-18 of gestation was associated with increased preadolescent eGFR, whereas exposure in the first 14 months of life after birth were associated with decreased eGFR. Specifically, a 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 during the detected prenatal window was associated with a cumulative increase in eGFR of 4.44 mL/min/1.732 (95%CI: 1.37, 7.52), and during the postnatal window we report a cumulative eGFR decrease of -10.36 mL/min/1.732 (95%CI: -17.68, -3.04). We identified perinatal windows of susceptibility to PM2.5 exposure with preadolescent kidney function parameters. Follow-up investigating PM2.5 exposure with peripubertal kidney function trajectories and risk of kidney disease in adulthood will be critical.

4.
Epidemiology ; 32(6): 773-780, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residual confounding is a major concern for causal inference in observational studies on air pollution-autism spectrum disorder (ASD) associations. This study is aimed at assessing confounding in these associations using negative control exposures. METHODS: This nested case-control study included all children diagnosed with ASD (detected through 31 December 2016) born during 2007-2012 in Israel and residing in the study area (N = 3,843), and matched controls of the same age (N = 38,430). We assigned individual house-level exposure estimates for each child. We estimated associations using logistic regression models, mutually adjusted for all relevant exposure periods (prepregnancy, pregnancy, and postnatal). We assessed residual confounding using postoutcome negative control exposure at age 28-36 months. RESULTS: In mutually adjusted models, we observed positive associations with ASD for postnatal exposures to NOx (odds ratio per interquartile range, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 1.02-1.38) and NO2 (1.20, 1.00-1.43), and gestational exposure to PM2.5-10 (1.08, 1.01-1.15). The result for the negative control period was 1.04, 0.99-1.10 for PM2.5, suggesting some residual confounding, but no associations for PM2.5-10 (0.98, 0.81-1.18), NOx (1.02, 0.84-1.25), or NO2 (0.98, 0.81-1.18), suggesting no residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Our results further support a hypothesized causal link with ASD that is specific to postnatal exposures to traffic-related pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
5.
Int J Climatol ; 41(8): 4095-4111, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248276

RESUMO

While weather stations generally capture near-surface ambient air temperature (Ta) at a high temporal resolution to calculate daily values (i.e., daily minimum, mean, and maximum Ta), their fixed locations can limit their spatial coverage and resolution even in densely populated urban areas. As a result, data from weather stations alone may be inadequate for Ta-related epidemiology particularly when the stations are not located in the areas of interest for human exposure assessment. To address this limitation in the Megalopolis of Central Mexico (MCM), we developed the first spatiotemporally resolved hybrid satellite-based land use regression Ta model for the region, home to nearly 30 million people and includes Mexico City and seven more metropolitan areas. Our model predicted daily minimum, mean, and maximum Ta for the years 2003-2019. We used data from 120 weather stations and Land Surface Temperature (LST) data from NASA's MODIS instruments on the Aqua and Terra satellites on a 1 × 1 km grid. We generated a satellite-hybrid mixed-effects model for each year, regressing Ta measurements against land use terms, day-specific random intercepts, and fixed and random LST slopes. We assessed model performance using 10-fold cross-validation at withheld stations. Across all years, the root-mean-square error ranged from 0.92 to 1.92 K and the R 2 ranged from .78 to .95. To demonstrate the utility of our model for health research, we evaluated the total number of days in the year 2010 when residents ≥65 years old were exposed to Ta extremes (above 30°C or below 5°C). Our model provides much needed high-quality Ta estimates for epidemiology studies in the MCM region.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported associations between maternal exposure to atmospheric pollution and lower birth weight. However, the evidence is not consistent and uncertainties remain. We used advanced statistical approaches to robustly estimate the association of atmospheric pollutant exposure during specific pregnancy time windows with term birth weight (TBW) in a nationwide study. METHODS: Among 13,334 women from the French Longitudinal Study of Children (ELFE) cohort, exposures to PM2.5, PM10 (particles < 2.5 µm and <10 µm) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) were estimated using a fine spatio-temporal exposure model. We used inverse probability scores and doubly robust methods in generalized additive models accounting for spatial autocorrelation to study the association of such exposures with TBW. RESULTS: First trimester exposures were associated with an increased TBW. Second trimester exposures were associated with a decreased TBW by 17.1 g (95% CI, -26.8, -7.3) and by 18.0 g (-26.6, -9.4) for each 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, and by 15.9 g (-27.6, -4.2) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2. Third trimester exposures (truncated at 37 gestational weeks) were associated with a decreased TBW by 48.1 g (-58.1, -38.0) for PM2.5, 38.1 g (-46.7, -29.6) for PM10 and 14.7 g (-25.3, -4.0) for NO2. Effects of pollutants on TBW were larger in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support an adverse effect of air pollutant exposure on TBW. We highlighted a larger effect of air pollutants on TBW among women living in rural areas compared to women living in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
7.
Environ Res ; 200: 111477, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate and precise estimates of ambient air temperatures that can capture fine-scale within-day variability are necessary for studies of air temperature and health. METHOD: We developed statistical models to predict temperature at each hour in each cell of a 927-m square grid across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic United States from 2003 to 2019, across ~4000 meteorological stations from the Integrated Mesonet, using inputs such as elevation, an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation of temperature, and satellite-based vegetation and land surface temperature. We used a rigorous spatial cross-validation scheme and spatially weighted the errors to estimate how well model predictions would generalize to new cell-days. We assess the within-county association of temperature and social vulnerability in a heat wave as an example application. RESULTS: We found that a model based on the XGBoost machine-learning algorithm was fast and accurate, obtaining weighted root mean square errors (RMSEs) around 1.6 K, compared to standard deviations around 11.0 K. We found similar accuracy when validating our model on an external dataset from Weather Underground. Assessing predictions from the North American Land Data Assimilation System-2 (NLDAS-2), another hourly model, in the same way, we found it was much less accurate, with RMSEs around 2.5 K. This is likely due to the NLDAS-2 model's coarser spatial resolution, and the dynamic variability of temperature within its grid cells. Finally, we demonstrated the health relevance of our model by showing that our temperature estimates were associated with social vulnerability across the region during a heat wave, whereas the NLDAS-2 showed a much weaker association. CONCLUSION: Our high spatiotemporal resolution air temperature model provides a strong contribution for future health studies in this region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Meteorologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(12): 2630-2638, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180983

