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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430258

RESUMO

Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) have a clonal population of blood cells deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) proteins, resulting from a mutation in the X-linked gene PIGA. Here we report on a set of patients in whom PNH results instead from biallelic mutation of PIGT on chromosome 20. These PIGT-PNH patients have clinically typical PNH, but they have in addition prominent autoinflammatory features, including recurrent attacks of aseptic meningitis. In all these patients we find a germ-line point mutation in one PIGT allele, whereas the other PIGT allele is removed by somatic deletion of a 20q region comprising maternally imprinted genes implicated in myeloproliferative syndromes. Unlike in PIGA-PNH cells, GPI is synthesized in PIGT-PNH cells and, since its attachment to proteins is blocked, free GPI is expressed on the cell surface. From studies of patients' leukocytes and of PIGT-KO THP-1 cells we show that, through increased IL-1ß secretion, activation of the lectin pathway of complement and generation of C5b-9 complexes, free GPI is the agent of autoinflammation. Eculizumab treatment abrogates not only intravascular hemolysis, but also autoinflammation. Thus, PIGT-PNH differs from PIGA-PNH both in the mechanism of clonal expansion and in clinical manifestations.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 384-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256876

RESUMO

Proteins anchored to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) play various key roles in the human body, particularly in development and neurogenesis. As such, many developmental disorders are caused by mutations in genes involved in the GPI biosynthesis and remodeling pathway. We describe ten unrelated families with bi-allelic mutations in PIGB, a gene that encodes phosphatidylinositol glycan class B, which transfers the third mannose to the GPI. Ten different PIGB variants were found in these individuals. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells and fibroblasts from the affected individuals showed decreased cell surface presence of GPI-anchored proteins. Most of the affected individuals have global developmental and/or intellectual delay, all had seizures, two had polymicrogyria, and four had a peripheral neuropathy. Eight children passed away before four years old. Two of them had a clinical diagnosis of DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures), a condition that includes sensorineural deafness, shortened terminal phalanges with small finger and toenails, intellectual disability, and seizures; this condition overlaps with the severe phenotypes associated with inherited GPI deficiency. Most individuals tested showed elevated alkaline phosphatase, which is a characteristic of the inherited GPI deficiency but not DOORS syndrome. It is notable that two severely affected individuals showed 2-oxoglutaric aciduria, which can be seen in DOORS syndrome, suggesting that severe cases of inherited GPI deficiency and DOORS syndrome might share some molecular pathway disruptions.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 395-402, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353022

RESUMO

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor links over 150 proteins to the cell surface and is present on every cell type. Many of these proteins play crucial roles in neuronal development and function. Mutations in 18 of the 29 genes implicated in the biosynthesis of the GPI anchor have been identified as the cause of GPI biosynthesis deficiencies (GPIBDs) in humans. GPIBDs are associated with intellectual disability and seizures as their cardinal features. An essential component of the GPI transamidase complex is PIGU, along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and GPAA1, all of which link GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) onto the GPI anchor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we report two homozygous missense mutations (c.209T>A [p.Ile70Lys] and c.1149C>A [p.Asn383Lys]) in five individuals from three unrelated families. All individuals presented with global developmental delay, severe-to-profound intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, seizures, brain anomalies, scoliosis, and mild facial dysmorphism. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we determined a characteristic profile for GPI transamidase deficiency. On granulocytes this profile consisted of reduced cell-surface expression of fluorescein-labeled proaerolysin (FLAER), CD16, and CD24, but not of CD55 and CD59; additionally, B cells showed an increased expression of free GPI anchors determined by T5 antibody. Moreover, computer-assisted facial analysis of different GPIBDs revealed a characteristic facial gestalt shared among individuals with mutations in PIGU and GPAA1. Our findings improve our understanding of the role of the GPI transamidase complex in the development of nervous and skeletal systems and expand the clinical spectrum of disorders belonging to the group of inherited GPI-anchor deficiencies.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phenotype information is crucial for the interpretation of genomic variants. So far it has only been accessible for bioinformatics workflows after encoding into clinical terms by expert dysmorphologists. METHODS: Here, we introduce an approach driven by artificial intelligence that uses portrait photographs for the interpretation of clinical exome data. We measured the value added by computer-assisted image analysis to the diagnostic yield on a cohort consisting of 679 individuals with 105 different monogenic disorders. For each case in the cohort we compiled frontal photos, clinical features, and the disease-causing variants, and simulated multiple exomes of different ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: The additional use of similarity scores from computer-assisted analysis of frontal photos improved the top 1 accuracy rate by more than 20-89% and the top 10 accuracy rate by more than 5-99% for the disease-causing gene. CONCLUSION: Image analysis by deep-learning algorithms can be used to quantify the phenotypic similarity (PP4 criterion of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines) and to advance the performance of bioinformatics pipelines for exome analysis.

