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J Youth Adolesc ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446582


Research has indicated that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning (LGBQ) adolescents have disproportionately high rates of substance use compared to heterosexual peers; yet certain features of schools and communities have been associated with lower substance use rates in this population. To advance this field, research examining multiple levels of influence using measures developed with youth input is needed. With community, school, and student data, this study tested hypotheses that LGBQ students attending high schools and living in communities with more LGBQ-supportive environments (assessed with a novel inventory tool) have lower odds of substance use behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, prescription drug misuse, and other drug use) than their peers in less supportive LGBQ environments. Multilevel models using data from 2454 LGBQ students (54.0% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic white) in 81 communities and adjusting for student and school covariates found that LGBQ adolescents who lived in areas with more community support had lower odds of frequent substance use, particularly among females. Expanding and strengthening community resources (e.g., LGBQ youth-serving organizations, LGBQ events such as a Pride parade, and LGBQ-friendly services) is recommended to further support LGBQ adolescents and reduce substance use disparities.

J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv ; 31(3): 314-331, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327914


The social environment in which lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth live influences health and wellbeing. We describe the development of the LGBTQ Supportive Environments Inventory (LGBTQ SEI), designed to quantify the LGBTQ-inclusiveness of social environments in the US and Canada. We quantify aspects of the social environment: 1) Presence/quality of LGBTQ youth-serving organizations; 2) LGBTQ-inclusive Community Resources; 3) Socioeconomic and Political environment. Using GIS tools, we aggregated data to buffers around 397 schools in 3 regions. The LGBTQ SEI can be used to assess the role of the social environment in reducing health disparities for LGBTQ youth.

Trials ; 20(1): 185, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922358


BACKGROUND: Group-randomized trials of communities often rely on the convenience of pre-existing administrative divisions, such as school district boundaries or census entities, to divide the study area into intervention and control sites. However, these boundaries may include substantial heterogeneity between regions, introducing unmeasured confounding variables. This challenge can be addressed by the creation of exchangeable intervention and control territories that are equally weighted by pertinent socio-demographic characteristics. The present study used territory design software as a novel approach to partitioning study areas for The Minnesota Heart Health Program's "Ask about Aspirin" Initiative. METHODS: Twenty-four territories were created to be similar in terms of age, sex, and educational attainment, as factors known to modify aspirin use. To promote ease of intervention administration, the shape and spread of the territories were controlled. Means of the variables used in balancing the territories were assessed as well as other factors that were not used in the balancing process. RESULTS: The analysis demonstrated that demographic characteristics did not differ significantly between the intervention and control territories created by the territory design software. CONCLUSIONS: The creation of exchangeable territories diminishes geographically based impact on outcomes following community interventions in group-randomized trials. The method used to identify comparable geographical units may be applied to a wide range of population-based health intervention trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Institutes of Health (Clinical, Identifier: NCT02607917 . Registered on 16 November 2015.

Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Software , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(12): 1853-62, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26356899


We present VASA, a visual analytics platform consisting of a desktop application, a component model, and a suite of distributed simulation components for modeling the impact of societal threats such as weather, food contamination, and traffic on critical infrastructure such as supply chains, road networks, and power grids. Each component encapsulates a high-fidelity simulation model that together form an asynchronous simulation pipeline: a system of systems of individual simulations with a common data and parameter exchange format. At the heart of VASA is the Workbench, a visual analytics application providing three distinct features: (1) low-fidelity approximations of the distributed simulation components using local simulation proxies to enable analysts to interactively configure a simulation run; (2) computational steering mechanisms to manage the execution of individual simulation components; and (3) spatiotemporal and interactive methods to explore the combined results of a simulation run. We showcase the utility of the platform using examples involving supply chains during a hurricane as well as food contamination in a fast food restaurant chain.

Gráficos por Computador , Informática/métodos , Medidas de Segurança , Software , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Equipamentos e Provisões , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Centrais Elétricas , Transportes , Tempo (Meteorologia)