RESUMO

Adequate thyroid hormone availability is required for normal brain development. Studies have found associations between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. We aimed to examine associations of trimester-specific residential exposure to common air pollutants with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT). All term infants born in Israel during 2009-2015 were eligible for inclusion. We used data on CHT from the national neonatal screening lab of Israel, and exposure data from spatiotemporal air pollution models. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate associations of exposures with CHT, adjusting for ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographical area, conception season, conception year, gestational age, birth weight, and child sex. To assess residual confounding, we used postnatal exposures to the same pollutants as negative controls. The study population included 696,461 neonates. We found a positive association between third-trimester nitrogen oxide exposure and CHT (per interquartile-range change, odds ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.41) and a similar association for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence of residual confounding or bias by correlation among exposure periods for these associations.

9.
Environ Res ; 199: 111342, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence links maternal exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µM in diameter (PM2.5) and deviations in fetal growth. Several studies suggest that the placenta plays a critical role in conveying the effects of maternal PM2.5 exposure to the developing fetus. These include observed associations between air pollutants and candidate placental features, such as mitochondrial DNA content, DNA methylation and telomere length. However, gaps remain in delineating the pathways linking the placenta to air pollution-related health effects, including a comprehensive profiling of placental processes impacted by maternal PM2.5 exposure. In this study, we examined alterations in a placental transcriptome-wide network in relation to maternal PM2.5 exposure prior to and during pregnancy and infant birthweight. METHODS: We evaluated PM2.5 exposure and placental RNA-sequencing data among study participants enrolled in the Rhode Island Child Health Study (RICHS). Daily residential PM2.5 levels were estimated using a hybrid model incorporating land-use regression and satellite remote sensing data. Distributed lag models were implemented to assess the impact on infant birthweight due to PM2.5 weekly averages ranging from 12 weeks prior to gestation until birth. Correlations were assessed between PM2.5 levels averaged across the identified window of susceptibility and a placental transcriptome-wide gene coexpression network previously generated using the WGCNA R package. RESULTS: We identified a sensitive window spanning 12 weeks prior to and 13 weeks into gestation during which maternal PM2.5 exposure is significantly associated with reduced infant birthweight. Two placental coexpression modules enriched for genes involved in amino acid transport and cellular respiration were correlated with infant birthweight as well as maternal PM2.5 exposure levels averaged across the identified growth restriction window. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that maternal PM2.5 exposure may alter placental programming of fetal growth, with potential implications for downstream health effects, including susceptibility to cardiometabolic health outcomes and viral infections.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Rhode Island
10.
Environ Int ; 155: 106588, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birthweight is a strong predictor of normal growth, healthy development, and survival. Several studies have found associations between temperature, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and birth weight. However, the relevant timing of exposures varies between studies and is yet unclear. Therefore, we assessed the difference in term birthweight (TBW) associated with weekly exposure to temperature and PM2.5 throughout 37 weeks of gestation. METHODS: We included all singleton live term births in Massachusetts, U.S between 2004 and 2015 (n = 712,438). Weekly PM2.5 and temperature predictions were estimated on a 1 km grid from satellite-based models. We utilized a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to estimate the difference in TBW associated with weekly exposures from the last menstrual period to 37 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: We found a nonlinear association with prenatal temperature exposure. Larger effects were observed in warmer temperatures, where higher temperatures were negatively associated with TBW. Temperature effects were larger in the first and final weeks of gestation. We observed a negative difference in TBW associated with PM2.5 exposure. Overall, a 1 µg/m3 increase in prenatal exposure was associated with 3.9 g lower TBW (95% CI -5.0 g; -2.9 g). PM2.5 effects were larger in the final weeks of gestation. CONCLUSION: We found heat and PM2.5 exposure to be related to lower TBW. Our findings suggest that women are more susceptible to both exposures towards the end of pregnancy. Susceptibility to heat was higher in the initial weeks of pregnancy as well. These critical windows of susceptibility can be communicated to pregnant women during routine prenatal visits to increase awareness and target interventions to reduce exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Temperatura
