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1.
Environ Res ; : 112397, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widely used Air Quality Index (AQI) has been criticized due to its inaccuracy, leading to the development of the air quality health index (AQHI), an improvement on the AQI. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate construction strategy for the AQHI. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the utility of AQHIs constructed by different models and health outcomes, and determine a better strategy. METHODS: Based on the daily time-series outpatient visits and hospital admissions from 299 hospitals (January 2016-December 2018), and mortality (January 2017-December 2019) in Guangzhou, China, we utilized cumulative risk index (CRI) method, Bayesian multi-pollutant weighted (BMW) model and standard method to construct AQHIs for different health outcomes. The effectiveness of AQHIs constructed by different strategies was evaluated by a two-stage validation analysis and examined their exposure-response relationships with the cause-specific morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Validation by different models showed that AQHI constructed with the BMW model (BMW-AQHI) had the strongest association with the health outcome either in the total population or subpopulation among air quality indexes, followed by AQHI constructed with the CRI method (CRI-AQHI), then common AQHI and AQI. Further validation by different health outcomes showed that AQHI constructed with the risk of outpatient visits generally exhibited the highest utility in presenting mortality and morbidity, followed by AQHI constructed with the risk of hospitalizations, then mortality-based AQHI and AQI. The contributions of NO2 and O3 to the final AQHI were prominent, while the contribution of SO2 and PM2.5 were relatively small. CONCLUSIONS: The BMW model is likely to be more effective for AQHI construction than CRI and standard methods. Based on the BMW model, the AQHI constructed with the outpatient data may be more effective in presenting short-term health risks associated with the co-exposure to air pollutants than the mortality-based AQHI and existing AQIs.

2.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(4)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616834

RESUMO

This study provides novel insights into mechanisms of traffic-related air pollution-induced allergy by down-regulation via complement regulators (CFI, PROS1 and PLG) and its interaction with vitamin D deficiency via the complement inhibitor PLG https://bit.ly/3x0jYOw.

3.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(4): 100164, 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622241

RESUMO

Multiple systematic reviews on greenspace and health outcomes exist, but the overall evidence base remains unclear. Therefore, we performed an umbrella review to collect and appraise all relevant systematic reviews of epidemiological studies on greenness exposure and health. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to June 28, 2021, and screened references of relevant articles. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that examined the associations of greenness with any health outcome were included. Two independent investigators performed study selection and data extraction. We also evaluated the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews using the "Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews 2" checklist. A total of 40 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, of which most were cross-sectional studies conducted in high-income countries. Greenspace exposure was estimated with various objective and subjective parameters. Beneficial associations of greenspace with all-cause and stroke-specific mortality, CVD morbidity, cardiometabolic factors, mental health, low birth weight, physical activity, sleep quality, and urban crime were observed. No consistent associations between greenspace and other health outcomes (e.g., cancers) were observed. Most of the included systematic reviews and meta-analyses had one or more limitations in methodology. Our findings provide supportive evidence regarding the beneficial effects of greenspace exposure on some aspects of human health. However, the credibility of such evidence was compromised by methodological limitations. Better performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as longitudinal designed primary studies are needed to validate this conclusion.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 84(2): 621-632, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a major global health challenge and the impact of built and social environments' characteristics on dementia risk have not yet been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between built and social environmental characteristics and diagnosed dementia cases and estimated dementia risk. METHODS: We recruited 25,511 patients aged 65 and older from family physicians' practices. We calculated a dementia risk score based on risk and protective factors for patients not diagnosed with dementia. Our exposure variables were estimated for each statistical area level 1: social fragmentation, nitrogen dioxide, public open spaces, walkability, socio-economic status, and the length of main roads. We performed a multilevel mixed effect linear regression analysis to allow for the hierarchical nature of the data. RESULTS: We found that a one standard deviation (1-SD) increase in NO2 and walkability score was associated with 10% higher odds of any versus no dementia (95% CI: 1%, 21% for NO2 and 0%, 22% for walkability score). For estimated future risk of dementia, a 1-SD increase in social fragmentation and NO2 was associated with a 1% increase in dementia risk (95% CI: 0, 1%). 1-SD increases in public open space and socioeconomic status were associated with 3% (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98) and 1% decreases (95% CI: 0.98, 0.99) in dementia risk, respectively. There was spatial heterogeneity in the pattern of diagnosed dementia and the estimated future risk of dementia. CONCLUSION: Associations of neighborhood NO2 level, walkability, public open space, and social fragmentation with diagnosed dementia cases and estimated future risk of dementia were statistically significant, indicating the potential to reduce the risk through changes in built and social environments.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574538

