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1.
Behav Res Ther ; 126: 103544, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adult research supports the efficacy of targeting the malleable risk factor of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in preventing anxiety and related psychopathology. However, very little work has evaluated the impact of AS reduction among youth, which is unfortunate given adolescence is a "core risk" period in terms of disorder onset. METHOD: The primary project aim was to test the effects of an Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Program for Youth (ASAP-Y) among a sample of 88 youth aged 10-14 years with elevated AS. High AS youth and a parent were randomly assigned to either the ASAP-Y, which consisted of psychoeducation and experimenter-led and parent-led exposures, or a general health information control condition. RESULTS: Youth in the intervention condition sustained low AS levels across the intervention period, and although AS levels in both conditions decreased from baseline to the one-month assessment, this decrease was more pronounced at one-month for youth in the intervention condition. Further, significant indirect effects of condition on one-month anxiety and depression symptoms via reduced AS were detected. Homework compliance rates and self-report data support the acceptability of the ASAP-Y. Contrary to hypotheses, differences between conditions in emotional reactivity elicited using experimental psychopathology methods were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings offer preliminary support for the ASAP-Y as an acceptable selective preventive intervention for at-risk youth, with specific anxiety- and depression-related effects through reduced AS.

2.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 47(1): 138-149, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535235

RESUMO

Technology-enabled mental health services have the potential to expand the reach of care and reduce clinician demand. While the efficacy of technology-enabled mental health services is well established, there have been few successful implementations of such services into community care settings. Using mixed methods, 89 clinicians and supervisors at a mental health service organization shared attitudes toward and interest in using a variety of technologies in their work. Participants discussed several challenges and opportunities for technology-enabled mental health services. Whilst clinicians saw potential for technology to engage individuals both in and outside the clinical environment, the range of therapeutic techniques used by clinicians presented a challenge in implementing a tool to meet their needs. Client technology access was a concern, and although text messaging would facilitate communication, current HIPAA and payment structures restrict this ability. With these considerations, we offer recommendations for implementing technological services in community mental health organizations.

3.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 34(1): 31-39, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246068