5.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(5): 968-973, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139695

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies are characterized by infantile seizures and psychomotor delay. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defects, resulting in impaired tethering of various proteins to the cell surface, represent the underlying pathology in some patients. One of the genes involved, PIGP, has recently been associated with infantile seizures and developmental delay in two siblings. Here, we report the second family with a markedly overlapping phenotype due to a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.456delA;p.Glu153Asnfs*34) in PIGP. Flow cytometry of patient granulocytes confirmed reduced expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as functional consequence. Our findings corroborate PIGP as a monogenic disease gene for developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2216-2223, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a detailed electroclinical description and expand the phenotype of PIGT-CDG, to perform genotype-phenotype correlation, and to investigate the onset and severity of the epilepsy associated with the different genetic subtypes of this rare disorder. Furthermore, to use computer-assisted facial gestalt analysis in PIGT-CDG and to the compare findings with other glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor deficiencies. METHODS: We evaluated 13 children from eight unrelated families with homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in PIGT. RESULTS: All patients had hypotonia, severe developmental delay, and epilepsy. Epilepsy onset ranged from first day of life to two years of age. Severity of the seizure disorder varied from treatable seizures to severe neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathies. The facial gestalt of patients resembled that of previously published PIGT patients as they were closest to the center of the PIGT cluster in the clinical face phenotype space and were distinguishable from other gene-specific phenotypes. CONCLUSION: We expand our knowledge of PIGT. Our cases reaffirm that the use of genetic testing is essential for diagnosis in this group of disorders. Finally, we show that computer-assisted facial gestalt analysis accurately assigned PIGT cases to the multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome phenotypic series advocating the additional use of next-generation phenotyping technology.

7.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 6, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two interstitial microdeletions Xp11.22 including the CLCN5 and SHROOM4 genes were recently reported in a male individual affected with Dent disease, short stature, psychomotor delay and minor facial anomalies. Dent disease, characterized by a specific renal phenotype, is caused by truncating mutations of CLCN5 in the majority of affected cases. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present clinical and molecular findings in a male patient with clinical signs of Dent disease, developmental delay, short stature, microcephaly, and facial dysmorphism. Using molecular karyotyping we identified a hemizygous interstitial microdeletion Xp11.23p.11.22 of about 700 kb, which was inherited from his asymptomatic mother. Among the six deleted genes is CLCN5, which explains the renal phenotype in our patient. SHROOM4, which is partially deleted in this patient, is involved in neuronal development and was shown to be associated with X-linked intellectual disability. This is a candidate gene, the loss of which is thought to be associated with his further clinical manifestations. To rule out mutations in other genes related to intellectual disability, whole exome sequencing was performed. No other pathogenic variants that could explain the phenotypic features, were found. CONCLUSION: We compared the clinical findings of the patient presented here with the reported case with an Xp11.22 microdeletion including CLCN5 and SHROOM4 and re-defined the phenotypic spectrum associated with this microdeletion.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14611, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279461