RESUMO

Evidence of associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and health outcomes are sparse in the South Asian region due to limited air pollution exposure and quality health data. This study investigated the potential impacts of ambient particulate matter (PM) on respiratory disease hospitalization in Kandy, Sri Lanka for the year 2019. The Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was applied to estimate the short-term effect of ambient PM on respiratory disease hospitalization. As the second analysis, respiratory disease hospitalizations during two distinct air pollution periods were analyzed. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in same-day exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 was associated with an increased risk of respiratory disease hospitalization by 1.95% (0.25, 3.67) and 1.63% (0.16, 3.12), respectively. The effect of PM2.5 or PM10 on asthma hospitalizations were 4.67% (1.23, 8.23) and 4.04% (1.06, 7.11), respectively (p < 0.05). The 65+ years age group had a higher risk associated with PM2.5 and PM10 exposure and hospital admissions for all respiratory diseases on the same day (2.74% and 2.28%, respectively). Compared to the lower ambient air pollution period, higher increased hospital admissions were observed among those aged above 65 years, males, and COPD and pneumonia hospital admissions during the high ambient air pollution period. Active efforts are crucial to improve ambient air quality in this region to reduce the health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118072, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592695

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to air pollutants, especially particulates, in adulthood is related to cardiovascular diseases and vascular markers of atherosclerosis. However, whether vascular changes in children is related to exposure to air pollutants remains unknown. This study examined whether childhood exposure to air pollutants was related to a marker of cardiovascular risk, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in children aged 11-12 years old. Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) recruited parents and their children born in 2003-4. Among the participants, CheckPoint examination was conducted when the children were 11-12 years old. Ultrasound of the right carotid artery was performed using standardized protocols. Average and maximum far-wall CIMT, carotid artery distensibility, and elasticity were quantified using semiautomated software. Annual and life-time exposure to air pollutants was estimated using satellite-based land-use regression by residential postcodes. A total of 1063 children (50.4% girls) with CIMT data, serum cholesterol, and modeled estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 exposure for the period 2003 to 2015 were included. The average and maximum CIMT, carotid distensibility, and elasticity were 497 µm (standard deviation, SD 58), 580 µm (SD 44), 17.4% (SD 3.2), and 0.48%/mmHg (SD 0.09), respectively. The life-time average concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 were 6.4 µg/m3 (SD 1.4) and 6.4 ppb (SD 2.4), respectively. Both average and maximum CIMT were significantly associated with average ambient PM2.5 concentration (average CIMT: +5.5 µm per µg/m3, 95% confidence interval, CI 2.4 to 8.5, and maximum CIMT: +4.9 µm per µg/m3, CI 2.3 to 7.6), estimated using linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. CIMT was not significantly related to NO2 exposure. Carotid artery diameter, distensibility, and elasticity were not significantly associated with air pollutants. We conclude that life-time exposure to low levels of PM2.5 in children might have measurable adverse impacts on vascular structure by age 11-12 years.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Austrália , Artérias Carótidas/química , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of greenness on birth outcomes have been reported, but few studies have investigated the associations in both urban and non-urban settings. We aimed to evaluate and compare linear and nonlinear associations between greenness and birth outcomes in urban and non-urban settings. METHODS: From October 2015 to December 2018, participants were recruited into the Maoming Birth Cohort Study. A total of 11 258 live birth records were obtained. Greenness exposure was assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Linear regression and nonlinear restricted cubic spline models were implemented to investigate the associations between greenness and birthweight, birth length, gestational age, preterm birth, low birthweight, small for gestational age and the potential for effect variation under urban or non-urban settings, after adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: A 0.1-unit increase in NDVI-500m was significantly associated with an increase of 35.4 g in birthweight [95% confidence interval (CI): 13.2, 57.7], 0.15 cm in birth length (95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), 0.88 days in gestational age (95% CI: 0.05, 1.71) and lower odds of low birthweight [odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.85] and preterm birth (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.85). No association with head circumference was observed. For all outcomes, no significant linear associations were observed among non-urban dwellers. Inversed 'U-shaped' associations between greenness exposure and birth outcomes were observed in the total study population. CONCLUSIONS: Greenness exposure was associated with increased gestational age, birthweight and birth length in urban dwellers. Nonlinear associations assessed by restricted cubic splines suggested that health benefits could be larger when increasing greenness levels from low to medium compared with increasing greenness from medium to high levels. Further studies adopting nonlinear methods are warranted to verify our findings.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438500