11.
Environ Int ; 156: 106636, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous findings concerning the risk for preeclampsia following exposure to particulate matter are inconclusive. METHODS: We used data from all singleton pregnancies of women insured by the "Clalit health services" (CHS) maintenance organization in southern Israel that resulted in delivery or perinatal mortality at Soroka Medical Center (SMC). Daily PM2.5 concentrations were estimated by a hybrid satellite-based model at one-squared kilometer spatial resolution. We used Cox proportional hazard models coupled with distributed lag models to examine the association between the mean exposure to PM2.5 in every gestational week and the diagnosis of preeclampsia, adjusting for maternal age, parity, year of birth, season of birth and socio-economic status. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated for individual gestational weeks and for cumulative exposure until the 25th gestational week. RESULTS: A total of 133,197 pregnancies ended at SMC during the study period, of which 68,126 (51.1%) were Jewish and 65,071 (48.9%) were Bedouin. For pregnancies of Jewish women, exposure to PM2.5 from the 7th until the 14st gestational week was significantly associated with preeclampsia (maximal HR = 1.06; 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.11 during the 10th gestational week per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5). Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 during the first 25th gestational weeks was also significantly associated with preeclampsia (HR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.10 - 3.94 per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5). We observed no association for pregnancies of Bedouin women. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 between the 7th and the 14st gestational weeks was associated with preeclampsia among Jewish women but not among Bedouin women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(7): 788-796, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018915

RESUMO

Rationale: Ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs; with an aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 µm) may exert greater toxicity than other pollution components because of their enhanced oxidative capacity and ability to translocate systemically. Studies examining associations between prenatal UFP exposure and childhood asthma remain sparse. Objectives: We used daily UFP exposure estimates to identify windows of susceptibility of prenatal UFP exposure related to asthma in children, accounting for sex-specific effects. Methods: Analyses included 376 mother-child dyads followed since pregnancy. Daily UFP exposure during pregnancy was estimated by using a spatiotemporally resolved particle number concentration prediction model. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models were used to identify windows of susceptibility for UFP exposure and examine whether effect estimates varied by sex. Incident asthma was determined at the first report of asthma (3.6 ± 3.2 yr). Covariates included maternal age, education, race, and obesity; child sex; nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and temperature averaged over gestation; and postnatal UFP exposure. Measurements and Main Results: Women were 37.8% Black and 43.9% Hispanic, with 52.9% reporting having an education at the high school level or lower; 18.4% of children developed asthma. The cumulative odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident asthma per doubling of the UFP exposure concentration across pregnancy was 4.28 (1.41-15.7), impacting males and females similarly. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models indicated sex differences in the windows of susceptibility, with the highest risk of asthma seen in females exposed to higher UFP concentrations during late pregnancy. Conclusions: Prenatal UFP exposure was associated with asthma development in children, independent of correlated ambient NO2 and temperature. Findings will benefit future research and policy-makers who are considering appropriate regulations to reduce the adverse effects of UFPs on child respiratory health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , New England/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Int ; 153: 106505, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872926