RESUMO

A genome-wide evaluation of the effects of ionizing radiation on mutation induction in the mouse germline has identified multisite de novo mutations (MSDNs) as marker for previous exposure. Here we present the results of a small pilot study of whole genome sequencing in offspring of soldiers who served in radar units on weapon systems that were emitting high-frequency radiation. We found cases of exceptionally high MSDN rates as well as an increased mean in our cohort: While a MSDN mutation is detected in average in 1 out of 5 offspring of unexposed controls, we observed 12 MSDNs in altogether 18 offspring, including a family with 6 MSDNs in 3 offspring. Moreover, we found two translocations, also resulting from neighboring mutations. Our findings indicate that MSDNs might be suited in principle for the assessment of DNA damage from ionizing radiation also in humans. However, as exact person-related dose values in risk groups are usually not available, the interpretation of MSDNs in single families would benefit from larger molecular epidemiologic studies on this new biomarker.

9.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 3, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defects (GPIBDs) cause a group of phenotypically overlapping recessive syndromes with intellectual disability, for which pathogenic mutations have been described in 16 genes of the corresponding molecular pathway. An elevated serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP), a GPI-linked enzyme, has been used to assign GPIBDs to the phenotypic series of hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS) and to distinguish them from another subset of GPIBDs, termed multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizures syndrome (MCAHS). However, the increasing number of individuals with a GPIBD shows that hyperphosphatasia is a variable feature that is not ideal for a clinical classification. METHODS: We studied the discriminatory power of multiple GPI-linked substrates that were assessed by flow cytometry in blood cells and fibroblasts of 39 and 14 individuals with a GPIBD, respectively. On the phenotypic level, we evaluated the frequency of occurrence of clinical symptoms and analyzed the performance of computer-assisted image analysis of the facial gestalt in 91 individuals. RESULTS: We found that certain malformations such as Morbus Hirschsprung and diaphragmatic defects are more likely to be associated with particular gene defects (PIGV, PGAP3, PIGN). However, especially at the severe end of the clinical spectrum of HPMRS, there is a high phenotypic overlap with MCAHS. Elevation of AP has also been documented in some of the individuals with MCAHS, namely those with PIGA mutations. Although the impairment of GPI-linked substrates is supposed to play the key role in the pathophysiology of GPIBDs, we could not observe gene-specific profiles for flow cytometric markers or a correlation between their cell surface levels and the severity of the phenotype. In contrast, it was facial recognition software that achieved the highest accuracy in predicting the disease-causing gene in a GPIBD. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the overlapping clinical spectrum of both HPMRS and MCAHS in the majority of affected individuals, the elevation of AP and the reduced surface levels of GPI-linked markers in both groups, a common classification as GPIBDs is recommended. The effectiveness of computer-assisted gestalt analysis for the correct gene inference in a GPIBD and probably beyond is remarkable and illustrates how the information contained in human faces is pivotal in the delineation of genetic entities.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/biossíntese , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Automação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Fósforo/metabolismo , Síndrome
10.
Mol Syndromol ; 8(6): 318-324, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230162

RESUMO

We described a heterozygous de novo mutation (G434V) in the frizzled class receptor 2 (FZD2) gene in a patient with distinct facial features including hypertelorism, bilateral cleft lip/palate, short nose with a broad nasal bridge, microretrognathia, and bilateral shortness of the upper limbs, first metacarpal bones, and middle phalanges of the 5th digits. The findings of our patient were compared to an autosomal dominant omodysplasia (OMOD2) family with FZD2 mutation reported in the literature. OMOD2 is a rare skeletal dysplasia and characterized by facial dysmorphism and shortness of the upper extremities and first metacarpal bones. This is the second report which supports the findings of the first family described and points out that heterozygous FZD2 mutations may be disease-causing for OMOD2.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 38(10): 1394-1401, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581210