RESUMO

Limitations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) potentially contributed to the inconsistent findings of greenspace exposure and childhood asthma. The aim of this study was to use a novel greenness exposure assessment method, capable of overcoming the limitation of NDVI to determine the extent to which it was associated with asthma prevalence in Chinese children. During 2009-2013, a cross-sectional study of 59,754 children aged 2-17 years was conducted in northeast China. Tencent street view images surrounding participants' schools were segmented by a deep learning model, and streetscape greenness was extracted. The green view index (GVI) was used to assign exposure and higher value indicates more green coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds of asthma per interquartile range (IQR) increase of GVI for trees and grass. Participants were further stratified to investigate whether particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) was a modifier. An IQR increase in GVI800m for trees was associated with lower adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.72-0.80) and current asthma (OR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.75-0.89). An IQR increase in GVI800m for grass was associated with higher adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.00-1.08) and current asthma (OR: 1.08; 95%CI: 1.02-1.14). After stratification by PM2.5 exposure level, the negative association between trees and asthma, and the positive association between grass and asthma were observed only in low PM2.5 exposure levels (≤median: 56.23 µg/m3). Our results suggest that types of vegetation may play a role in the association between greenness exposure and childhood asthma. Exposure to trees may reduce the odds of childhood asthma, whereas exposure to grass may increase the odds. Additionally, PM2.5 may modify the associations of trees and grass with childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Aprendizado Profundo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poaceae , Prevalência , Árvores
9.
Environ Res ; 200: 111434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban greenness may protect against obesity, but very few studies have assessed 'street view' (SV) greenness metrics, which may better capture people's actual exposure to greenness compared to commonly-used satellite-derived metrics. We aimed to investigate these associations further in a Chinese adult study. METHODS: Our analysis included 24,845 adults in the 33 Chinese Community Health Study in 2009. SV images from Tencent Map, segmented by machine learning algorithms, were used to determine the average proportion of green vegetation in SV images at community level in 800m road network buffer. Sensitivity analyses were performed with an alternative buffer size. Overall greenness was assessed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in 800 m buffer. We used predicted PM2.5 and monitored NO2 as proxies of air pollution. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were regressed on SV greenness by generalized linear mixed models, with adjustment for covariates. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediation effects of air pollution. RESULTS: Each interquartile range (IQR = 3.6%) increase in street view greenness was associated with a 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.09) decrease in BMI and 0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.35, -0.11) reduction in HC, and was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight (OR = 0.93, 95% CI:0.90, 0.96) and 18% lower odds of obesity (OR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.76, 0.89). Similar effect estimation was observed compared with commonly-used NDVI measures. PM2.5 and NO2 mediated 15.5% and 6.1% of the effects of SV greenness with BMI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest beneficial associations between community-level SV greenness and lower body weight in Chinese adults. The effects were observed in women but not in men. Air pollution may partially mediate the association. These findings may have implications to support efforts to promote greening in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
10.
Intern Med J ; 51(10): 1567-1579, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105222

