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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

2.
Neurology ; 79(4): 342-7, 2012 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22744667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify a causative mutation in a previously reported kindred with parental consanguinity and 5 of 10 siblings with adult-onset autoimmune myasthenia gravis. METHODS: We performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping, and sequenced all known genes in the one region of extended homozygosity. Quantitative and allele-specific reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) were performed on a candidate gene to determine the RNA expression level in affected siblings and controls and the relative abundance of the wild-type and mutant alleles in a heterozygote. RESULTS: A region of shared homozygosity at chromosome 13q13.3-13q14.11 was found in 4 affected siblings and 1 unaffected sibling. A homozygous single nucleotide variant was found in the 3'-untranslated region of the ecto-NADH oxidase 1 gene (ENOX1). No other variants likely to be pathogenic were found in genes in this region or elsewhere. The ENOX1 sequence variant was not found in 764 controls. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression of ENOX1 decreased to about 20% of normal levels in lymphoblastoid cells from individuals homozygous for the variant and to about 50% in 2 unaffected heterozygotes. Allele-specific RT-PCR showed a 55%-60% reduction in the level of the variant transcript in heterozygous cells due to reduced mRNA stability. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that this sequence variant in ENOX1 may contribute to the familial autoimmune myasthenia in these patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Miastenia Gravis/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Consanguinidade , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
J Mol Diagn ; 13(4): 401-5, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21704274

RESUMO

Pseudogenes, resulting from duplications of functional genes, contribute to the functional complexity of their parental genes. The glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA), located in a gene-rich region on chromosome 1q 21, is mutated in Gaucher disease. The presence of contiguous, highly homologous pseudogenes for both GBA and metaxin 1 at this locus increases the likelihood of DNA rearrangement. We describe a facile method to identify and analyze recombinant alleles in patients with Gaucher disease. Genomic DNA from 20 patients with recombinant GBA alleles and five controls was evaluated to identify DNA rearrangements or copy number variation using six probes specific for either the GBA gene or pseudogene. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on genomic DNA, and Southern blot analyses using HincII together with sequencing confirmed the real-time results. Both GBA fusions and duplications could be detected. Different sites of crossover were identified, and alleles resulting from gene conversion could be distinguished from reciprocal recombinant alleles. Quantitative real-time PCR is a sensitive and rapid method to detect fusions and duplications in patients with recombinant GBA alleles. This technique is more sensitive, faster, and cheaper than Southern blot analysis, and can be used in diagnostic laboratories, and to detect other recombinant alleles within the genome.


Assuntos
Doença de Gaucher/diagnóstico , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Proteínas/genética , Recombinação Genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Doença de Gaucher/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pseudogenes , Deleção de Sequência
4.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2008 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19016590

RESUMO

Ahead of Print abstract has been withdrawn by the Publisher. This abstract has not been published by the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research and was placed online due to an error.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 17(24): 3847-53, 2008 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18801880

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 20 (SCA20) has been linked to chromosome 11q12, but the underlying genetic defect has yet to be identified. We applied single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping to detect structural alterations in the genomic DNA of patients with SCA20. We found a 260 kb duplication within the previously linked SCA20 region, which was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fiber fluorescence in situ hybridization, the latter also showing its direct orientation. The duplication spans 10 known and 2 unknown genes, and is present in all affected individuals in the single reported SCA20 pedigree. While the mechanism whereby this duplication may be pathogenic remains to be established, we speculate that the critical gene within the duplicated segment may be DAGLA, the product of which is normally present at the base of Purkinje cell dendritic spines and contributes to the modulation of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/classificação , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Família Multigênica/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 105(25): 8673-8, 2008 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18562277

RESUMO

Increased expression of the histone deacetylase sir2 has been reported to extend the life span of diverse organisms including yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. A small molecule activator of Sir2, resveratrol, has also been suggested to extend the fitness and survival of these simple model organisms as well as mice fed high calorie diets. However, other studies in yeast have shown that Sir2 itself may prevent life extension, and high expression levels of Sir2 can be toxic to yeast and mouse cells. This conflicting evidence highlights the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which Sir2 expression or activation affects survival of organisms. To investigate the downstream signaling pathways affected by Sir2 in Drosophila, we generated transgenic flies expressing sir2. Here, we show that overexpression of sir2 in Drosophila promotes caspase-dependent but p53-independent apoptosis that is mediated by the JNK and FOXO signaling pathways. Furthermore, we find that a loss-of-function sir2 mutant partially prevents apoptosis induced by UV irradiation in the eye. Together, these results suggest that Sir2 normally participates in the regulation of cell survival and death in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Animais , Morte Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Drosophila/embriologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fenótipo , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 82(3): 652-60, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18304497