RESUMO

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a glycolipid that tethers more than 150 different proteins to the cell surface. Aberrations in biosynthesis of GPI anchors cause congenital disorders of glycosylation with clinical features including intellectual disability (ID), seizures, and facial dysmorphism. Here, we present two siblings with ID, cerebellar hypoplasia, cerebellar ataxia, early-onset seizures, and minor facial dysmorphology. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous nonsense variant (NM_001127178.1:c.1640G>A, p.Trp547*) in the gene Phosphatidylinositol Glycan Anchor Biosynthesis, Class G (PIGG) in both the patients. Variants in several other GPI anchor synthesis genes lead to a reduced expression of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) that can be measured by flow cytometry. No significant differences in GPI-APs could be detected in patient granulocytes, consistent with recent findings. However, fibroblasts showed a reduced global level of GPI anchors and of specific GPI-linked markers. These findings suggest that fibroblasts might be more sensitive to pathogenic variants in GPI synthesis pathway and are well suited to screen for GPI-anchor deficiencies. Based on genetic and functional evidence, we confirm that pathogenic variants in PIGG cause an ID syndrome, and we find that loss of function of PIGG is associated with GPI deficiency.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/fisiopatologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/química , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/deficiência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/química , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Irmãos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Hum Mutat ; 37(8): 737-44, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27120253

RESUMO

HPMRS or Mabry syndrome is a heterogeneous glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor deficiency that is caused by an impairment of synthesis or maturation of the GPI-anchor. The expressivity of the clinical features in HPMRS varies from severe syndromic forms with multiple organ malformations to mild nonsyndromic intellectual disability. In about half of the patients with the clinical diagnosis of HPMRS, pathogenic mutations can be identified in the coding region in one of the six genes, one among them is PGAP3. In this work, we describe a screening approach with sequence specific baits for transcripts of genes of the GPI pathway that allows the detection of functionally relevant mutations also including introns and the 5' and 3' UTR. By this means, we also identified pathogenic noncoding mutations, which increases the diagnostic yield for HPMRS on the basis of intellectual disability and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. In eight affected individuals from different ethnicities, we found seven novel pathogenic mutations in PGAP3. Besides five missense mutations, we identified an intronic mutation, c.558-10G>A, that causes an aberrant splice product and a mutation in the 3'UTR, c.*559C>T, that is associated with substantially lower mRNA levels. We show that our novel screening approach is a useful rapid detection tool for alterations in genes coding for key components of the GPI pathway.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Fósforo/genética , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Fósforo/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adolescente , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(3): 615-21, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26581570

RESUMO

Synpolydactyly (SPD) is a rare congenital limb disorder characterized by syndactyly between the third and fourth fingers and an additional digit in the syndactylous web. In most cases SPD is caused by heterozygous mutations in HOXD13 resulting in the expansion of a N-terminal polyalanine tract. If homozygous, the mutation results in severe shortening of all metacarpals and phalanges with a morphological transformation of metacarpals to carpals. Here, we describe a novel homozygous missense mutation in a family with unaffected consanguineous parents and severe brachydactyly and metacarpal-to-carpal transformation in the affected child. We performed whole exome sequencing on the index patient, followed by Sanger sequencing of parents and patient to investigate cosegregation. The DNA-binding ability of the mutant protein was tested with electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We demonstrate that the c.938C>G (p.313T>R) mutation in the DNA-binding domain of HOXD13 prevents binding to DNA in vitro. Our results show to our knowledge for the first time that a missense mutation in HOXD13 underlies severe brachydactyly with metacarpal-to-carpal transformation. The mutation is non-penetrant in heterozygous carriers. In conjunction with the literature we propose the possibility that the metacarpal-to-carpal transformation results from a homozygous loss of functional HOXD13 protein in humans in combination with an accumulation of non-functional HOXD13 that might be able to interact with other transcription factors in the developing limb.