RESUMO

RATIONALE: PM2.5-induced adverse effects on respiratory health may be driven by epigenetic modifications in airway cells. The potential impact of exposure duration on epigenetic alterations in the airways is not yet known. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study associations of fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure with DNA methylation in nasal cells. METHODS: We conducted nasal epigenome-wide association analyses within 503 children from Project Viva (mean age 12.9 y), and examined various exposure durations (1-day, 1-week, 1-month, 3-months and 1-year) prior to nasal sampling. We used residential addresses to estimate average daily PM2.5 at 1 km resolution. We collected nasal swabs from the anterior nares and measured DNA methylation (DNAm) using the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We tested 719,075 high quality autosomal CpGs using CpG-by-CpG and regional DNAm analyses controlling for multiple comparisons, and adjusted for maternal education, household smokers, child sex, race/ethnicity, BMI z-score, age, season at sample collection and cell-type heterogeneity. We further corrected for bias and genomic inflation. We tested for replication in a cohort from the Netherlands (PIAMA). RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, we found 362 CpGs associated with 1-year PM2.5 (FDR < 0.05), 20 CpGs passing Bonferroni correction (P < 7.0x10-8) and 10 Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs). In 445 PIAMA participants (mean age 16.3 years) 11 of 203 available CpGs replicated at P < 0.05. We observed differential DNAm at/near genes implicated in cell cycle, immune and inflammatory responses. There were no CpGs or regions associated with PM2.5 levels at 1-day, 1-week, or 1-month prior to sample collection, although 2 CpGs were associated with past 3-month PM2.5. CONCLUSION: We observed wide-spread DNAm variability associated with average past year PM2.5 exposure but we did not detect associations with shorter-term exposure. Our results suggest that nasal DNAm marks reflect chronic air pollution exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Epigenoma , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Países Baixos , Material Particulado
14.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(2): e143, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870015

RESUMO

Exposure to higher levels of ambient air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease but long-term effects of pollution exposure on the pulmonary vessels are unknown. Methods: Among 2428 Framingham Heart Study participants who underwent chest computed tomography (CT) between 2008 and 2011, pulmonary vascular volumes were calculated by image analysis, including the total vascular volume and small vessel volume (cross-sectional area <5 mm2; BV5 defined as small vessel volume). Using spatiotemporal models and participant home address, we assigned 1-year (2008) and 5-year (2004-2008) average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), and ground-level ozone (O3), and distance to major roadway. We examined associations of 1- and 5-year exposures, and distance to road, with CT vascular volumes using multivariable linear regression models. Results: There was a consistent negative association of higher O3 with lower small vessel volumes, which persisted after adjustment for distance to road. Per interquartile range (IQR) of 2008 O3, BV5 was 0.34 mL lower (95% confidence intervals [CI], -0.61 to -0.06; P = 0.02), with similar results for 5-year exposure. One-year EC exposure and closer proximity to road were weakly associated with small vessel volumes; BV5 was 0.18 mL higher per IQR of 2008 EC (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.42; P = 0.13) and 0.40 mL higher per IQR closer proximity to road (95% CI: -0.10 to 0.89; P = 0.12). PM2.5 was not associated with small vascular volumes; BV5 was 0.26 mL lower per IQR of 2008 PM2.5 (95% CI: -0.68 to 0.16; P = 0.22). Conclusions: Among community-dwelling adults living in the northeastern United States, higher exposure to O3 was associated with lower small pulmonary vessel volumes on CT.