RESUMO

Ambient (outdoor) air pollution is a key risk factor for health for which effective policy plays an important preventative role. Australian federal and related state air quality standards have historically relied on international evidence for guidance, which may not accurately reflect the Australian context. However, there has been a large increase in Australian epidemiological studies over recent years. The aim of this study is to provide an updated systematic literature review of peer-reviewed epidemiological studies that examined the health impacts of outdoor air pollution in Australia, including short- and long-term exposure. Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic literature review. Broad search terms were applied to two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) and Google Scholar. Quality assessment and risk of bias were assessed using standard metrics. Included studies were summarised by tabulating key study characteristics, grouped by health outcomes. In total, 72 studies were included in the review. Sixty-four (89%) studies used daily or hourly pollutant concentrations to examine short-term exposure impacts, of which 59 (92%) revealed significant associations with one or more health outcomes, including cardio-respiratory, all-cause mortality or morbidity and birth outcomes. Eight (11%) studies used annual average pollutant concentrations to investigate the long-term exposure finding significant associations with asthma, reduced lung function, atopy and cardio-respiratory mortality across five studies. The remaining three studies found no significant association with asthma, mortality and a range of self-reported diseases, respectively. Ambient air pollution has substantial health impacts in Australia. The body of domestic evidence has increased markedly since national air quality standards were first set in the 1990s, which could be drawn on by policy-makers when revising the existing standards, or considering new standards.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Austrália/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(10): e019063, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942624

RESUMO

Background Although several studies have focused on the associations between particle size and constituents and blood pressure, results have been inconsistent. Methods and Results We conducted a panel study, between December 2017 and January 2018, in 88 healthy university students in Guangzhou, China. Weekly systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured for each participant for 5 consecutive weeks, resulting in a total of 440 visits. Mass concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤1.0 µm (PM1.0), ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5), ≤0.2 µm (PM0.2), and number concentrations of airborne particulates of diameter ≤0.1 µm were measured. Linear mixed-effect models were used to estimate the associations between blood pressure and particles and PM2.5 constituents 0 to 48 hours before blood pressure measurement. PM of all the fractions in the 0.2- to 2.5-µm range were positively associated with systolic blood pressure in the first 24 hours, with the percent changes of effect estimates ranging from 3.5% to 8.8% for an interquartile range increment of PM. PM0.2 was also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure, with an increase of 5.9% (95% CI, 1.0%-11.0%) for an interquartile range increment (5.8 µg/m3) at lag 0 to 24 hours. For PM2.5 constituents, we found positive associations between chloride and diastolic blood pressure (1.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%]), and negative associations between vanadium and diastolic blood pressure (-1.6% [95% CI, -3.0% to -0.1%]). Conclusions Both particle size and constituent exposure are significantly associated with blood pressure in the first 24 hours following exposure in healthy Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Tamanho da Partícula , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5636-5647, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822602

RESUMO

Evidence of the effects of various particle sizes and constituents on blood biomarkers is limited. We performed a panel study with five repeated measurements in 88 healthy college students in Guangzhou, China between December 2017 and January 2018. Mass concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), PM1, and PM0.5 and number concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 200 nm (PN0.2) and PN0.1 were measured. We used linear mixed-effect models to explore the associations of size-fractionated particulate matter and PM2.5 constituents with five blood biomarkers 0-5 days prior to blood collection. We found that an interquartile range (45.9 µg/m3) increase in PM2.5 concentration was significantly associated with increments of 16.6, 3.4, 12.3, and 8.8% in C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and endothelin-1(ET-1) at a 5-day lag, respectively. Similar estimates were observed for PM1, PM0.5, PN0.2, and PN0.1. For PM2.5 constituents, consistent positive associations were observed between F- and sVCAM-1 and CRP and between NH4+ and MCP-1, and negative associations were found between Na+ and MCP-1 and ET-1, between Cl- and MCP-1, and between Mg2+ and sVCAM-1. Our results suggested that both particle size and constituent exposure are significantly associated with circulating biomarkers among healthy Chinese adults. Particularly, PN0.1 at a 5-day lag and F- and NH4+ are the most associated with these blood biomarkers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomarcadores , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 5065-5075, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764049