RESUMO

The purpose of this sequential multiple-assignment randomization treatment pilot study was to examine if (a) adding working memory training to contingency management (CM) for youth with cannabis use disorder (CUD) and (b) switching nonresponding youth to higher magnitude CM incentives boosts outcomes. In Phase 1, youth with CUD (n = 59, M age = 16, male = 71%) attending an intensive outpatient program were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of CM only or CM plus working memory training (WMT). In Week 4, a Phase 2 treatment was assigned. Those with negative urine drug tests (responders) continued in their Phase 1 treatment. Those who were drug positive (nonresponders) were randomly assigned to remain in their Phase 1 treatment or to higher magnitude CM. Zero-inflated negative binomial models comparing those assigned to CM versus CM + WMT indicated no differences in the likelihood of having ≥ 1 week of continuous abstinence or longer abstinence duration. Those assigned to WMT showed greater but nonsignificant improvements in working memory (n = 35; ß = .69, p = .06). Working memory improvements were associated with achieving any abstinence (odds ratio = 3.50, 95% CI [1.01, 12.10], p = .05). Phase 2 randomization to higher magnitude CM did not boost outcomes. Overall results suggest that WMT appears promising, but the sample size was small, attrition was high, and replication is important. Alternative strategies should continue to be explored to improve outcomes for adolescent substance use disorders, such as different approaches for nonresponders, tailoring to other baseline or response characteristics, or more robust first-line interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 207: 107820, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-regulation deficits expressed through a decreased ability to value future rewards (delay discounting (DD)) and impaired emotion regulation (negative urgency (NU), cannabis coping motives (CCM), and anxiety sensitivity (AS)) relate to more frequent or problematic cannabis use. However, there is a need to better understand how self-regulation and emotion regulation constructs reflect competition between deliberative and reactive systems that drive individual differences in cannabis use patterns. Further, few studies assess frequency of cannabis use within and across days of use, which may obscure differentiation of individual differences. METHODS: In a large national sample of 2545 cannabis users, Latent Class Analysis was used to derive participant sub-classes based on two frequency indices, self-reported cannabis use days and times cannabis was used per day. Three classes emerged: Low (1-9 days/month, 1 time/day; 23 %), moderate (10-29 days/month, 2-3 times/day; 41 %), and high (30 days/month, ≥4 times/day; 36 %). Relationships among frequency classes and emotional regulation and impulsivity were assessed with a multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher frequency use was associated with greater DD (χ2 = 6.0, p = .05), greater CCM (χ2 = 73.3, p < .001), and lower cognitive AS (χ2 = 12.1, p = .002), when controlling for demographics, tobacco use, and number of cannabis administration methods. Frequency class and NU were not significantly associated. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying meaningful patterns of cannabis use may improve our understanding of individual differences that increase risk of frequent or problematic cannabis use. Excessive delay discounting and using cannabis to cope with negative affect may be relevant targets for treatments designed to reduce cannabis use.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(12): e15644, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: User engagement is key to the effectiveness of digital mental health interventions. Considerable research has examined the clinical outcomes of overall engagement with mental health apps (eg, frequency and duration of app use). However, few studies have examined how specific app use behaviors can drive change in outcomes. Understanding the clinical outcomes of more nuanced app use could inform the design of mental health apps that are more clinically effective to users. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to classify user behaviors in a suite of mental health apps and examine how different types of app use are related to depression and anxiety outcomes. We also compare the clinical outcomes of specific types of app use with those of generic app use (ie, intensity and duration of app use) to understand what aspects of app use may drive symptom improvement. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of system use data from an 8-week randomized trial of a suite of 13 mental health apps. We categorized app use behaviors through a mixed methods analysis combining qualitative content analysis and principal component analysis. Regression analyses were used to assess the association between app use and levels of depression and anxiety at the end of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 3 distinct clusters of app use behaviors were identified: learning, goal setting, and self-tracking. Each specific behavior had varied effects on outcomes. Participants who engaged in self-tracking experienced reduced depression symptoms, and those who engaged with learning and goal setting at a moderate level (ie, not too much or not too little) also had an improvement in depression. Notably, the combination of these 3 types of behaviors, what we termed "clinically meaningful use," accounted for roughly the same amount of variance as explained by the overall intensity of app use (ie, total number of app use sessions). This suggests that our categorization of app use behaviors succeeded in capturing app use associated with better outcomes. However, anxiety outcomes were neither associated with specific behaviors nor generic app use. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the first granular examination of user interactions with mental health apps and their effects on mental health outcomes. It has important implications for the design of mobile health interventions that aim to achieve greater user engagement and improved clinical efficacy.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775297

RESUMO

Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) may overcome barriers to mental health care and has proven efficacious. However, this approach currently exists outside the existing mental health care delivery system. Stepped care is a proposed framework for integrating digital mental health (DMH) into health systems by initiating iCBT and "stepping up" care to a more intensive intervention should iCBT prove ineffective. This study explores pre-treatment factors associated with reaching stepping criteria among patients receiving iCBT. This exploratory analysis of a stepped care arm of a larger randomized trial examined participants who were stepped to a more intensive intervention if they did not respond to iCBT. The association of pre-treatment factors on stepping were examined using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. One-fifth of the 151 participants met criteria for stepping within the 20-week treatment period. Only pre-treatment depression severity and treatment preference were associated with increased likelihood of stepping (p = 0.049 and 0.048, respectively). The low number of individuals who stepped provides support for iCBT as an effective, low intensity treatment for depression. The modest association of pre-treatment depression and preference to not receive iCBT may be useful in identifying patients who are less likely to respond.