Assuntos
Braquidactilia/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Sindactilia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Braquidactilia/diagnóstico , Braquidactilia/patologia , Ossos do Carpo/anormalidades , Ossos do Carpo/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Exoma , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Ossos Metacarpais/anormalidades , Ossos Metacarpais/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Sindactilia/diagnóstico , Sindactilia/patologia
14.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 910, 2015 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26547235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe the pioneering experience of a Spanish family pursuing the goal of understanding their own personal genetic data to the fullest possible extent using Direct to Consumer (DTC) tests. With full informed consent from the Corpas family, all genotype, exome and metagenome data from members of this family, are publicly available under a public domain Creative Commons 0 (CC0) license waiver. All scientists or companies analysing these data ("the Corpasome") were invited to return results to the family. METHODS: We released 5 genotypes, 4 exomes, 1 metagenome from the Corpas family via a blog and figshare under a public domain license, inviting scientists to join the crowdsourcing efforts to analyse the genomes in return for coauthorship or acknowldgement in derived papers. Resulting analysis data were compiled via social media and direct email. RESULTS: Here we present the results of our investigations, combining the crowdsourced contributions and our own efforts. Four companies offering annotations for genomic variants were applied to four family exomes: BIOBASE, Ingenuity, Diploid, and GeneTalk. Starting from a common VCF file and after selecting for significant results from company reports, we find no overlap among described annotations. We additionally report on a gut microbiome analysis of a member of the Corpas family. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents an analysis of a diverse set of tools and methods offered by four DTC companies. The striking discordance of the results mirrors previous findings with respect to DTC analysis of SNP chip data, and highlights the difficulties of using DTC data for preventive medical care. To our knowledge, the data and analysis results from our crowdsourced study represent the most comprehensive exome and analysis for a family quartet using solely DTC data generation to date.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Família , Testes Genéticos , Genômica , Crowdsourcing/métodos , Exoma , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Espanha
15.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(8): 376-80, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26096994

RESUMO

Pfeiffer syndrome (MIM: #101600) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder classically characterized by limb and craniofacial anomalies. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptors types 1 and 2 (FGFR1 and FGFR2). We applied a next generation sequencing (NGS) panel approach comprising all 2877 genes currently known to be causative for one or more Mendelian diseases combined with the phenotype based computational tool PhenIX (Phenotypic Interpretation of eXomes). We report on a patient presenting with multiple anomalies of hands and feet including brachydactyly and symphalangism. No clinical diagnosis could be established based on the clinical findings and testing of several genes associated with brachydactyly and symphalangism failed to identify mutations. Via next generation sequencing (NGS) panel approach we then identified a novel de novo missense FGFR2 mutation affecting an amino acid reported to be mutated in Pfeiffer syndrome. Since our patient shows typical radiological findings of Pfeiffer syndrome in hands and feet but at the same time lacks several characteristic features such as clinical signs of craniosynostosis and prominent eyes we suggest introducing the term "FGFR2 associated phenotypes" for similar cases. Our results highlight the emerging role of combined NGS and phenotype based bioinformatics strategies to establish clinical diagnoses.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico , Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Acrocefalossindactilia/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/anormalidades , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/diagnóstico por imagem , Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Radiografia , Falanges dos Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Falanges dos Dedos do Pé/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(6): 763-70, 2014 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25480037

RESUMO

Catel-Manzke syndrome is characterized by Pierre Robin sequence and a unique form of bilateral hyperphalangy causing a clinodactyly of the index finger. We describe the identification of homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in TGDS in seven unrelated individuals with typical Catel-Manzke syndrome by exome sequencing. Six different TGDS mutations were detected: c.892A>G (p.Asn298Asp), c.270_271del (p.Lys91Asnfs(∗)22), c.298G>T (p.Ala100Ser), c.294T>G (p.Phe98Leu), c.269A>G (p.Glu90Gly), and c.700T>C (p.Tyr234His), all predicted to be disease causing. By using haplotype reconstruction we showed that the mutation c.298G>T is probably a founder mutation. Due to the spectrum of the amino acid changes, we suggest that loss of function in TGDS is the underlying mechanism of Catel-Manzke syndrome. TGDS (dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydrogenase) is a conserved protein belonging to the SDR family and probably plays a role in nucleotide sugar metabolism.


Assuntos
Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/enzimologia , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Linhagem , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/enzimologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
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