RESUMO

Existing evidence is scarce concerning the various effects of different PM sizes and chemical constituents on blood lipids. A panel study that involved 88 healthy college students with five repeated measurements (440 blood samples in total) was performed. We measured mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤1.0 µm (PM1.0), and ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5) as well as number concentrations of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 0.2 µm (PN0.2) and ≤0.1 µm (PN0.1). We applied linear mixed-effect models to assess the associations between short-term exposure to different PM size fractions and PM2.5 constituents and seven lipid metrics. We found significant associations of greater concentrations of PM in different size fractions within 5 days before blood collection with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A (ApoA1) levels, higher apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels, and lower ApoA1/ApoB ratios. Among the PM2.5 constituents, we observed that higher concentrations of tin and lead were significantly associated with decreased HDL-C levels, and higher concentrations of nickel were associated with higher HDL-C levels. Our results suggest that short-term exposure to PM in different sizes was deleteriously associated with blood lipids. Some constituents, especially metals, might be the major contributors to the detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Allergy ; 76(8): 2524-2534, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on risk factors for eczema in adults. Recent evidence suggests that air pollution may be associated with increased incidence of eczema in adults. We aimed to assess this possible association. METHODS: Ambient air pollution exposures (distance from a major road, nitrogen dioxide [NO2 ], fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5 ]) were assessed for the residential address of Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study participants at ages 43 and 53 years. Eczema incidence (onset after age 43 years), prevalence (at 53 years), and persistence were assessed from surveys, while IgE sensitization was assessed using skin prick tests. The presence or absence of eczema and sensitization was classified into four groups: no atopy or eczema, atopy alone, non-atopic eczema, and atopic eczema. Adjusted logistic and multinomial regression models were fitted to estimate associations between ambient air pollution and eczema, and interaction by sex was assessed. RESULTS: Of 3153 participants in both follow-ups, 2369 had valid skin prick tests. For males, a 2.3 ppb increase in baselineNO2 was associated with increased odds of prevalent eczema (OR = 1.15 [95% CI 0.98-1.36]) and prevalent atopic eczema (OR = 1.26 [1.00-1.59]). These associations were not seen in females (p for interaction = 0.08, <0.01). For both sexes, a 1.6 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure at follow-up was associated with increased odds of aeroallergen sensitization (OR = 1.15 [1.03-1.30]). CONCLUSION: Increased exposure to residential ambient air pollutants was associated with an increased odds of eczema, only in males, and aeroallergen sensitization in both genders.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Dermatite Atópica , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
15.
Thorax ; 76(9): 880-886, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in the impact of greenness exposure on airway diseases, but the impact of greenness on lung function in children is limited. We aimed to investigate the associations between greenness surrounding schools and lung function in children and whether these associations are modified by air pollution exposure. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, a cross-sectional survey and spirometry were performed among 6740 school children. Lung function patterns were determined as obstructive forced expiratory volume 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC <0.8) or restrictive (FEV1/FVC ≥0.8 but FVC <80% of predicted). School greenness was defined by Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil-adjusted vegetation index. Nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particular matter concentrations were assessed using a spatiotemporal model and national monitoring data. Two-level generalised linear models were used to investigate associations and interactions. RESULTS: Overall, an IQR in NDVI within 500 m was associated with higher FEV1 (+57 mL 95% CI 44 to 70) and FVC (+58 mL 95% CI 43 to 73). NDVI was similarly associated with 25% reduced odds of spirometric restriction (OR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.86). However, among children exposed to the highest compared with the lowest quartile of particulate matter, increasing NDVI was paradoxically associated with lower -40 mL FVC (95% CI -47 to -33, p interaction <0.05). DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that, in this study population, greening urban areas may promote lung health in low-moderate pollution areas but not in high air pollution areas. If the findings are replicated in other moderate-to-high pollution settings, this highlights a need to have a flexible green policy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Plantas , Testes de Função Respiratória , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546363