RESUMO

A myopathy with severe exercise intolerance and myoglobinuria has been described in patients from northern Sweden, with associated deficiencies of succinate dehydrogenase and aconitase in skeletal muscle. We identified the gene for the iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein ISCU as a candidate within a region of shared homozygosity among patients with this disease. We found a single mutation in ISCU that likely strengthens a weak splice acceptor site, with consequent exon retention. A marked reduction of ISCU mRNA and mitochondrial ISCU protein in patient muscle was associated with a decrease in the iron regulatory protein IRP1 and intracellular iron overload in skeletal muscle, consistent with a muscle-specific alteration of iron homeostasis in this disease. ISCU interacts with the Friedreich ataxia gene product frataxin in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. Our results therefore extend the range of known human diseases that are caused by defects in iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/genética , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Miopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Aconitato Hidratase/deficiência , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Miopatias Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Succinato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Suécia
8.
PLoS Genet ; 3(6): e108, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17590087

RESUMO

We observed a severe autosomal recessive movement disorder in mice used within our laboratory. We pursued a series of experiments to define the genetic lesion underlying this disorder and to identify a cognate disease in humans with mutation at the same locus. Through linkage and sequence analysis we show here that this disorder is caused by a homozygous in-frame 18-bp deletion in Itpr1 (Itpr1(Delta18/Delta18)), encoding inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1. A previously reported spontaneous Itpr1 mutation in mice causes a phenotype identical to that observed here. In both models in-frame deletion within Itpr1 leads to a decrease in the normally high level of Itpr1 expression in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Spinocerebellar ataxia 15 (SCA15), a human autosomal dominant disorder, maps to the genomic region containing ITPR1; however, to date no causal mutations had been identified. Because ataxia is a prominent feature in Itpr1 mutant mice, we performed a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that mutation at ITPR1 may be the cause of SCA15. We show here that heterozygous deletion of the 5' part of the ITPR1 gene, encompassing exons 1-10, 1-40, and 1-44 in three studied families, underlies SCA15 in humans.


Assuntos
Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Dados de Sequência Molecular
9.
Nature ; 447(7146): 859-63, 2007 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17568747

RESUMO

A prominent feature of late-onset neurodegenerative diseases is accumulation of misfolded protein in vulnerable neurons. When levels of misfolded protein overwhelm degradative pathways, the result is cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Cellular mechanisms for degrading misfolded protein include the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the main non-lysosomal degradative pathway for ubiquitinated proteins, and autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradative pathway. The UPS and autophagy have long been viewed as complementary degradation systems with no point of intersection. This view has been challenged by two observations suggesting an apparent interaction: impairment of the UPS induces autophagy in vitro, and conditional knockout of autophagy in the mouse brain leads to neurodegeneration with ubiquitin-positive pathology. It is not known whether autophagy is strictly a parallel degradation system, or whether it is a compensatory degradation system when the UPS is impaired; furthermore, if there is a compensatory interaction between these systems, the molecular link is not known. Here we show that autophagy acts as a compensatory degradation system when the UPS is impaired in Drosophila melanogaster, and that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a microtubule-associated deacetylase that interacts with polyubiquitinated proteins, is an essential mechanistic link in this compensatory interaction. We found that compensatory autophagy was induced in response to mutations affecting the proteasome and in response to UPS impairment in a fly model of the neurodegenerative disease spinobulbar muscular atrophy. Autophagy compensated for impaired UPS function in an HDAC6-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of HDAC6 was sufficient to rescue degeneration associated with UPS dysfunction in vivo in an autophagy-dependent manner. This study suggests that impairment of autophagy (for example, associated with ageing or genetic variation) might predispose to neurodegeneration. Morover, these findings suggest that it may be possible to intervene in neurodegeneration by augmenting HDAC6 to enhance autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Desacetilase 6 de Histona , Humanos , Transtornos Musculares Atróficos/genética , Transtornos Musculares Atróficos/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
10.
J Clin Invest ; 117(3): 659-71, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17318264

RESUMO

The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by mutation of the telomeric survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene with retention of the centromeric SMN2 gene. We sought to establish whether the potent and specific hydroxamic acid class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors activates SMN2 gene expression in vivo and modulates the SMA disease phenotype when delivered after disease onset. Single intraperitoneal doses of 10 mg/kg trichostatin A (TSA) in nontransgenic and SMA model mice resulted in increased levels of acetylated H3 and H4 histones and modest increases in SMN gene expression. Repeated daily doses of TSA caused increases in both SMN2-derived transcript and SMN protein levels in neural tissues and muscle, which were associated with an improvement in small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) assembly. When TSA was delivered daily beginning on P5, after the onset of weight loss and motor deficit, there was improved survival, attenuated weight loss, and enhanced motor behavior. Pathological analysis showed increased myofiber size and number and increased anterior horn cell size. These results indicate that the hydroxamic acid class of HDAC inhibitors activates SMN2 gene expression in vivo and has an ameliorating effect on the SMA disease phenotype when administered after disease onset.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/análise , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/análise , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas , Proteínas do Complexo SMN , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor
11.
Cerebellum ; 4(1): 47-50, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15895559