15.
Environ Res ; 197: 111162, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural vegetation, or greenness, is thought to improve health through its ability to buffer and reduce harmful environmental exposures as well as relieve stress, promote physical activity, restore attention, and increase social cohesion. In concert, these effects could help mitigate the detrimental effects of air pollution on reproductive aging in women. METHODS: Our analysis included 565 women attending the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center (2004-2014) who had a measured antral follicle count (AFC), a marker of ovarian reserve. We calculated peak residential greenness in the year prior to AFC using 250 m2 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Terra and Aqua satellites operated by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Validated spatiotemporal models estimated daily residential exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) for the 3 months prior to AFC. Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to estimate the association between peak greenness, average PM2.5 exposure, and AFC adjusted for age, BMI, smoking status, education, year, and season. RESULTS: Women in our study had a mean age of 35.2 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.3 years (min: 20 years, max: 45 years). The peak residential NDVI ranged from 0.07 to 0.92 with a SD of 0.18. There was no statistically significant association between peak residential greenness and AFC; however, higher exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower AFC (-6.2% per 2 µg/m3 [1 SD increase] 95% CI -11.8, -0.3). There was a significant interaction between exposure to PM2.5 and peak greenness on AFC (P-interaction: 0.03). Among women with an average PM2.5 exposure of 7 µg/m3, a SD increase in residential peak greenness was associated with a 5.6% (95% CI -0.4, 12.0) higher AFC. Conversely, among women with a PM2.5 exposure of 12 µg/m3, a SD increase in residential peak greenness was associated with a 5.8% (95% CI -13.1, 2.1) lower AFC. CONCLUSIONS: Residing in an area with high levels of greenness may slow reproductive aging in women only when exposure to PM2.5 is low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Reserva Ovariana , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 188(2): 525-533, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increasingly epidemiological evidence supports that environmental factors are associated with breast cancer (BC) outcomes after a BC diagnosis. Although evidence suggests that air pollution exposure is associated with higher mortality in women with BC, studies investigating potential mechanisms have been lacking. METHODS: We evaluated women with BC (N = 151) attended at the National Cancer Institute-Mexico from 2012 to 2015. We calculated 1-year average exposures to particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) at home address before diagnosis. We used linear and logistic regression models to determine the associations between PM2.5 exposure and BC aggressiveness (tumor size, molecular phenotype). RESULTS: Average annual PM2.5 exposure of this population was 23.0 µg/m3 [standard deviation (SD)]: 1.90 µg/m3]. PM2.5 levels were positively correlated with tumor size at diagnosis (r = 0.22; p = 0.007). Multivariable linear models had a similar inference [risk ratio (RR): 1.32; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.04, 1.674]. We did not observe differences in this association by age or menopause status. Further, women with triple-negative BC (TNBC) had significantly higher PM2.5 levels compared with other phenotypes (p = 0.015). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models assessing the association between PM2.5 and tumor size had a similar inference (RR 1.41; 95% CI 1.05, 1.89) overall for all ages and also for women who were ≤ 50 years old at diagnosis (RR 1.63; 95% CI 1.036, 2.57). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a significant association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and BC aggressiveness based on tumor size and phenotype, as well as a worse outcome.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias da Mama , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652701