7.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(9): 1485-1498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017512

RESUMO

Background: Given that marijuana use is often associated with detrimental physical and mental health problems, research examining motives for its use is critical for effective remedial and preventive treatment. To date, the majority of research on marijuana use motives has used variable-centered analyses, which overlooks potentially meaningful heterogeneous response patterns and the associations of those patterns with other risk/protective factors. Methods: To address this gap, in the current study, we conducted a person-centered analysis (latent profile analysis) to identify subgroups of participants based on endorsed marijuana use motives, and examined the construct validity of the optimal class solution (covariates included sociodemographic (e.g., age), psychiatric (e.g., depression), and marijuana-use indices (e.g., use-frequency, use-related problems). Participants were 898 college students (Mage = 20.93, SDage = 3.10; 68.9% female) who completed an anonymous online survey examining substance use and psychological well-being, were 18 years or older, and endorsed lifetime marijuana use. Data were collected November 2016 through February 2018. Results: Results identified four unique classes of coping, conformity, social, and enhancement marijuana use motives: (a) "Low Motives" (37.6%), (b) "High Conformity" (4.9%), (c) "Low Conformity" (45.8%), and (d) "High Motives" (11.7%). In terms of covariates, higher motive classes tended to report more frequent and problematic use. The two classes uniquely characterized by conformity motives only differed on past-month marijuana use frequency. Conclusions/Importance: The current findings provide evidence that specific classes of motives were not only associated with marijuana use frequency and problems but other risk and protective factors, such as anxiety sensitivity and social support.

8.
J Adolesc Health ; 64(4): 487-493, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The legal landscape of cannabis availability and use in the United States is rapidly changing. As the heterogeneity of cannabis products and methods of use increases, more information is needed on how these changes affect use, especially in vulnerable populations such as youth. METHODS: A national sample of adolescents aged 14-18 years (N = 2,630) were recruited online through advertisements displayed on Facebook and Instagram to complete a survey on cannabis. The survey assessed patterns of edible use, vaping, and smoking cannabis, and the associations among these administration routes and use of other substances. RESULTS: The most frequent and consistent route of cannabis use was smoking (99% lifetime), with substantial numbers reporting vaping (44% lifetime) and edible use (61% lifetime). The majority of those who had experimented with multiple routes of cannabis administration continued to prefer smoking, and the most common pattern of initiation was smoking, followed by edibles and then vaping. In addition to cannabis use, adolescents reported high rates of nicotine use and substantial use of other substances. Adolescents who used more cannabis administration routes tended to also report higher frequency of other substances tried. CONCLUSIONS: Additional work is needed to determine whether the observed adolescent cannabis administration patterns are similar across different samples and sampling methods as well as how these trends change over time with extended exposure to new products and methods. The combined knowledge gained via diverse sampling strategies will have important implications for the development of regulatory policy and prevention and intervention efforts.

9.
Addict Behav ; 79: 113-119, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288984

RESUMO

Cannabis is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances among adolescents in the United States. Adolescent cannabis use has multiple consequences including academic, health, and psychiatric problems. The Marijuana Adolescent Problem Inventory (MAPI) is a 23-item scale adapted from the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index and used in the current literature to assess cannabis use problem severity. Psychometric testing for the MAPI has yet to be reported. The current investigation assessed the psychometric characteristics of the MAPI with cannabis-using adolescents (n=727) from school and outpatient settings who enrolled in five separate randomized clinical trials focused on treatment of substance use. Findings suggested that the MAPI is internally consistent and reliable. Factor structure analyses suggested that the MAPI measures one latent construct, with no differences in factor structure between the outpatient and school settings, supporting a one-factor model. External validity of the MAPI was also demonstrated as evidenced by significant relations with concurrent diagnosis of cannabis dependence and abuse, longitudinal frequency of cannabis use, and mean times used per day. Overall, this initial test of the psychometric characteristics of the MAPI suggests that it can be considered a reliable and valid measure of problems associated with cannabis use among adolescents. Future work is now needed to replicate these findings by testing the psychometric properties of the MAPI in more diverse samples and developing a short version to be used as a brief assessment tool.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/diagnóstico , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162190, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27606426