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 15 (SCA15) was first reported in 2001 on the basis of a single large Anglo-Celtic family from Australia, the locus mapping to chromosomal region 3p24.2-3pter. The characteristic clinical feature was of very slow progression, with two affected individuals remaining ambulant without aids after over 50 years of symptoms. Head and/or upper limb action tremor, and gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus were seen in several persons. MRI brain scans showed predominant vermal atrophy, sparing the brainstem. In 2004, a Japanese pedigree was reported, which displayed very similar clinical features to the original SCA15 family, and which mapped to an overlapping candidate region. These two families might plausibly reflect a locus homogeneity, but for the present this remains an open question.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 3 , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Cerebelo/patologia , Saúde da Família , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Linhagem , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/patologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
12.
Cerebellum ; 4(1): 55-7, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15895561

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 20 (SCA20) was reported in 2004 in a single Australian Anglo-Celtic pedigree. The phenotype is distinctive, with palatal tremor, and hypermetric saccades, and early dentate (but not pallidal) calcification in the absence of abnormalities of calcium metabolism. Dysarthria, rather than gait ataxia, was the initial symptom in most, and was typically conjoined with dysphonia, clinically resembling adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The onset of these speech abnormalities was abrupt in some cases. MRI scanning showed mild to moderate pancerebellar atrophy with dentate calcification, with olivary pseudohypertrophy in some cases, in the absence of other brainstem or cerebral changes. Nerve conduction studies were normal. Progression appeared to be slow. SCA20 is probably rare, as despite the distinctive phenotype, only this one pedigree has been described. The locus mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 11 with a LOD score of 4.47, and its candidate region overlaps that of SCA5. It seems probable that these two SCAs may be separate genetic entities, on the basis of their divergent clinical features, but formal proof awaits discovery of one or both responsible genes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/classificação , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Encéfalo/patologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/patologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
13.
Brain ; 127(Pt 5): 1172-81, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14998916

RESUMO

We describe a pedigree of Anglo-Celtic origin with a phenotypically unique form of dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) in 14 personally examined affected members. A remarkable observation is dentate nucleus calcification, producing a low signal on MRI sequences. Unusually for an SCA, dysarthria is typically the initial manifestation. Mild pyramidal signs and hypermetric saccades are noted in some. Its distinguishing clinical features, each present in a majority of affected persons, are palatal tremor, and a form of dysphonia resembling spasmodic dysphonia. Repeat expansion detection failed to identify either CAG/CTG or ATTCT/AGAAT repeat expansions segregating with the disease in this family. The testable SCA mutations have been excluded. On linkage analysis, the locus maps to chromosome 11, which rules out all the remaining mapped SCAs except for SCA5. While locus homogeneity with SCA5 is not formally excluded, we consider it rather unlikely on phenotypic grounds, and propose that this condition may represent an addition to the group of neurogenetic disorders subsumed under the rubric SCA. The International Nomenclature Committee has made a provisional assignment of 'SCA20', although firm designation will have to await a definite molecular distinction from SCA5.


Assuntos
Núcleos Cerebelares/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Genes Dominantes , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/classificação , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Distúrbios da Voz/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Calcinose , Núcleos Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Neurobiol Dis ; 13(2): 147-57, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12828938

RESUMO

We have studied a large Australian kindred with a dominantly inherited pure cerebellar ataxia, SCA15. The disease is characterised by a very slow rate of progression in some family members, and atrophy predominantly of the superior vermis, and to a lesser extent the cerebellar hemispheres. Repeat expansion detection failed to identify either a CAG/CTG or ATTCT/AGAAT repeat expansions segregating with the disease in this family. A genome-wide scan revealed significant evidence for linkage to the short arm of chromosome 3. The highest two-point LOD score was obtained with D3S3706 (Z = 3.4, theta = 0.0). Haplotype analysis identified recombinants that placed the SCA15 locus within an 11.6-cM region flanked by the markers D3S3630 and D3S1304. The mouse syntenic region contains two ataxic mutants, itpr1-/- and opt, affecting the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate type 1 receptor, ITPR1 gene. ITPR1 is predominantly expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells. Mutation analysis from two representative affected family members excluded the coding region of the ITPR1 gene from being involved in the pathogenesis of SCA15. Thus, the itpr1-/- and opt ITPR1 mouse mutants, which each result in ataxia, are not allelic to the human SCA15 locus.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3 , Ligação Genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Animais , Austrália , Sequência de Bases , Southern Blotting , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato , Escore Lod , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
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