RESUMO

Exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with the prevalence of obesity. In the Greater Mexico City Area (GMCA), both are ranked among the highest in the world. Our aim was to analyze this association in children, adolescents, and adults in the GMCA. We used data from the 2006 and 2012 Mexican National Surveys of Health and Nutrition (ENSANUT). Participants' past-year exposure to ambient PM2.5 was assessed using land use terms and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth estimates; weight and height were measured. We used survey-adjusted logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of obesity (vs. normal-overweight) for every 10 µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 exposure for children, adolescents, and adults. Using a meta-analysis approach, we estimated the overall odds of obesity. We analyzed data representing 19.3 million and 20.9 million GMCA individuals from ENSANUT 2006 and 2012, respectively. The overall pooled estimate between PM2.5 exposure and obesity was OR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.21, 3.18). For adolescents, a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with an OR of 3.53 (95% CI: 1.45, 8.58) and 3.79 (95% CI: 1.40, 10.24) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. More studies such as this are recommended in Latin American cities with similar air pollution and obesity conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência
18.
Environ Res ; 196: 110894, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicate an association between ambient temperature (Ta) and air pollution exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB). Nevertheless, information regarding the association between environmental factors and specific precursors of spontaneous preterm birth is lacking. We aimed to determine the association between Ta and air pollution during gestation and the precursors of spontaneous preterm parturition, i.e. preterm labor (PTL) and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). METHODS: From 2003 to 2013 there were 84,476 deliveries of singleton gestation that comprised the study cohort. Exposure data during pregnancy included daily measurements of temperature and particulate matter <2.5 µm and <10 µm, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Deliveries were grouped into PPROM, PTL and non-spontaneous preterm and term deliveries. Exposure effect was tested in windows of a week and two days prior to admission for delivery and adjusted to gestational age and socio-economic status. Poisson regression models were used for analyses. RESULTS: There is an association of environmental exposure with the precursors of spontaneous preterm parturition; PPROM was more sensitive to Ta fluctuations than PTL. This effect was modified by the ethnicity, Bedouin-Arabs were susceptible to elevated Ta, especially within the last day prior to admission with PPROM (Relative Risk (RR) =1.19 [95% CI, 1.03; 1.37]). Jews, on the other hand, were susceptible to ambient pollutants, two (RR=1.025 [1.010; 1.040]) and one (RR= 1.017 [1.002; 1.033]) days prior to spontaneous PTL with intact membranes resulting in preterm birth. CONCLUSION: High temperature is an independent risk factor for PPROM among Bedouin-Arabs; ambient pollution is an independent risk factor for spontaneous PTL resulting in preterm birth. Thus, the precursors of spontaneous preterm parturition differ in their association with environmental factors.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Material Particulado , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 234: 113720, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrauterine Fetal Death (IUFD) is a rare and tragic pregnancy complication. The main causes for IUFD are largely unknown. Particulate Matter (PM)2.5 exposure has been suggested as an IUFD risk factor. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between maternal PM2.5 levels and IUFD risk, to address ethnicity as a possible effect modifier, and to identify a prenatal period during which PM2.5 is most harmful regarding IUFD risk. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study, which included pregnant women at the Soroka University Medical Center between the years 2003-2017. Estimated PM2.5 levels were calculated per residence, using a hybrid model incorporating daily satellite remote sensing data at a 1 km spatial resolution. Multiple gestations, fetuses with congenital malformations or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. Mean PM2.5 level was calculated per trimester, the entire pregnancy and the last gestational week. Analyses were also performed separately for the two ethnic groups in the study: Jews and Bedouin-Arabs. Multivariable analysis were applied to study the association between PM2.5 exposure at the different periods and IUFD risk. RESULTS: The study included 87,887 pregnancies, 444 (0.5%) ended with IUFD. Mean PM2.5 levels ranged between 18.18 and 22.32 µm. First trimester and entire pregnancy PM2.5 levels were significantly associated with increased IUFD risk among Jewish women only. In a multivariable model, for every 10 µg/m3 unit increase in PM2.5 the risk for IUFD increases by 2.98 (95%CI 1.50-5.90) and by 3.61 (95%CI 1.32-9.85) during first trimester and the entire pregnancy, respectively, while adjusting for maternal age, smoking, socioeconomic score and season. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective cohort an association was found between PM2.5 levels and IUFD among Jewish women only. These results strengthen the importance of addressing this effect modifier when studying air pollution effects on human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 233: 113695, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that air pollution exposure may have neurotoxic properties. OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinal associations between prenatal particles less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) exposure and neurodevelopment during the first two years of children's life. METHODS: Analysis was conducted in PROGRESS, a longitudinal birth cohort between 2007 and 2013 in Mexico City. We used satellite data to predict daily PM2.5 concentrations at high spatial resolution. Multivariate mixed-effect regression models were adjusted to examine cognitive, language and motor scores in children up to 24 months of age (n = 740) and each trimester-specific and whole pregnancy exposure to PM2.5. RESULTS: Models adjusted by child sex, gestational age, birth weight, smoking and mother's IQ, showed that each increase of 1 µg/m3 of PM2.5 was associated with a decreased language function of -0.38 points (95% CI: -0.77, -0.01). PM2.5 exposure at third trimester of pregnancy contributed most to the observed association. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that language development up to 24 months of age may be particularly sensitive to PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , México/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
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