RESUMO

Neural mechanisms of selective attention must be capable of adapting to variation in the absolute size of an attended stimulus in the ever-changing visual environment. To date, little is known regarding how attentional selection interacts with fluctuations in the spatial expanse of an attended object. Here, we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the scaling of attentional enhancement and suppression across the visual field. We measured ERPs while participants performed a task at fixation that varied in its attentional demands (attentional load) and visual angle (1.0° or 2.5°). Observers were presented with a stream of task-relevant stimuli while foveal, parafoveal, and peripheral visual locations were probed by irrelevant distractor stimuli. We found two important effects in the N1 component of visual ERPs. First, N1 modulations to task-relevant stimuli indexed attentional selection of stimuli during the load task and further correlated with task performance. Second, with increased task size, attentional modulation of the N1 to distractor stimuli showed a differential pattern that was consistent with a scaling of attentional selection. Together, these results demonstrate that the size of an attended stimulus scales the profile of attentional selection across the visual field and provides insights into the attentional mechanisms associated with such spatial scaling.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Adolesc ; 51: 123-32, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351343

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 24(3): 147-155, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27054780

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that smoking to cope among adolescents is associated with a number of problematic outcomes (e.g., greater smoking frequency, higher rates of dependence). It is thus imperative to better understand factors that may increase the likelihood of smoking to cope among adolescents. Research suggests anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with smoking to cope among adults, although the link between AS and coping motives for cigarette use among youth is less clear. Gender differences have also been noted in AS. The current study investigates this association using a biological challenge paradigm. Specifically, the indirect effects of anxious reactivity to bodily arousal on the relation between the physical and mental AS factors and coping motives for cigarette smoking were examined within a sample of 108 adolescent cigarette smokers. Gender was examined as a moderator. Results suggested significant indirect effects of self-reported anxiety in response to bodily arousal on the relation between physical AS and coping motives for cigarette smoking. This indirect effect was moderated by gender, such that it was significant for females but not males. Models examining AS mental concerns and psychophysiological responding to the challenge were not significant. These results suggest that, relative to their low AS counterparts, female adolescents high in physical concerns respond with elevated anxiety in response to interoceptive arousal and, in turn, endorse elevated coping-related smoking motives. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for understanding the nature and origins of coping-related smoking motives and how such information can be used to inform intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Motivação , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 44(2): 233-44, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25724327

RESUMO

Anxiety psychopathology, one of the most prevalent classes of disorder among youth, is linked to detrimental outcomes. Accordingly, identifying factors that influence vulnerability to anxiety disorders is important. One promising factor, given emerging evidence for its transdiagnostic nature, is anxiety sensitivity (AS); however, relatively little is known about the linkage between AS and indicators of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), particularly among youth. The aim of the current investigation was to address this gap in the literature using a community-based sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (n = 165; M age = 14.49 years, SD = 2.26). Results indicated global AS and the AS-physical concerns dimension were significantly associated with worry, generalized anxiety symptoms, and GAD diagnosis assessed via a structured clinical interview, above and beyond key theoretically-relevant covariates. These findings add to a growing body of work underscoring the relevance of AS for multiple types of anxiety-related disorders among youth.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 23(5): 303-13, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053320

RESUMO

A burgeoning literature supports a link between alcohol use and panic-spectrum problems (e.g., panic attacks, disorder) among adolescents, but the direction of influence has yet to be properly examined. From a theoretical perspective, panic-spectrum problems may increase risk for problematic drinking via affect regulation efforts (e.g., self-medication), and problematic consumption also may increase or initiate panic-relevant responding (e.g., learning or kindling models). The objective of the current investigation was to examine the role of prior alcohol use in predicting panic-relevant responding, as well as panic symptom history in predicting the desire to consume alcohol, in the context of either a voluntary hyperventilation or a low-arousal task. Participants were community-recruited adolescents aged 12-17 years (n = 92, Mage = 15.42, SD = 1.51; 39.1% girls). Results indicated that prior alcohol use predicted panic-relevant responding among those undergoing the hyperventilation task (but not the low-arousal task), and that this finding was robust to the inclusion of theoretically relevant covariates (i.e., age, sex, negative affectivity). However, panic symptom history did not predict the desire to consume alcohol as a function of either the hyperventilation or low-arousal condition. This work sheds further light on the nature of the relation between panic-spectrum problems and problematic alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, the current findings suggest that frequent alcohol use may increase panic vulnerability among adolescents, whereas acute panic symptoms may not elicit the immediate (self-reported) desire to drink.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Hiperventilação/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia
15.
Addict Behav ; 39(12): 1831-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25128636