RESUMO

The domestic combustion of polluting fuels is associated with an estimated 3 million premature deaths each year and contributes to climate change. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), valid and representative estimates of people exposed to household air pollution (HAP) are scarce. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) is an important and consistent source of data on household fuel use for cooking and has facilitated studies of health effects. However, the body of research based on DHS data has not been systematically identified, nor its strengths and limitations critically assessed as a whole. We aimed to systematically review epidemiological studies using DHS data that considered cooking fuel type as the main exposure, including the assessment of the extent and key drivers of bias. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and the DHS publication portal. We assessed the quality and risk of bias (RoB) of studies using a novel tool. Of 2748 records remaining after removing duplicates, 63 were read in full. A total of 45 out of 63 studies were included in our review, spanning 11 different health outcomes and representing 50 unique analyses. In total, 41 of 45 (91%) studies analysed health outcomes in children <5 years of age, including respiratory infections (n = 17), death (all-cause) (n = 14), low birthweight (n = 5), stunting and anaemia (n = 5). Inconsistencies were observed between studies in how cooking fuels were classified into relatively high- and low-polluting. Overall, 36/50 (80%) studies reported statistically significant adverse associations between polluting fuels and health outcomes. In total, 18/50 (36%) of the analyses were scored as having moderate RoB, while 16/50 (32%) analyses were scored as having serious or critical RoB. Although HAP exposure assessment is not the main focus of the DHS, it is the main, often only, source of information in many LMICs. An appreciable proportion of studies using it to analyse the association between cooking fuel use and health have potential for high RoB, mostly related to confounder control, exposure assessment and misclassification, and outcome ascertainment. Based on our findings, we provide some suggestions for ways in which revising the information collected by the DHS could make it even more amenable to studies of household fuel use and health, and reduce the RoB, without being onerous to collect and analyse.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Culinária , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Características da Família , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
17.
Environ Int ; 146: 106208, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ozone pollution keeps deteriorating in the context of climate change. Maternal ozone exposure may be associated with low birth weight (LBW), but the results are still inconsistent. The identification of the critical exposure windows, a specific period of particular susceptibility during pregnancy, remains unresolved. We aimed to evaluate whether ozone exposure was associated with term LBW and further identify the susceptible exposure windows. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Guangzhou, a megacity in the most populous and economically developed city clusters in China. We included 444,096 singleton live births between January 2015 and July 2017. From 11 fixed stations, we collected daily 1-h maximum and 8-h maximum moving average ozone level (O3-1 h and O3-8 h) and calculated exposures for each participant based on their district of residence during pregnancy. We used traditional Logistic regression to estimate the trimester-specific association between ozone exposure and term LBW, and further estimated monthly- and weekly association by distributed lag models (DLMs) with Logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of term LBW were calculated for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in ozone exposure. Stratified analyses and heterogeneity tests were conducted by maternal age and infant sex. RESULTS: The incidence of term LBW was 1.9%. During the study period, the mean O3-1 h and O3-8 h levels were 112.6 µg/m3 and 84.5 µg/m3, respectively. Increased O3-1 h (IQR: 90 µg/m3) and O3-8 h (73 µg/m3) exposure during the second trimester were associated with increased risk of term LBW. At a monthly level, the term LBW risk was associated with O3-1 h exposure during the 4th-6th month and O3-8 h exposure during the 6th month. By estimating the weekly-specific association, we observed that critical exposure windows were the 15th- 26th gestational weeks for O3-1 h, and the 20th-26th weeks for O3-8 h, respectively. Estimated ORs and 95% CIs ranged from 1.012 (1.000, 1.024) to 1.023 (1.007, 1.039). When examined by subgroups, the effects were present among women ≥ 35 years or < 25 years old and those with female babies. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides compelling evidence that exposure to O3 was associated with increased risk of term LBW, and gestational weeks 15th- 26th was found to be particularly susceptible. These findings provide a research basis for further mechanism examination, public health interventions, and targeted environmental policy-making.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 143051, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127150

