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Sci Total Environ ; 670: 717-731, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909048


Achieving sufficient, safe, continuously-available drinking water services in rural areas is a challenge, in high- and especially low-and middle-income countries. External support programs (ESPs) - which may include administrative, financial, and technical assistance - have been hypothesized to contribute to sustainable rural water services. While there are many descriptions of ESPs, a standard terminology and typology of ESP activities does not exist and the effect of ESP activities on system sustainability remains inadequately characterized. We conducted a systematic review of ESPs for rural drinking water systems to identify ESP terminology and describe ESP activities. Findings from 218 publications from low-, middle-, and high-income countries were analyzed. ESP terms were used inconsistently between regions and income classifications. There were few studies describing ESP activities related to mechanized piped water systems. Few studies quantitatively assess the effect of ESPs. Those that did found positive associations with functionality, household satisfaction, household participation, and financial stability. This review is the first comprehensive evaluation of the ESP literature and we derive a definition of external support programs and typology of ESP activities from the descriptions of ESPs. A common understanding of ESPs facilitates discussion and knowledge transfer between stakeholders. Consistent terminology creates a foundation for adapting ESPs to water services in community institutions and for mechanized piped water systems.

Sci Total Environ ; 619-620: 1126-1132, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734591


In rural sub-Saharan Africa, one in three handpumps are non-functional at any time. While there is some evidence describing factors associated with non-functional water systems, there is little evidence describing the categories of water system breakdowns that commonly occur. Insufficient water availability from broken down systems can force people to use unimproved water sources, which undermines the health benefits of an improved water source. We categorized common water system breakdowns using quantitative and qualitative monitoring data from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda (each N>3600 water systems) and examined how breakdown category varies by water system type and management characteristics. Specific broken parts were mentioned more frequently than all other reasons for breakdown; hardware parts frequently found at fault for breakdown were aprons (Liberia), pipes (Tanzania and Uganda), taps/spouts (Tanzania and Uganda), and lift mechanisms (Nigeria). Statistically significant differences in breakdown category were identified based on system type, age, management type, and fee collection type. Categorization can help to identify common reasons for water system breakdown. The analysis of these data can be used to develop improved monitoring instruments to inform actors of different breakdown types and provide reasons for system non-functionality. Improved monitoring instruments would enable actors to target appropriate resources to address specific breakdowns likely to arise based on system type and management characteristics in order to inform improved implementation of and post-construction support for water systems in sub-Saharan Africa.

Sci Total Environ ; 628-629: 715-721, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454211


The sustainability of rural, community-managed water systems in sub-Saharan Africa depends in part on the ability of local water committees to repair breakdowns and carry out the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Much of sub-Saharan Africa has two distinct seasons that affect the availability of water sources and how people use water. Little is known about how seasonality affects water system management. This qualitative study is based on 320 interviews and focus group discussions and examines the effects of season on community water use and management in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. Participants revealed that seasonality affects water availability, water system breakdowns, resource mobilization, committee activity, and external support availability. In the rainy season, participants typically reported spending less time and money on water collection because rainwater harvesting and seasonal streams, ponds, wells and reservoirs are available. In the dry season, people used improved groundwater sources more often and spent more money and time collecting water. Although seasonal changes in household water demand and use have been examined previously, our data suggest that seasonality also influences community management through differential water system use, system breakdowns and management characteristics. We found that water committees generally have less money, time and access to external support during the rainy season, making them less able to carry out O&M. Our results suggest that community engagement should take place over a long period of time so that seasonal patterns in management can be understood and incorporated into water committee training. External support actors should make a more targeted effort to understand the cultural and economic patterns in a community in order to train committees with appropriate management strategies.

Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Água , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Zâmbia
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(3): 531-538, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28292643


BACKGROUND: Sufficient, safe, continuously available drinking water is important for human health and development, yet one in three handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa are non-functional at any given time. Community management, coupled with access to external technical expertise and spare parts, is a widely promoted model for rural water supply management. However, there is limited evidence describing how community management can address common hardware and management failures of rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We identified hardware and management rehabilitation pathways using qualitative data from 267 interviews and 57 focus group discussions in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia. Study participants were water committee members, community members, and local leaders in 18 communities (six in each study country) with water systems managed by a water committee and supported by World Vision (WV), an international non-governmental organization (NGO). Government, WV or private sector employees engaged in supporting the water systems were also interviewed. Inductive analysis was used to allow for pathways to emerge from the data, based on the perspectives and experiences of study participants. RESULTS: Four hardware rehabilitation pathways were identified, based on the types of support used in rehabilitation. Types of support were differentiated as community or external. External support includes financial and/or technical support from government or WV employees. Community actor understanding of who to contact when a hardware breakdown occurs and easy access to technical experts were consistent reasons for rapid rehabilitation for all hardware rehabilitation pathways. Three management rehabilitation pathways were identified. All require the involvement of community leaders and were best carried out when the action was participatory. CONCLUSIONS: The rehabilitation pathways show how available resources can be leveraged to restore hardware breakdowns and management failures for rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Governments, NGOs, and private sector actors can better build capacity of community actors by focusing on their role in rehabilitating hardware and management and to ensure that they are able to quickly contact external support actors when needed for rehabilitation. Using qualitative and participatory methods allows for insight into rapid rehabilitation of hardware and management.

Falha de Equipamento , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Participação da Comunidade , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , Governo Local , Organizações , Zâmbia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563916


Information and communications technologies (ICTs) such as mobile survey tools (MSTs) can facilitate field-level data collection to drive improvements in national and international development programs. MSTs allow users to gather and transmit field data in real time, standardize data storage and management, automate routine analyses, and visualize data. Dozens of diverse MST options are available, and users may struggle to select suitable options. We developed a systematic MST Evaluation Framework (EF), based on International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) software quality modeling standards, to objectively assess MSTs and assist program implementers in identifying suitable MST options. The EF is applicable to MSTs for a broad variety of applications. We also conducted an MST user survey to elucidate needs and priorities of current MST users. Finally, the EF was used to assess seven MSTs currently used for water and sanitation monitoring, as a validation exercise. The results suggest that the EF is a promising method for evaluating MSTs.

Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Saneamento , Poluentes da Água/análise , Humanos , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários