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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782


In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.

Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
Public Health Rep ; 129(1): 86-93, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24381364


OBJECTIVE: Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was recently added to the U.S. Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns. This evaluation aimed to estimate screening time and hospital cost per newborn screened for CCHD using pulse oximetry as part of a public health economic assessment of CCHD screening. METHODS: A cost survey and time and motion study were conducted in well-newborn and special/intensive care nurseries in a random sample of seven birthing hospitals in New Jersey, where the state legislature mandated CCHD screening in 2011. The sample was stratified by hospital facility level, hospital birth census, and geographic location. At the time of the evaluation, all hospitals had conducted CCHD screening for at least four months. RESULTS: Mean screening time per newborn was 9.1 (standard deviation = 3.4) minutes. Hospitals' total mean estimated cost per newborn screened was $14.19 (in 2011 U.S. dollars), consisting of $7.36 in labor costs and $6.83 in equipment and supply costs. CONCLUSIONS: This federal agency-state health department collaborative assessment is the first state-level analysis of time and hospital costs for CCHD screening using pulse oximetry conducted in the U.S. Hospitals' cost per newborn screened for CCHD with pulse oximetry is comparable with cost estimates of existing newborn screening tests. Hospitals' equipment costs varied substantially based on the pulse oximetry technology employed, with lower costs among hospitals that used reusable screening sensors. In combination with estimates of screening accuracy, effectiveness, and avoided costs, information from this evaluation suggests that CCHD screening is cost-effective.

Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Custos Hospitalares , Triagem Neonatal/economia , Oximetria/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cardiopatias Congênitas/economia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , New Jersey , Oximetria/instrumentação , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
Pediatrics ; 132(2): e314-23, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23858425


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: New Jersey was the first state to implement legislatively mandated newborn pulse oximetry screening (POxS) in all licensed birthing facilities to detect critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs). The objective of this report was to evaluate implementation of New Jersey's statewide POxS mandate. METHODS: A 2-pronged approach was used to collect data on infants screened in all New Jersey birthing facilities from August 31, 2011, through May 31, 2012. Aggregate screening results were submitted by each birthing facility. Data on failed screens and clinical characteristics of those newborns were reported to the New Jersey Birth Defects Registry (NJBDR). Three indicators were used to distinguish the added value of mandated POxS from standard clinical care: prenatal congenital heart defect diagnosis, cardiology consultation or echocardiogram indicated or performed before PoxS, or clinical findings at the time of POxS warranting a pulse oximetry measurement. RESULTS: Of 75,324 live births in licensed New Jersey birthing facilities, 73,320 were eligible for screening, of which 99% were screened. Forty-nine infants with failed POxS were reported to the NJBDR, 30 of whom had diagnostic evaluations solely attributable to the mandated screening. Three of the 30 infants had previously unsuspected CCHDs and 17 had other diagnoses or non-CCHD echocardiogram findings. CONCLUSIONS: In the first 9 months after implementation, New Jersey achieved a high statewide screening rate and established surveillance mechanisms to evaluate the unique contribution of POxS. The screening mandate identified 3 infants with previously unsuspected CCHDs that otherwise might have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality and also identified other significant secondary targets such as sepsis and pneumonia.

Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Triagem Neonatal/legislação & jurisprudência , Oximetria , Cardiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , New Jersey , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sistema de Registros