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and death in the United States, and smoking typically begins in adolescence. It is therefore important to understand factors that relate to increased risk for cigarette smoking during this stage of development. Adolescence is a period when emotion regulatory capacities are still emerging and a common affective state to be regulated is anger, which adult research has linked to nicotine use. Drawing from work suggesting that negative affect reduction motives are one of the most common reasons for cigarette smoking, the current study was designed to evaluate the indirect effects of negative affect reduction motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and nicotine use within a sample of 119 treatment-seeking adolescents enrolled in group-based residential therapy. Results were generally consistent with hypotheses, suggesting significant indirect effects of negative affect reduction smoking motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and smoking outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of negative affect reduction motives for cigarette use in the context of anger regulation among youths.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ira , Motivação , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Behav Ther ; 45(4): 517-29, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24912464

RESUMO

Escape and avoidance behaviors play a prominent role in the maintenance and possibly development of panic disorder, yet the literature regarding the etiology of these emotion-regulation strategies is relatively underdeveloped. The current study experimentally tests hypotheses that parental modeling of escape during a well-established panic-relevant biological challenge increases panic-relevant escape and avoidance among offspring. Fifty physically and psychologically healthy early adolescents (28 females; Mage=11.58; 86% Caucasian), stratified by gender, were randomly assigned to observe one of their parents (39 females; Mage=40.04): either (a) model completing a 3-min voluntary hyperventilation exercise (no escape modeling group) or (b) model premature termination of a similar procedure (escape modeling group). Offspring in the escape modeling group demonstrated a stronger escape response by discontinuing their own challenge sooner than those in the no-escape modeling group (r=.70). No group differences emerged in terms of avoidance responding, as indexed by nearly identical responding in terms of delay time before initiating the challenge, respiration rate, and self-reported willingness to engage in a second proposed challenge. Results suggest that parental behaviors may play an important role in the development of some forms of panic-relevant responding. These preliminary findings may have important implications for future prevention programs targeting parents and at-risk youth.


Assuntos
Hiperventilação/psicologia , Transtorno de Pânico/etiologia , Pânico , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia
17.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 26(4): 683-692, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22369219

RESUMO

Given the onset of alcohol use, neurological sensitivity, and enhanced panic-relevant vulnerability, adolescence is a key period in which to study the documented linkage between alcohol and panic-related problems. The current study was designed to build upon and uniquely extend extant work via (a) utilization of well-established experimental psychopathology techniques and (b) evaluation of unique associations between alcohol use and panic symptoms after controlling for theoretically relevant behavioral, environmental, and individual difference variables (i.e., age, gender, negative affectivity, anxiety sensitivity, child and parent tobacco use, and parental panic disorder). Participants were 111 community-recruited adolescents ages 12-17 years (M = 15.76 years; n = 50 girls). Youth completed a battery of well-established questionnaires and a voluntary hyperventilation challenge, and parents present at the laboratory completed a structured clinical interview. Adolescent alcohol use was categorized as Non-Users, Experimenters, or Users. Panic symptoms were indexed via retrospective self-report and adolescents' response to a biological challenge procedure (i.e., voluntary hyperventilation). After controlling for theoretically relevant covariates, Users evidenced elevated panic-relevant symptoms and responding compared with Non-Users; Experimenters did not differ from Non-Users. Findings suggest alcohol use history is uniquely associated with panic symptomatology among youth, including "real-time" reactivity elicited by a laboratory challenge. Although there is significant work yet to be done, these data advance extant work and lay the groundwork for the types of sophisticated designs that will be needed to answer the most pressing and complex questions regarding the link between alcohol use and panic symptoms among adolescents.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Hiperventilação/psicologia , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Pânico , Adolescente , Afeto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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