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Environmental exposures can contribute both benefits and risks to human health. Maternal exposure to green space has been associated with improvements in birthweight, among other birth outcomes. Newer measures of green space have been developed, which allows for an exploration of the effect of different ground covers (green, dry and bare earth), as well as measures of biodiversity. This study explores the association of these novel green space measures with birthweight in a large birth cohort in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: Birthweight was acquired from the routine health records. Records were allocated green space values for fractional cover, biodiversity and foliage projective cover. Directed acyclic graphs were developed to guide variable selection. Mixed-effects linear regression and generalised linear mixed-effects models were developed, with random intercepts for maternal residential locality and year of birth. Results are presented as standardised beta coefficients or odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: An IQR increase of green cover (29.6 g, 95% CI 13.8-45.5) and foliage projective cover (26.0 g, 95% CI 10.8-41.3) are associated with birthweight in urban areas. An IQR increase in dry cover -34.4 g, 95% CI -60.4 to -8.4) and bare earth (-17.7 g, 95% CI -32.8 to -2.6) are associated with lower birthweight. Mothers living in rural areas had similar results, with an IQR increase in green cover (17.8 g, 95% CI 2.9-32.7) associated with higher birthweight, and bare earth (-27.7 g, 95% CI -45.7 to -9.7) was associated with lower birthweight. The biodiversity measure used in this study was not associated with any birthweight outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study finds that the types of ground cover within the maternal residential locality are associated with small, but significant, changes in estimated birthweight, and these effects are not limited to urban areas.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Exposição Ambiental , Austrália , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Queensland
19.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 22(8): 922-929, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356862

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the effects of exposure to very low levels of particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on coronary calcium score (CCS) in asymptomatic adults who are free of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 606 asymptomatic adults (49% men, aged 56±7 years) recruited from communities in three states of Australia during 2017-2018. CCS was measured using coronary computed tomography scan at recruitment. Annual PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were estimated on the year before recruitment using statistical exposure models and assigned to each participant's residential address. Medical history, physical measurements, biochemistry, and sociodemographic and socioeconomic status were also recorded. Median concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 were 6.9 µg/m3 [interquartile range (IQR) 6.0-7.7)] and 3.1 ppb [IQR 2.2-4.5], respectively. Of the 606 participants, 16% had high CCS (≥100) and 4% had very high CCS (≥400). Exposure to higher PM2.5 (per µg/m3) was significantly associated with greater odds of having high CCS (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.43) and very high CCS (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.05-2.29). Similar associations were observed for NO2 and high CCS (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) and very high CCS (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.07-1.51). These findings were robust to adjustment for sociodemographic factors, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, renal function, education, and socio-economic status. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient air pollution even at low concentration was associated with degree of coronary artery calcification among asymptomatic low cardiovascular risk adults, independent of other risk factors. These findings suggest that air pollution is one of the residual risk factors of CAD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Rev Environ Health ; 36(1): 101-115, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endocrine-related diseases and disorders are on the rise globally. Synthetically produced environmental chemicals (endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)) mimic hormones like oestrogen and alter signalling pathways. Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent condition, affecting 10-15% of women of the reproductive age, and has substantial impacts on the quality of life. The aetiology of endometriosis is believed to be multifactorial, ranging from genetic causes to immunologic dysfunction due to environmental exposure to EDCs. Hence, we undertook a systematic review and investigated the epidemiological evidence for an association between EDCs and the development of endometriosis. We also aimed to assess studies on the relationship between body concentration of EDCs and the severity of endometriosis. METHOD: Following PRISMA guidelines, a structured search of PubMed, Embase and Scopus was conducted (to July 2018). The included studies analysed the association between one or more EDCs and the prevalence of endometriosis. The types of EDCs, association and outcome, participant characteristics and confounding variables were extracted and analysed. Quality assessment was performed using standard criteria. RESULTS: In total, 29 studies were included. Phthalate esters were positively associated with the prevalence of endometriosis. The majority (71%) of studies revealed a significant association between bisphenol A, organochlorinated environmental pollutants (dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) and the prevalence of endometriosis. A positive association between copper, chromium and prevalence of endometriosis was demonstrated in one study only. Cadmium, lead and mercury were not associated with the prevalence of endometriosis. There were conflicting results for the association between nickel and endometriosis. The relationship of EDCs and severity of endometriosis was not established in the studies. CONCLUSION: We found some evidence to suggest an association between phthalate esters, bisphenol A, organochlorinated environmental pollutants and the prevalence of endometriosis. Disentangling these exposures from various other factors that affect endometriosis is complex, but an important topic for further research.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Endometriose/induzido quimicamente , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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